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United States Department of the Interior 

Bureau of Land Management 

Tulsa District August 1995 




DRAFT 

TEXAS 

RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN 

AND 

ENVIRONMENTAL 

IMPACT STATEMENT 





Jhe VDureau of eJLand fr/anaaement id redpondible for the balanced 
management of the J-^ublic oLandd ana redourced ana tkeir uarioud valued do 
that theu are condidered in a combination that will bedt derue tke needd of tke 
^J4merican people, fr/anaaement id baded upon tke principled of multiple ude 
ana dudtained uield; a combination of uded tkat taked into account tke lona 
term neead of future aenerationd for renewable and non-renewable redourced. 
Uke redourced include recreation, ranqe, timber, minerald, waterdked, fidk and 
wildlife, wildernedd and natural, dcenic, dcientific and cultural ualu 



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BLM/NM/PL-95-0001-1610 



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United States Department of the Interior 

BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT 

Tulsa District 

221 N. Service Road 

Moore, Oklahoma 73160-4946 




, 



Notice 

This copy of the Draft Texas Resource Management Plan (RMP) and Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is 
provided for your review and comment. This document describes and analyzes three alternatives for the development 
of Federal oil and gas within the state of Texas. The purpose of this review is to improve the impact analysis and the 
decision making process. We welcome your comments. 

Written comments should be addressed to: Paul Tanner 

Assistant District Manager 
221 North Service Road 
Moore, Oklahoma 73160-4946 

Written comments must be post-marked no later than January 6, 1996, to be considered in the Proposed RMP/Final EIS. 

Comments on the Draft RMP/EIS may be submitted in writing or presented verbally at the scheduled public hearings. 
These public hearings will be advertised in the local news media. Oral comments will be accepted at the following public 
hearings: 

Hearing Location 

Ramada Inn East, 2501 Interstate 40 East 

Best Western Midland, 3100 W. Wall 

Arlington Hilton Hotel, 2401 E. Lamar Blvd. 

Austin Hilton Towers, 6000 Middle Fiskville Road 

Hilton Southwest, 6780 Southwest Freeway 

Corpus Christi Sheraton Corpus Christi Bayfront, 707 N. Shoreline Dr. 

A 10-minute time limit will be placed on all oral comment presentations. Oral comments must be accompanied by a 
written synopsis of the presentation. Written and oral comments will be fully considered and evaluated in preparation 
of the Proposed RMP and Final EIS. 

If changes in the final EIS in response to comments are minor, the Final will include only those changes and will not be 
a reprint of the entire EIS. Reviewers are urged to retain this copy of the draft EIS to be used with the Final EIS. 



-Sincerely, 



Date 


Time 


City 


December 5, 1995 


3-7 p.m. 


Amarillo 


December 6, 1995 


3-7 p.m. 


Midland 


December 7, 1995 


3-7 p.m. 


Arlington 


December 12, 1995 


3-7 p.m. 


Austin 


December 13, 1995 


3-7 p.m. 


Houston 


December 14, 1995 


3-7 p.m. 


Corpus CI 




ssistant District Manager 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT 

DRAFT 

TEXAS RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN 

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT 

Abstract: The Draft Texas Resource Management Plan (RMP) and Environmental Impact 
Statement (EIS) describes and analyzes three alternatives for managing the Federally owned 
minerals, specifically oil and gas, within the State of Texas. The RMP/EIS fulfills the 
requirements for comprehensive land-use planning for public lands in accordance with the 
Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. All actions within this document conform 
to and are designed to meet the requirements of all applicable laws. The three alternatives 
address the degree to which Federal oil and gas leasing will be allowed. The three alternatives 
are: A. Continuation of Present Management (No Action), B. Intensive Surface Protection 
(Preferred Alternative), and C. No Leasing. 

Type of Action: (X) Administrative ( ) Legislative 

For further information contact: Paul Tanner 

Assistant District Manager 
221 North Service Road 
Moore, Oklahoma 73160-4946 
Telephone: (405) 794-9624 

Comments have been requested from individuals, groups, and agencies shown on the partial 
distribution list in Chapter 5. 

Date of draft filing with the Environmental Protection Agency: October 2, 1995 
Comments on the Draft RMP/EIS must be received no later than: January 6, 1996 

Recommended: Approved: 



district Manager Date State Director 'Date 

Tulsa District New Mexico 




TABLE OF CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 
Summary S-l 

1. PURPOSE AND NEED 

Introduction 1-1 

Description of Planning Area 1-1 

Planning Process 1-4 

Planning Issues, Criteria, and Management Concerns 1-5 

Management Direction 1-6 

Planning Criteria 1-7 

Environmental Concerns 1-7 

2. PROPOSED RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN 

Introduction 2-1 

Continuing Management Guidance 2-1 

Wildlife 2-1 

Cultural Resources 2-2 

Minerals 2-3 

Alternatives 2-3 

Federal Oil and Gas Lease Stipulations 2-5 

Bureau of Land Management Stipulations 2-6 

Lease Notices 2-7 

Conditions of Approval and General Requirements for Oil and Gas Operations 

on Federal and Indian Leases (Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas) 2-8 

Surface Management Agency Stipulations 2-9 

Alternative Application 2-16 

Specific Site Descriptions 2-18 

U.S. Army, COE, Tulsa District Projects 2-18 

U.S. Army, COE, Fort Worth District Projects 2-22 

Bureau of Reclamation Projects 2-62 

U.S. Department of Defense Military Lands 2-69 

U.S. Department of Agriculture 2-94 

U.S. Department of State 2-95 

U.S. Department of Energy 2-96 

Split Estate Tracts 2-104 

3. AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT 

Introduction 3-1 

Physical Features 3-1 



CHAPTER PAGE 

3. AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT (Continued) 

Environmental Components 3-2 

Air Quality 3-2 

Water Resources 3-2 

Soils 3-4 

Vegetation 3-4 

Wildlife 3-4 

Special Status Species 3-5 

Cultural Resources 3-5 

Paleontological Resources 3-8 

Minerals 3-8 

Socio-Economics 3-11 

4. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES 

Introduction 4-1 

Oil and Gas Leasing and Development 4-6 

Continuing Management Guidance 4-8 

Environmental Components 4-8 

Impacts of Alternative A, Continuation of Present Management (No Action) 

and Alternative B, Intensive Surface Protection (Preferred Alternative) .... 4-9 

Impacts of Alternative C, No Leasing 4-13 

5. CONSULTATION AND COORDINATION 

Introduction 5-1 

Consistency with Other Plans 5-1 

Public Participation 5-1 



APPENDICES 

NUMBER PAGE 

APPENDIX 1. Ecological Subregions of Texas, Section Descriptions A 1-3 

APPENDIX 2. Texas Oil and Gas Lease Operations A2-1 

APPENDIX 3. Texas Oil and Gas Lease Stipulations A3-1 

APPENDIX 4. Special Status Species of Texas A4-1 



Acronyms and Abbreviations I 

References/Bibliography II 

Index ffl 



n 



MAPS 

MAP NAME MAP NO. 

Texas Planning Area (BLM) 1-1 

Pat Mayse Lake (COE) 2-1 

Texoma Lake (COE) 2-2 

Aquilla Lake (COE) 2-3 

Bardwell Lake (COE) 2-4 

Belton Lake (COE) 2-5 

Benbrook Lake (COE) 2-6 

B.A. Steinhagen Lake (COE) 2-7 

Canyon Lake (COE) 2-8 

Cooper Lake (COE) 2-9 

Georgetown Lake (COE) 2-10 

Granger Lake (COE) 2-11 

Grapevine Lake (COE) 2-12 

Hords Creek Lake (COE) 2-13 

Joe Pool Lake (COE) 2-14 

Lake O' the Pines (COE) 2-15 

Lavon Lake (COE) 2-16 

Levisville Lake (COE) 2-17 

Navarro Mills Lake (COE) 2-18 

O.C. Fisher Lake (COE) 2-19 

Procter Lake (COE) 2-20 

Sam Rayburn Lake (COE) 2-21 

Ray Roberts Lake (COE) 2-22 

Somerville Lake (COE) 2-23 

Stillhouse Hollow Lake (COE) 2-24 

Waco Lake (COE) 2-25 

Whitney Lake (COE) 2-26 

Wright Patman Lake (COE) 2-27 

White Oak Creek Wildlife Management Area (COE/TPWD) 2-27a 

Choke Canyon Dam and Reservoir, Nueces River Project (BR) 2-28 

Palmetto Bend Dam and Lake Texana (BR) 2-29 

Sanford Dam and Lake Meredith, Canadian River Project (BR) 2-30 

Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir, San Angelo Project (BR) 2-31 

Fort Bliss (U.S. Army) 2-32 

Fort Hood (U.S. Army) 2-33 

Fort Wolters (U.S. Army) 2-34 

Camp Bowie (U.S. Army) 2-35 

Camp Bullis (U.S. Army) 2-36 

Camp Swift (TXANG) 2-37 

Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant (U.S. Army) 2-38 

Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant (U.S. Army) 2-39 

iii 



MAPS (Continued) 

MAP NAME MAP NO. 

Red River Army Depot (U.S. Army) 2-38 

Bergstrom AFB (USAF) 2-40 

Dyess AFB (USAF) 2-41 

Laughlin AFB (USAF) 2-42 

Laughlin No. 1 AAF (USAF) 2-43 

Randolph AFB (USAF) 2-44 

Reese AFB (USAF) 2-45 

Seguin AAF (USAF) 2-46 

Sheppard AFB (USAF) 2-47 

Cabaniss NALF (USN) n/a 

Corpus Christi NAS (USN) 2-48 

Kingsville NAS (USN) 2-48 

McGreger NIROP (USN) 2-49 

Waldon NALF (USN) n/a 

Pecan Genetics and Improvement Research Laboratory (ARS) 2-50 

Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (ARS) 2-51 

Livestock Insects Laboratory (ARS) 2-52 

Grassland, Soil and Water Research Laboratory (ARS) 2-53 

Amistad Reservoir (USIBWC) 2-54 

Falcon Reservoir (USIBWC) 2-55 

Pantex (DOE) 2-56 

Surface Water Development 3-1 

Potential for Conventional Oil and Gas Occurrence 4-1 

Oil and Gas Proved Reserves Potential 4-2 

Oil and Gas Development Potential 4-3 

Ecoregions of Texas Al-1 



IV 



TABLES 



TABLE NO. 
TABLE 2-1 

TABLE 2-2 

TABLE 2-3 
TABLE 3-1 
TABLE 4-1 

TABLE 4-2 



TABLE 4-3 



TABLE 4-4 



TABLE 5-1 
TABLE 5-2 



PAGE NO. 
Federal Lands Open for Oil & Gas Leasing 

with Stipulations Under Alternative A 2-10 

Federal Lands Open for Oil & Gas Leasing 

with Stipulations Under Alternative B 2-13 

Federal Lands Closed to Oil & Gas Leasing 2-17 

Archeological Sites by Ecoregion 3-7 

Estimated Short-Term Surface Disturbance Caused by Federal Oil 

and Gas Activity in Texas by Alternative 4-7 

Estimated Surface Disturbance Caused by Federal Oil and Gas 

Activity in Texas by Alternative Following Rehabilitation 

After One Year 4-7 

Estimated Cumulative Short-Term Surface Disturbance Caused by 

Federal Oil and Gas Activity in Texas by Alternative 

Through the Year 2016 4-8 

Estimated Cumulative Surface Disturbance Caused by Federal Oil 

and Gas Activity in Texas by Alternative Following 

Rehabilitation Through the Year 2016 4-8 

List of Preparers 5-3 

Document Recipients 5-4 



SUMMARY 



The Draft Texas Resource Management Plan 
(RMP) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) 
identifies and analyzes the future options for 
managing the Federal mineral estate situated 
within Texas administered by the Bureau of Land 
Management (BLM), Tulsa District. 

The Texas RMP is being prepared using the BLM 
planning regulations issued under the authority of 
the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 
1976. When completed, the RMP will provide a 
comprehensive framework for managing the 
Federal minerals within Texas over the next 20 
years. 

The contents of this Draft RMP/EIS focus on 
resolving one resource management issue, that 
being the leasing and development of Federal oil 
and gas resources in Texas. 

The issue and planning criteria are discussed in 
Chapter 1 . Those aspects of current management 
that are not at issue are covered in the Continuing 
Management Guidance (CMG) section of 
Chapter 2. CMG was developed primarily from 
current laws, regulations, manuals, existing 
land-use plans and BLM policy. 

Three RMP alternatives have been developed to 
describe the different management options 
available to the BLM for administering Federal 
oil and gas in Texas. These alternatives were 
specifically developed to respond to that issue. 
Each alternative presents a different level of oil 
and gas leasing stipulation application. Together 
with the CMG, each of the alternatives forms a 
separate, feasible land-use plan. 

The three alternatives developed for the Texas 
RMP are summarized below and are further 
described in Chapter 2. The impacts anticipated 
from these alternatives are described in 
Chapter 4. 



ALTERNATIVE A. No Action 

This alternative represents a continuation of 
present resource allocation levels and management 
practices as described by the CMG. This 
alternative provides a baseline for comparison of 
other alternatives, and may not adequately resolve 
the issues identified in the RMP/EIS. 

Oil and gas leases would continue to be issued 
with the standard lease provisions as well as with 
surface resource protection stipulations required 
by executive orders, laws, regulations or policies. 



ALTERNATIVE B. 

Protection 



Intensive Surface 



This represents an alternative which would place 
primary emphasis on protecting important 
environmental values through the use of additional 
leasing stipulations. The goal of this alternative 
is to change present management direction so that 
identified surface resource values are considered 
in the leasing process in a manner that provides 
additional protection for valuable surface 
resources. 

Under this alternative oil and gas leases would 
continue to be issued with the standard lease 
provisions, with surface resource protection 
stipulations required by executive orders, laws, 
regulations or policies as well as additional 
multi-resource protection stipulations needed to 
protect valuable surface resources. 

ALTERNATIVE C. No Leasing 

This represents an alternative which would 
remove Federal oil and gas from availability for 
leasing and development. It would change 
management direction so that the issue is resolved 
in a manner that places highest priority on the 
preservation of the oil and gas resource and 
protection of the associated surface resources. 



S-l 



CHAPTER ONE 
PURPOSE AND NEED 




CHAPTER ONE 
PURPOSE AND NEED 



INTRODUCTION 



The Texas Resource Management Plan (RMP) 
will provide the Bureau of Land Management 
(BLM) a comprehensive framework for 
managing the Federally owned minerals in the 
State of Texas. The RMP establishes program 
constraints, resource objectives and resource 
management methods. 

Management decisions presented in this plan 
will remain in effect until the plan is amended, 
revised or replaced by a new plan. If 
significant changes occur in the proposed uses 
of Federal minerals within the state, the RMP 
will be amended or revised to address those 
changes. 

This document includes proposed RMP 
management alternatives and a draft 
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), 
fulfilling the Federal Land Policy and 
Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA) 
requirements for comprehensive land use 
planning for public lands. All actions within 
this document conform to and are designed to 
meet the requirements of the Mineral Leasing 
Act for Acquired Lands of August 7, 1947, as 
amended (30 U.S.C. 351-359). 

DESCRIPTION OF PLANNING AREA 

The State of Texas is situated in the 
south-central portion of the contiguous 
forty-eight states of the United States and is 
bordered by four American states; Arkansas, 
Louisiana, New Mexico and Oklahoma and 
four Mexican states; Chihuahua, Coahuila, 
Nuevo Leon, Tampaulipas. 

The area of the state is approximately 266,807 
square miles, which consist of 262,017 square 
miles of land and 4,790 square miles of inland 



water. Texas is divided into 254 counties and 
has a coastline of 624 miles along the Gulf of 
Mexico (Map 1-1). 

The planning area to be addressed by the Texas 
RMP/EIS consists of the Federally owned 
mineral estate administered by the BLM. This 
area is comprised of the Federal mineral estate 
underlying other Federal Surface Management 
Agencies (SMAs) lands as well as split-estate 
(non-Federal surface over Federal minerals) 
minerals scattered throughout the state. 

There are approximately 3.4 million acres of 
SMA lands within Texas. There is a lesser 
amount of Federal minerals underlying these 
surface lands due to the Federal SMAs not 
acquiring the mineral estate for certain projects 
or portions of projects. For land use planning 
purposes however, all acreage within the 
administrative boundaries of the SMAs are 
treated as Federal. 

The planning area does not include the 
approximately 1.1 million acres of U.S. Forest 
Service (USFS) managed lands located in the 
National Forests and National Grasslands of 
Texas. The USFS is responsible for preparing 
their own land use plans for lands and minerals 
under their administrative control. 

All Federal minerals within Texas are 
classified as acquired. Acquired minerals 
result from a Federal agency's acquisition of 
private or state lands and the underlying 
mineral estate for a specific purpose or project 
such as a military base or reservoir site. 

When acquired lands are no longer needed, the 
government disposes of these lands through 
transfers to non-Federal ownership. In some 



MAP 1-1 



TEXAS PLANNING AREA 




1-2 



cases, the government retains ownership of the 
mineral estate under the lands disposed. These 
severed mineral estates are known as 
split-estate. For oil and gas leasing purposes 
the BLM is the SMA for split-estate tracts 
within Texas. 

The Federal SMAs known to possess mineral 
estate within Texas and their specific areas of 
responsibility include: 

(1) The U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers 
(COE), Tulsa District for Pat Mayse and 
Texoma Reservoirs. 

(2) The U.S. Army, COE, Fort Worth District 
for various projects including; Aquilla, 
Bard well, Belton, Benbrook, Canyon, Cooper, 
O.C. Fisher, Georgetown, Granger, Grapevine, 
Hordes Creek, Lake O' the Pines, Lavon, 
Lewisville, Navarro Mills, Wright Patman, Joe 
Pool, Proctor, Sam Rayburn, Ray Roberts, 
B.A. Steinhagen, Stillhouse Hollow, 
Somerville, Waco and Whitney Reservoirs. 

(3) The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), 
Bureau of Reclamation (BR), Great Plains 
Region for the Canadian River Project (Sanford 
Dam and Lake Meredith), Nueces River 
Project (Choke Canyon Dam and Reservoir), 
Palmetto Bend Project (Palmetto Bend Dam 
and Lake Texana) and the San Angelo Project 
(Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir). 

(4) The U.S. Army, for Fort Bliss, Fort Hood, 
Fort Sam Houston, Fort Wolters, Camp Bowie, 
Camp Bullis, Camp Mabry, Camp Swift, Lone 
Star and Longhorn Army Ammunition Plants 
and Red River Army Depot. 

(5) The DOI, Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), 
Region 2, Albuquerque, New Mexico for 
Anahuac, Aransas, Attwater Prairie Chicken, 
Balcones Canyonlands, Big Boggy, Brazoria, 



Buffalo Lake, Hagerman, Laguna Atascosa, 
Laguna Grulla, Little Sandy, Lower Rio 
Grande Valley, McFaddin, Moody, Muleshoe, 
San Bernard, Santa Ana, Texas Point and 
Trinity River National Wildlife Refuges 
(NWRs), Inks Dam, San Marcos and Uvalde 
National Fish Hatcheries (NFHs). 

(6) The DOI, National Park Service (NPS), 
Southwest Region, Santa Fe, New Mexico for 
Big Bend and Guadelupe Mountains National 
Parks (NP), LB J and San Antonio Missions 
National Historic Parks (NHP), the Big Thicket 
National Preserve, Amistad and Lake Meredith 
National Recreation Areas (NRA), Palo Alto 
Battlefield and Fort Davis National Historic 
Sites (NHS), Chamizal National Memorial 
(NMe), the Alibates Flint Quarries National 
Monument (NMo) and the Padre Island 
National Seashore (NS). 

(7) U.S. Air Force (USAF) for Bergstrom, 
Brooks, Carswell, Dyess, Goodfellow, Kelly, 
Lackland, Laughlin, Randolph, Reese and 
Sheppard Air Force Bases (AFB), as well as, 
Laughlin #1 and Seguin Auxiliary Air Fields 
(AAF). 

(8) U.S. Navy (USN) for Corpus Christi, 
Dallas and Kingsville Naval Air Stations 
(NAS), Cabaniss, Golaid, Orange Grove and 
Waldon Naval Auxiliary Landing Fields 
(NALF), Ingelside Naval Station, the Dallas 
and McGregor Naval Industrial Reserve 
Ordnance Plants (NIROP), Kingsville, Dixie 
and Yankee Target areas and the Space 
Surveillance Station in Archer County. 

(9) The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), 
Bureau of Prisons (BP) for Bastrop, Big 
Spring, Bryan, Carswell, El Paso, Seguinville, 
Texarkana and Three Rivers Federal 
Correctional Institutions (FCI). 



1-3 



(10) U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 
Agricultural Research Service (ARS) for 
facilities in the towns of Big Spring, 
Brownwood, Bushland, College Station, 
Kerrville, Lubbock, Riesel, Temple and 
Weslaco. 

(11) U.S. State Department, International 
Boundary and Water Commission, United 
States and Mexico, United States Section 
(USIBWC) for Amistad and Falcon Reservoirs. 

(12) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the 
Pantex Facility. 

It should be noted that the SMA project lands 
(surface) far exceed the Federal mineral 
ownership in the state. Not all minerals were 
acquired at the time of project development. 
In addition to the SMA project lands, the 
planning area includes Federal split-estate 
minerals located throughout the state. The 
exact locations of this Federal split-estate are 
not mapped or easily described due to the 
metes and bounds lands descriptions used in 
Texas. 

PLANNING PROCESS 

The BLM RMP process consists of nine basic 
steps. This process requires the use of an 
interdisciplinary team of resource specialists 
for the completion of each step. The steps 
described in the planning regulations and 
followed in preparing this RMP are 
summarized below. Publication of this 
document is part of Step 7, Selection of the 
Preferred Alternative. 



or conflicts (issues) were identified by the 
BLM and other agency personnel as well as 
members of the public. One issue, Federal oil 
and gas leasing and development, was 
identified and considered in this document. 
The BLM published a news release and a 
Federal Register notice on August 24, 1992, 
announcing preparation of the Texas RMP and 
soliciting public involvement and comments. 
This notice announced the dates of upcoming 
public meetings and also requested information 
and interest from the public and industry for 
Federal coal and other minerals within Texas. 

Ste p 2. Development of Planning Criteria 

This step identifies the information needed to 
resolve issues, formulate and evaluate 
alternatives and select the preferred alternative. 
Preliminary decisions are made regarding the 
kinds of information needed to clarify the 
issues, the kinds of alternatives to be developed 
and the factors to be considered in evaluating 
alternatives and selecting a preferred 
RMP/EIS. 

Step 3. Data and Information Collection 

This step involves the collection of various 
kinds of environmental, social, economic and 
institutional data needed for completion of the 
process. This step can include detailed field 
studies, literature studies or consultation with 
appropriate professionals. In most cases this 
process is limited to inventories needed to 
address the issues. 

Ste p 4. Management Situation Analysis (MSA) 



Step 1 . Identification of Issues 

The first step in the planning process is 
intended to identify resource management 
problems or conflicts that can be resolved 
through the planning process. These problems 



This step calls for deliberate assessment of the 
current situation. It includes a description of 
current BLM management guidance, discussion 
of existing problems and opportunities for 
solving them and a consolidation of existing 
data needed to analyze and resolve the 



1-4 



identified issues. The end result of this step is 
the development of an unpublished companion 
document known as the MSA. That document 
is used to develop the Continuing Management 
Guidance (CMG) and Actions section of the 
RMP. The MSA is used as a basis for 
compiling the Affected Environment chapter 
(Chapter 3) of the RMP. Copies of the MSA 
are available for review by request. 

Step 5. Formulation of Alternatives 

During this step, several complete and 
reasonable resource management alternatives 
are prepared, including one for no action. 
Other alternatives are designed to resolve the 
issue while placing emphasis either on 
environmental protection or resource 
production. 

Step 6. Estimation of Effects of Alternatives 

The physical, biological, economic and social 
effects of implementing each alternative are 
estimated in order to allow for a comparative 
evaluation of impacts. This step, known as the 
Environmental Consequences section, is 
Chapter 4 in this RMP. 

Step 7. Selection of the Preferred Alternative 

Based on the information generated during 
Step 6, the District Manager identifies and 
recommends a preferred alternative to the State 
Director. The Draft RMP/EIS document is 
then prepared and distributed for public 
review. 

Step 8. Selection of the Resource Management 
Plan 

Based on the results of public review and 
comment, the District Manager will select and 
recommend to the State Director various 
proposals and/or alternatives to comprise the 



proposed RMP and publish it along with a final 
EIS. A final decision is made following both 
a 60-day Governor's consistency review and a 
30-day protest period on the final EIS are 
completed. 

Step 9. Monitoring and Evaluation 

This step involves the collection and analysis of 
long-term resource condition and trend data to 
determine the effectiveness of the plan in 
resolving the identified issues and to ensure 
that implementation of the plan is achieving the 
desired results. Monitoring continues from the 
time the RMP is adopted until changing 
conditions require a revision of the whole plan 
or any portion of it. 

PLANNING ISSUES. CRITERIA AND 
MANAGEMENT CONCERNS 

The BLM planning regulations equate land-use 
planning with problem solving and issue 
resolution. An issue is defined as an 
opportunity, conflict or problem regarding the 
use or management of public land and 
resources. 

Planning criteria are the standards, rules and 
measures used for data collection and 
alternative formulation, which will guide final 
plan selection. Planning criteria are taken 
from appropriate laws and regulations, BLM 
manuals and directives and concerns expressed 
in meetings and consultations, both with the 
public and other agencies. 

Management concerns are those non-issue 
related procedures or land-use allocations 
which have proven, during the preparation of 
this RMP/EIS, to need modification. 
Management concerns focus on use conflicts, 
requirements or conditions that cannot be 
resolved administratively and did not, during 
initial public scoping, appear to meet the 



1-5 



criteria to qualify as a planning issue. These 
concerns were or are identified for resolution 
in the RMP. 

The issue proposed for examination as a result 
of the scoping process for the Texas RMP was 
identified based upon the judgment of the 
planning team and BLM management 
consultation. The issue will address the 
anticipated concerns of the public, industry and 
other Federal, state and local agencies. 
Further refinement of this issue, deletion or 
expansion of a portion of the issue or inclusion 
of other as yet unknown planning issues may 
occur during the planning process. 

ISSUE: Leasing and development of Federal 
oil and gas in Texas. 

The issue is further broken down into the 
following leasing categories: 

1. Open-Subject to Standard Terms and 
Conditions (STC). 

These areas in the planning area will be open 
for oil and gas leasing and development subject 
to standard lease terms and conditions. These 
are the areas, to be determined through the 
RMP/EIS process, where the terms and 
conditions of a standard lease form are 
sufficient to protect other land uses and/or 
resource values. 

2. Open-Subject to Seasonal or Other Minor 
Constraints. 

These areas in the planning area will be open 
for oil and gas leasing and development subject 
to minor constraints such as seasonal 
restrictions (wildlife, recreation, etc.). These 
areas, to be determined by the RMP/EIS 
process, are where moderately restrictive lease 



stipulations may be required to mitigate 
potential impacts to other land uses or resource 
values. 

3, Open-Subject to No Surface Occupancy 
(NSO) and Similar Major Constraints. 

These areas in the planning area will be open 
for oil and gas leasing and development subject 
to major constraints such as NSO stipulations 
on areas larger than 40 acres in size or more 
than 1/4 mile in width. These are the areas, to 
be determined in the RMP/EIS process, that 
require highly restrictive lease stipulations in 
order to mitigate potential impacts to other land 
uses or resource values. 

4. Closed to Leasing. 

These areas in the planning area will be closed 
to leasing. These areas, to be documented by 
the RMP/EIS process, are where other land 
uses or resource values cannot be adequately 
protected by the most restrictive lease 
stipulations and appropriate protection can only 
be ensured by closing the area to leasing. The 
RMP/EIS will identify closed areas by category 
of closure; i.e., discretionary or 
nondiscretionary closures. A nondiscretionary 
closure is established by legislative mandate 
while a discretionary closure is the result of an 
agency management decision. 

MANAGEMENT DIRECTION 

Existing leases may contain stipulations that are 
either too restrictive or not restrictive enough 
in terms of the goals and objectives established 
in the plan. Although lease terms cannot be 
modified by the RMP, the plan does allow the 
existing lease holders the opportunity to 
voluntarily conform with proposed stipulations 
contained in the plan. 



1-6 



PLANNING CRITERIA 



The following describes the proposed planning 
criteria that would be used in addressing the 
currently identified issues. All alternatives 
considered for management of the identified 
issues or addressing the issues must satisfy the 
following planning criteria: 

1. All alternatives must comply with laws, 
executive orders, policy and regulations. 

2. For each alternative, the resource outputs 
must be reasonable and achievable with 
available technology. 

3. The RMP will describe the specific 
circumstances within which lease stipulations 
would be subject to waiver. Those lease 
stipulations not subject to waiver will also be 
described. 

4. All alternatives will evaluate and consider 
long term benefits to the public in relation to 
short term benefits. 

5. Each alternative will provide for the orderly 
development of leasable minerals while keeping 
environmental impacts to a minimum. 

6. Surface actions not controlled by or under 
the authority of the BLM will not be addressed 
by the RMP/EIS. Surface uses authorized by 
the surface owner or the SMA are not subject 
to discussion in the RMP/EIS. 

ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS 

Environmental concerns or components 
normally addressed by a BLM land use plan 
and EIS are generally associated with surface 
resources or uses. In the case of the Texas 
RMP, the BLM is addressing the Federal 
mineral estate. Surface uses and resources will 



be addressed as they conflict with or are 
impacted by the development of the federal 
minerals. 

Environmental Concerns Considered but 
Dropped from Further Study Include: 

1 . Wild Horses and Burros 

Wild and free-roaming horses and burros do 
not occur in Texas and therefore, will not be 
addressed. 

2. Wilderness 

BLM managed wilderness does not occur in 
Texas and therefore, will not be addressed. 

3. Forestry, Livestock Grazing, Outdoor 
Recreation and Visual Resource Management 

There is no BLM managed surface estate 
occurring within Texas. The BLM resource 
management programs concerning forestry, 
livestock grazing, outdoor recreation and visual 
resource management do not apply in Texas. 
Private, state or SMA forestry, livestock 
grazing, outdoor recreation and visual 
resources occurring on a particular tract of 
mineral estate will be addressed in a site 
specific manner. 

Environmental Concerns Considered in this 
EIS Include: 

1 . Air Quality 

Air quality concerns include dust and emissions 
associated with road and drill pad construction 
and drilling operations. The potential to create 
or release concentrations of harmful gases 
(e.g., hydrogen sulfide,) at drill sites exists. 
Air quality will be addressed in this document. 



1-7 



2. Water Resources 



6. Special Status Species (SSS) 



The development of oil and gas resources has 
the potential to affect surface and groundwater 
through surface erosion, contamination of 
streams, contamination of aquifers, production 
of brine waters and the introduction of toxic 
substances into the environment. Water 
resources will be evaluated and considered as 
an environmental component in this document. 

3. Soils 

The construction of access roads, drill pads and 
pipelines will result in soil disturbance. Soil 
disturbance attributable to the proposed action 
will be a consideration of this plan. 

4. Vegetation 

The construction of access roads, drill pads and 
pipelines will result in the removal of 
vegetation. The removal of vegetation will be 
evaluated and addressed as an environmental 
component in this document. The protection of 
wetland and riparian vegetation is of particular 
concern to the BLM. 

BLM guidance and policy as well as Executive 
Order (E.O.) 11990 (Protection of Wetlands) 
provide direction for BLM's protection of 
wetland and riparian vegetation. 

5. Wildlife 

The construction of access roads, drill pads and 
pipelines could result in the loss of wildlife 
habitat. Drilling and production operations 
adjacent to wildlife habitats during critical 
seasons of a particular species' life cycle could 
result in habitat avoidance by the local 
population of that species. 



The construction of access roads, drill pads and 
pipelines will not result in the loss of SSS or 
their habitats. The protection of SSS and their 
habitats is of particular concern to the BLM. 

Protection of Federal proposed and listed 
threatened and endangered (T&E) plant and 
animal species and their habitats, as well as 
designated and proposed critical habitats, from 
destruction and disturbance which results from 
a Federal action (oil and gas leasing) is 
required by BLM policy and the Endangered 
Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended. In 
addition, it is BLM policy to manage for the 
conservation of candidate (category 1 and 2) 
and state listed plant and animal species. 
These candidate species and those referenced 
above as T&E are hereafter referred to as SSS. 

7. Cultural/Paleontological Resources 

Protection of cultural and paleontological 
resources from damage or destruction resulting 
from a Federal action (oil and gas leasing) is 
required by BLM policy and a number of laws. 
As such, these resources will be evaluated and 
be considered as environmental components to 
be addressed in the RMP/EIS. 

8. Minerals 

The alternatives addressed in this RMP/EIS 
may limit development of Federal mineral 
resources in the State of Texas. For this 
reason the impacts of each alternative on oil 
and gas development will be addressed in this 
RMP/EIS. 



1-8 



9. Socio-Economics 

Oil and gas leasing and development could 
create impacts to the states social structure 
through direct impacts to economic components 
which result from oil and gas. There could be 
effects on the work force and economy by a 
decision to lease or not lease Federal oil and 
gas. For these reasons socio-economics will be 
addressed in this EIS. 



1-9 



CHAPTER TWO 

PROPOSED 

RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN 




CHAPTER TWO 
ALTERNATIVES 



INTRODUCTION 

Three alternatives were developed for 
resolution of the issue described in the previous 
chapter. Development of the alternatives was 
guided by the planning criteria, public 
consultation, coordination with other agencies 
and evaluation by BLM. The alternatives 
represent the most reasonable range of options 
possible due to the lack of surface resource 
jurisdiction and fragmentation of minerals 
ownership. 

This chapter contains management guidance 
applicable to all three alternatives under the 
heading "Continuing Management Guidance" 
and a description of each of the three 
alternatives in relation to affected resources 
under the "Alternatives" heading. 

The Texas RMP/EIS is not a land use plan for 
private, state or other Federal SMA resources. 
BLM has no surface jurisdiction over 
split-estate Federal minerals administrated by 
the agency, nor does the BLM have surface 
land use authority concerning Federal SMA 
lands. Under the various Federal mineral 
leasing laws, regulations and programs, the 
Federal SMA must grant consent to mineral 
leasing and subsequent minerals development 
prior to the BLM offering the tract(s) for lease. 
The SMA retains all authority to manage their 
programs and surface resources while 
management of the mineral estate is vested 
with the BLM. 



MANAGEMENT 



CONTINUING 
GUIDANCE (CMG) 



This section describes resource management 
guidance that is applicable to, and therefore 



constitutes a part of, all three alternatives. 
CMG is provided by laws, executive orders, 
regulations, DOI manuals, BLM manuals and 
BLM instruction memoranda which will be 
followed regardless of which alternative is 
selected. CMG also includes decisions from 
preceding land use plans, cooperative 
agreements or memoranda of understanding 
with other state and Federal agencies. 

The BLM resource management programs 
which may be affected by management 
decisions resulting from the RMP/EIS or which 
may influence the final RMP decisions are: 
1) the wildlife program, which includes T&E 
species responsibilities for both plants and 
animals; 2) the cultural resources program, 
which involves paleontological, archeological 
and historic resources management 
responsibilities; and 3) the minerals 
management program, which involves all 
mineral resources and their management. 

Current management of these programs can 
best be described as responsive and custodial. 
Leasing of the mineral estate, specifically for 
oil and gas production, has been in response to 
industry demands. These two situations will 
help the reader understand the program 
descriptions that follow. 

1. WILDLIFE (INCLUDING SSS) 

The function of the BLM's wildlife 
management program in Texas is to provide 
support for mineral actions. The program 
activities in Texas are limited to participation 
in team efforts to prepare environmental 
analyses, special status species (SSS, state and 



2-1 



Federal T&E species and etc.) evaluations, 
wetland/riparian evaluations and development 
of wildlife resource stipulations and conditions 
of approval (COA). 

Federal minerals under private surface or 
Federal surface managed by another Federal 
agency or licensed by another Federal agency 
to a state or local agency for surface 
management purposes are the most common 
situations encountered in BLM's wildlife 
management program in Texas. In these 
situations BLM's wildlife responsibilities in 
Texas do not begin until a BLM mineral action 
(leasing and/or development) is proposed. 

Wildlife habitats, common wildlife species and 
special status plant and animal species are very 
diverse and numerous in a large state such as 
Texas. Approximately 70 species of plants and 
animals are currently Federally listed as T&E 
in the state. There are many more species that 
are Federal candidate species (category 1 and 
2) and species listed by the State of Texas as 
T&E. Only through close site specific 
coordination with the four Ecological Services 
Offices of the U.S. Department of the Interior, 
Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), FWS State 
Administrator's office and the Texas Parks and 
Wildlife Department (TPWD) is the BLM able 
to keep abreast of the ever changing habitat 
and SSS concerns throughout Texas. 

Some additional wildlife agency coordination 
will be performed for mineral leasing after this 
RMP is completed. The uncertainty 

concerning the location of the split-estate 
minerals in Texas makes some pre-leasing/post- 
RMP wildlife agency coordination necessary. 
Also, every post-leasing action which would 
result in surface disturbing activities would be 
analyzed in a BLM environmental assessment 
(EA) and an "Evaluation of Special Status 
Species, Wetlands and Riparian Zones". 
Agency coordination letters would be mailed to 



the TPWD and the appropriate FWS office on 
all post-leasing oil and gas actions which would 
result in surface disturbing activities. Such 
surface disturbing actions would include 
Applications for Permit to Drill (APD) or 
Sundry Notices submitted for actions on Indian 
or Federal oil and gas leases. Site specific 
agency coordination would include a discussion 
of lease stipulations and notices. 

The ESA of 1973, as amended, the Migratory 
Bird Treaty Act, E.O. 11990, Protection of 
Wetlands, BLM policies regarding protection 
and management of wetlands and riparian areas 
and information received from the FWS and 
the TPWD have influenced the development 
and application of the stipulations and lease 
notices (LN). LN's are advisory in function 
and do not mandatorily require any action. 

2. CULTURAL RESOURCES 

ARCHEOLOGICAL/HISTORIC 

The cultural resource program activities in 
Texas consist of development of environmental 
analysis reports; site specific evaluations or 
inventories of cultural resources in support of 
mineral leasing and development, development 
of terms and conditions of impact mitigation or 
impact avoidance, and consultations with state 
agencies and Indian tribes. Program 
involvement associated with mineral leasing 
under other Federal SMA properties is limited 
to coordination and consultation with other 
Federal and state agencies and Federally 
recognized Indian tribes. 

Consultation directly with Federally recognized 
Indian tribes is regularly performed to comply 
with the American Indian Religious Freedom 
Act, 42 United States Code (U.S.C.) 1996). 
These consultations do not depend upon tribal 
ownership of mineral rights in a development 
area, but result from tribal history, sacred or 



2-2 



ceremonial areas or unmarked graves possible 
in an area of development. Negotiations with 
specific Indian tribes will also be conducted 
when any newly discovered Indian graves are 
claimed for repatriation in accordance with the 
Native American Graves Protection and 
Repatriation Act of 1990 (Public Law (P.L.) 
101-601). 

PALEONTOLOGICAL RESOURCES 

The paleontological resource program activities 
in Texas consists of development or review of 
environmental analysis reports; site specific 
evaluations or inventories of paleontological 
resources in support of mineral leasing and 
development, and application of terms and 
conditions for impact mitigation or to avoid 
impacts. 

3. MINERALS 

Federal minerals occurring in commercial 
quantities in Texas include oil and gas and coal 
or lignite. Federal lignite leasing in Texas was 
addressed in the Draft and Final Camp Swift 
Lignite Leasing EIS of 1980 and is included as 
CMC 



necessary surface protection stipulations are 
attached to the lease. Procedures for leasing 
on other SMA minerals are similar to 
split-estate procedures except that the SMA is 
contacted for approval to lease and also for 
identification of specific agency surface 
protection stipulations. The BLM is 

responsible for National Environmental Policy 
Act (NEPA) compliance documentation which 
could include preparing a site-specific EA that 
addresses the proposal. 

All Federal oil and gas leasing and lease 
operations in Texas are conducted following 
procedures established and presented in 
43 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 3100. 
Prior to operations, a site specific 
environmental analysis of the proposed well 
site may result in additional considerations 
before approval of an APD. 

Lease activities in Texas involve on-site 
inspections before approving an APD, drilling 
plan review and lease operations inspection and 
enforcement. Lease operations are regulated 
by lease terms, regulations and stipulations that 
may be attached to the lease to protect specific 
resource values identified by an EA or EIS. 



At this time the BLM's fluid minerals 
management program consists of oil and gas 
leasing and the associated development and 
operations oversight. Currently there are 
approximately 350,000 acres of the BLM 
administered Federal mineral estate in Texas 
under oil and gas lease. The Fluid Minerals 
Assessment completed by the BLM indicates 
that most of the state is in a modgrate oil and 
gas development potential category. 

Procedures for reviewing oil and gas lease 
applications vary depending upon the category 
of surface ownership. Proposals to lease 
split-estate minerals require the BLM to 
prepare a site-specific EA and assure that 



Geophysical operations within Texas are not 
controlled or authorized by the BLM. Each 
SMA and surface owner negotiates and controls 
surface uses which includes access for 
geophysical exploration activities. 

ALTERNATIVES 

Both NEPA regulations and the BLM's land 
use planning regulations under 43 CFR 1600 
require the formulation of management 
alternatives. Each proposed alternative 
represents a different comprehensive land use 
plan to guide future management of lands and 
resources. One management alternative must 
represent "no action", which means a 



2-3 



continuation of present resource allocation 
levels and management practices. Different 
alternatives are developed as solutions to 
questions and management concerns. Because 
only one resource issue, oil and gas leasing and 
development, is being addressed by the 
RMP/EIS the multiple-resource trade-offs 
which normally constitute the preferred 
alternative are not applicable to this RMP. 

Three alternatives have been developed to 
address the issue of Federal oil and gas leasing 
and development within Texas. These 
alternatives consist of differing management 
practices resulting in three levels of mitigation 
of impacts to surface resource values which 
could result in three different levels of potential 
oil and gas development. The baseline 
Reasonable Foreseeable Development (RFD) 
scenario was prepared based upon an 
assumption of continuation of present 
management (Alternative A). In order to 
analyze potential impacts and/or effects of the 
other two alternatives, RFDs will be prepared 
utilizing oil and gas development levels derived 
from those differing management practices and 
levels of mitigation. 

The three alternatives are as follows: 

Alternative A. Continuation of Present 
Management (No Action) 

Split-Estate Lands 

Under this alternative new leases and expired 
leases that are reissued would be leased under 
"Standard Terms and Conditions" (STC). 
Mandatory stipulations (those required by law) 
would be incorporated into each lease where 
those stipulations apply. 

SMA Lands 

Most SMAs in Texas have developed lease 
stipulations for the lands under their 
jurisdiction. There are currently more than 80 



Federal projects or installations potentially 
subject to oil and gas leasing in Texas where 
BLM has minerals management responsibility. 
Under this alternative new leases and expired 
leases that are reissued would be leased with 
the stipulations identified by the SMA. 

Mineral leases would continue to be issued 
with the standard oil and gas lease provisions 
as well as with surface resource protection 
stipulations required by executive order, law, 
regulation or policy . Approximately 1 , 774 ,545 
acres would be open to leasing. 
Approximately 1,629,753 acres would be 
closed to leasing. 

Alternative B. Intensive Surface Protection 
(Preferred Alternative) 

Split-Estate Lands 

Under this alternative new leases and expired 
leases that are reissued would be leased with 
surface resource protection stipulations. 
Mandatory stipulations would be incorporated 
into each lease where those stipulations apply. 
In addition, this alternative will include 
optional stipulations where resource values 
exist that warrant special protection. 

SMA Lands 

Under this alternative all new leases and 
expired leases that are reissued would be leased 
with stipulations currently identified by the 
SMA. Additional stipulations may be applied 
to these SMA lands where the BLM determines 
additional stipulations may be necessary to 
protect resource values warranting protection 
greater than provided by the SMA stipulations. 

Under this alternative mineral leases would 
continue to be issued with the standard oil and 
gas lease provisions, with surface resource 
protection stipulations required by executive 
order, law, regulation or policy, as well as 
additional multi-resource protection stipulations 



2-4 



needed to protect valuable surface resources. 
Approximately 1,774,545 acres would be open 
to leasing. Approximately 1,629,753 acres 
would be closed to leasing. Additional 
multi-resource protection lease stipulations 
would be required on approximately 30,854 
acres. 

Alternative C. No Leasing 

Under this alternative the BLM would not offer 
new oil and gas leases. Those lands currently 
under lease would not be re-offered for lease 
following lease expiration. Those lands held 
by production would not be re-offered 
following loss of production and subsequent 
lease expiration. 

This alternative places primary emphasis on 
removing Federal oil and gas from availability 
for development. This alternative changes 
management direction so that the issue is 
resolved in a manner that places highest 
priority on the protection of surface resources 
from disturbance caused by Federal oil and gas 
development. 

Mineral leases would not be issued. 
Approximately 3,404,298 acres of Federal oil 
and gas would be closed to leasing by the end 
of the life of the plan. 

FEDERAL OIL AND GAS LEASE 
STIPULATIONS 

A Federal oil and gas lease is a contract 
between the Federal government and an 
individual or corporation (lessee) which allows 
the lessee to extract oil and gas from the 
Federal mineral estate for a percentage 
(royalty) of the gross value. 

The terms of the lease are considered 
contractual obligations of the lessee and are 
standardized on all Federal oil and gas leases. 



The terms and conditions of an oil and gas 
lease provide general protection of surface and 
subsurface resources for normal operations and 
are known as the Standard Terms and 
Conditions (STC). A copy of the STC of a 
Federal oil and gas lease are presented in 
Appendix 3. The Federal government also 
utilizes leasing stipulations to protect unique 
values or important resources when it is felt 
that the STC are not adequate. 

Proposals to lease split-estate minerals require 
the BLM to prepare a site specific EA and 
assure that necessary surface protection 
stipulations are attached to the lease. 
Procedures for leasing on other SMA minerals 
are similar to split estate procedures except that 
the SMA is contacted for consent to lease and 
also for identification of specific agency 
surface protection stipulations. Stipulations to 
a lease involve additional restrictions required 
of the lessee for conduct of operations on a 
lease. Stipulations are attached to a lease at 
the time of lease offer, providing the potential 
lessee the opportunity not to bid on the lease if 
these restrictions are not agreeable. 

The Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands, 
30 U.S. C. 351, requires that the SMA 
stipulations must be included on a lease. 
Further, as presented in 43 CFR 3 10 1.7- 1(a) 
"Acquired lands shall be leased only with the 
consent of the surface management agency, 
which upon receipt of a description of the lands 
from the authorized officer, shall report to the 
authorized officer that it consents to leasing 
with stipulations, if any, or withholds consent 
or objects to leasing." Additional, more 
restrictive stipulations can be added by the 
BLM. Specific BLM action in regard to SMA 
stipulations is mandated by 
43 CFR3101.7-2(a) "Where the surface 
managing agency has consented to leasing with 
stipulations and the Secretary decides to issue 
(a lease), the authorized officer shall 



2-5 



incorporate the stipulations into any lease 
which it may issue. The authorized officer 
may add additional stipulations." 

Exceptions to a lease stipulation, waiver of a 
lease stipulation or modification of a lease 
stipulation are explained in the Federal 
regulations at 43 CFR 3101.1-4. Generally, an 
exception, waiver or modification may be 
approved if the record shows that 
circumstances or protected resource values 
have changed or if the lessee can demonstrate 
that operations can be conducted without 
causing unacceptable impacts and that less 
restrictive stipulations will protect the public 
interest. Exceptions, waivers and 

modifications can only be granted by the 
Authorized Officer. If the proposed exception, 
waiver or modification is inconsistent with the 
land use plan, the plan will be amended or 
changed or the exception, waiver or 
modification will be disallowed. 

Exceptions are considered on a case by case 
basis and are subject to an environmental 
analysis. Exception to a leasing stipulation will 
be granted by the Authorized Officer if the 
reason for the exception is consistent with that 
analysis. No public notice is required for 
exceptions to lease stipulations which conform 
to the plan. Exceptions which do not conform 
to the plan may be granted only upon plan 
amendment and public notification. 

A stipulation waiver is the complete elimination 
of a stipulation from a particular lease contract. 
A stipulation is waived by the Authorized 
Officer after preparation of an EA and a 
decision is made that the stipulation in question 
is no longer required for a particular lease. 
The decision to waive a substantial stipulation 
requires a plan amendment and a 30 day public 
notice period prior to waiver. 



Modifications to a lease stipulation are made if 
and when resource management determines the 
stipulation is no longer effective as written. 
This situation could occur when new 
information, obtained by inventory or 
monitoring, etc. indicates that the protective 
measure is unnecessarily restrictive. 
Modification of a stipulation requires the 
preparation of an EA to determine the potential 
impacts and/or plan amendment or maintenance 
needs. If the modification is determined to be 
substantial by the Authorized Officer, a 30 day 
public notice period prior to modifying the 
lease stipulation is required. 

Stipulations attached to a lease as a condition 
of consent by a SMA are not subject to 
exception, waiver or modification by the BLM. 

BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT 
STIPULATIONS 

Stipulations utilized within the Tulsa District 
include both mandatory and optional 
stipulations. A mandatory stipulation is one 
which addresses protection of a resource which 
the BLM is required by law, regulation or 
policy to protect and which the BLM feels STC 
would not offer sufficient protection. A 
mandatory stipulation would be applied under 
Alternative A and Alternative B. 

Mandatory stipulations include: 

ORA-1, Floodplain Protection Stipulation 

"All or portions of the lands under this lease 
lie in and or adjacent to a major watercourse 
and are subject to periodic flooding. Surface 
occupancy of these areas will not be allowed 
without the specific approval, in writing, by 
the Bureau of Land Management. " 

This stipulation is a result of E.O. 11988, 
Floodplain Management, of May 24, 1977. 



2-6 



ORA-2, Wetland/Riparian Stipulation 

"All or portions of the lands under this lease 
contain wetland and/or riparian areas. Surface 
occupancy of this tract will not be allowed 
without the specific approval, in writing of the 
Bureau of Land Management. Impacts or 
disturbance to wetlands and riparian habitats 
which occur on this lease, must be avoided or 
mitigated. The mitigation shall be developed 
during the application for permit to drill 
process. " 

The wetland/riparian stipulation is mandated by 
E.O. 11990, Protection of Wetlands, of 
May 24, 1977. 

Optional stipulations would be applied under 
Alternative B to protect a resource value or 
other land use which would be potentially 
impacted by normal oil and gas lease 
operations. These stipulations are optional in 
the sense that they are not mandated by law or 
regulation. They will be used only when the 
value of the resource warrants protection. 

Optional stipulations include: 

ORA-3, Season of Use Stipulation 

"Surface occupancy of this lease will not be 
allowed from date , through date , without 
the specific approval in writing, from the 
Authorized Officer of the Bureau of Land 
Management. " 

This stipulation restricts the time period that 
the lessee can be on the lease. This is usually 
only necessary when the restriction would 
result in more than a 60 day delay in 
commencing operations (by regulation BLM 
can specify up to a 60 day delay as a result of 
the APD analysis). Most season of use 
restrictions involve wildlife seasonal use 
requirements or recreation use conflicts with 



drilling activities. 

ORA-4, No Surface Occupancy (NSO) 

"Surface occupancy of this lease will not be 
allowed. " 

This stipulation prohibits surface use to protect 
a resource or use that is not compatible with 
oil and gas development. The tract could be 
leased for inclusion in a drilling unit and may 
be drilled directionally from an off-site location 
where occupancy is allowed. 

NM-9, No Surface Occupancy, Pooling 
Purposes Only 

This stipulation prohibits surface use as well as 
directional drilling into Federal minerals. This 
stipulation is used to protect a resource or use 
that is not compatible with oil and gas 
development. The tract could be leased for 
inclusion in a drilling unit to meet an operators 
spacing requirements. 

NM-10, Coal Protection 

This stipulation requires that any Federal oil 
and gas operator must coordinate development 
with the Federal coal lessee. This stipulation 
is used to protect the value of the Federal coal 
resource. 

LEASE NOTICES (LN) 

A LN provides more detailed information 
concerning limitations that already exist in law, 
lease terms, regulations or operational orders. 
A LN also addresses special items the lessee 
should consider when planning operations, but 
does not impose new or additional restrictions. 
LN's attached to leases should not be confused 
with Notices to Lessees (NTL). 



2-7 



LN's would be applied under Alternative B and 
include: 

LN-1, Threatened and Endangered Species 
"According to preliminary information all or 
portions of this lease area could contain 
Federal and/or state listed threatened or 
endangered species and/or their habitats. Any 
proposed surface disturbing activity may 
require an inventory and consultation with the 
FWS and/or the state wildlife agency. The 
consultation could take up to 180 days to 
complete. Surface occupancy could be 
restricted or not allowed as a result of the 
consultation. Appropriate modifications to the 
imposed restrictions will be made for the 
maintenance and operations of producing oil 
and gas wells." 

CONDITIONS OF APPROVAL AND 
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR OIL 
AND GAS OPERATIONS ON FEDERAL 
AND INDIAN LEASES (KANSAS. 
OKLAHOMA AND TEXAS) 

Additional BLM requirements to protect a 
resource or value that does not affect the 
lessee's rights or restrict location on the lease 
can be imposed as a COA of the APD or as a 
general requirement for operating a Federal oil 
and gas lease. 

Initially these resource protection measures are 
developed as COAs and then, should they be 
found to be generally applied to all APDs, they 
become part of the list of General 
Requirements for Oil and Gas Operations on 
Federal Leases (Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas). 

Examples of such resource protection measures 
are as follows: 

• "All open pits and tanks being used in 
conjunction with the development and 
production of this lease will be netted or 



otherwise covered no later than four (4) days 
after final drilling depth is achieved and until 
such time as they are removed and/or filled 
and reclaimed. The recommended coverings 
include hard covers or a screen material of 
small enough mesh size so as to prevent the 
entry and death of migratory birds. The U.S. 
FWS, Division of Law Enforcement, has 
prepared materials which provide guidelines for 
covering oil field pits and tanks". 

Note: The granting of four (4) working days 
for completion of covering or netting pits 
and/or tanks in no way limits your 
responsibility should migratory birds be found 
dead in the tanks or pits within the four (4) day 
period or during the actual drilling phase. 

• "Open- vent exhaust stacks on production 
equipment (heater/treater, separator and 
dehydrator units), installed for use with this 
well, will be constructed, modified and/or 
otherwise equipped to prevent birds and bats 
from entering and to the extent practical, to 
discourage perching and nesting. These 
measures must be completed prior to 
production from this well passing through such 
equipment. " 

• "All new overhead electrical lines needed for 
the drilling or production phase of this well 
will be modified to help minimize accidental 
deaths of migratory birds. The poles and the 
wires will be modified to help minimize the 
likelihood of bird electrocutions and collisions. 
Guidelines can be found in a wide variety of 
publications. Two such sources of technical 
information are as follows: 'Suggested 
Practices for Raptor Protection on Power 
Lines: The State of the Art in 1981' and 
'Mitigating Bird Collisions With Power Lines: 
The State of the Art in 1994'. Also, the power 
company or cooperative that serves your area 
should be able to provide technical advice. " 



2-8 



A summary of how stipulations would be 
applied for Alternative A is presented in 
Table 2-1 and for Alternative B in Table 2-2. 

SURFACE MANAGEMENT AGENCY 
STIPULATIONS 

Federal mineral resources under SMA lands 
within Texas are subject to each SMA's 
specific leasing stipulations regardless of 
alternative. Copies of the SMAs' oil and gas 
leasing stipulations are contained in 
Appendix 3. Generally, these SMA 

stipulations can be divided into three 
categories; no surface occupancy (NSO), no 
surface occupancy with no directional drilling 
allowed (NSO/ND); NSO with directional 
drilling allowed (NSO/DD) and NSO described 
by elevation or surface use if suitable 
non-agency lands are included in the same 
drilling unit (NSO/ELEV). The SMAs 
normally base lease stipulations to the surface 
land use or allocation at the particular site or 
installation. 



NSO/ND, 
Drilling 



No Surface Occupancy and No 



This stipulation, common to the COE and the 
BR, is designed to protect facilities such as 
dams, embankments and other areas from 
damage by oil and gas operations. This 



stipulation prohibits surface occupancy and 
directional drilling by the lessee under 
restricted areas. This stipulation allows the 
identified area to be included in a lease for the 
purpose of becoming a part of a drilling unit so 
that the United States will share in the royalty. 

NSO/DD No Surface Occupancy, Open for 
Directional Drilling 

This stipulation is used by SMAs to protect 
surface resource values and uses from drilling 
activities. This stipulation is applied to public 
use areas, recreation areas, state wildlife and 
waterfowl refuges, historical sites, trails, roads 
and military training areas. Directional drilling 
is permitted from outside the identified areas 
where occupancy is allowed. 

NSO/ELEV No Surface Occupancy based 
on Elevation 

This stipulation is used by the COE in 
combination with, "No drilling on Government 
owned surface where alternative surface 
ownership is available within the same drilling 
unit" to protect the integrity of their reservoirs 
at a specific level based upon lake elevation. 
Normally, this stipulation is subject to 
negotiation between the SMA and the lessee at 
the time of operational plan development. 



2-9 









TABLE 2-1 


FEDERAL LANDS OPEN FOR OIL AND GAS LEASING WITH STIPULATIONS 








UNDER ALTERNATIVE A 


SMA PROJECT/AREA 


ACRES 


NSO/ND 


NSO/DD NSO/ELEV ORA-1 ORA-2 


Pat Mayse Lake 




18,928 


1,200 


10,000 


Texoma Lake 




193.500 


4.250 


85.500 


Total TD COE 




212,428 


5,450 


95,500 


Aquilla Lake 




12,395 


1,200 


9,180 


Bardwell Lake 




8,157 


700 


7,447 


Belton Lake 




32,218 


500 


25,775 


Benbrook Lake 




11,275 


950 


10,526 


B.A. Steinhagen 




22,800 


500 


18,554 


Canyon Lake 




14,568 


900 


14,516 


Cooper Lake 




57,328 


1,500 


37,045 


Georgetown Lake 




5,830 


300 


4,315 


Granger Lake 




15,303 


2,500 


12,425 


Grapevine Lake 




17,761 


1,800 


17,716 


Hords Creek Lake 




3,027 


500 


2,475 


Joe Pool Lake 




20,776 


2,800 


17,775 


Lake 0' the Pines 




45,095 


1,445 


38,200 


Lavon Lake 




37,565 


1,500 


36,500 


Lewisville Lake 




45,506 


2,500 


39,080 


Navarro Mills Lake 




14,216 


730 


12,925 


O.C. Fisher Lake 




18,140 


1,500 


17,155 


Procter Lake 




15,944 


1,835 


15,400 


Sam Rayburn Lake 




159,754 


2,650 


146,324 


Ray Roberts Lake 




48,353 


2,005 


39,700 


Somerville Lake 




32,729 


3,570 


27,800 


Stillhouse Hollow Lake 


16,181 


2,130 


13,755 


Waco Lake 




21,327 


3,357 


21,327 


Whitney Lake 




53,194 


2,413 


53,194 


Wright Patman Lake 




157.526 


2.523 


157.526 


Total FW COE 




886,968 


42,308 


796,635 


Choke Canyon Reservoir 


26,000 


* 


** 


Palmetto Bend Lake 




11,000 


* 


** 


Lake Meredith 




700 


700 




Total BR 




37,700 


700 




* 


NSO/ND restrictions will apply 


within area of the project where the 




U.S 


. owns 100 


percent fee title mineral interest. 


** 


BR 


Project General Stipulations will apply in project areas where less 




than the full mineral interest has been acquired. 


2-10 











TABLE 2-1 (Continued) 
FEDERAL LANDS OPEN FOR OIL AND GAS LEASING WITH STD7ULATIONS 

UNDER ALTERNATIVE A 



SMA PROJECT/AREA 



ACRES 



NSO/ND NSO/DD NSO/ELEV ORA-1 



ORA-2 



Fort Bliss 125,295 

Fort Hood 208,712 

Fort Wolters 3,985 

Camp Bowie 3,858 

Camp Bullis 27,880 

Camp Swift 11,740 
Lone Star Army 

Ammunition Plant 15,546 
Longhorn Army 

Ammunition Plant 8,492 
Red River Army 

Depot 19,081 

Bergstrom AFB 3,215 

Dyess AFB 5,366 

LaughlinAFB 3,911 

LaughlinNo. 1 AAF 1,200 

Randolph AFB 2,893 

Reese AFB 2,455 

Seguin AAF 961 

SheppardAFB 4,160 

Cabaniss NALF 800 

Corpus Christi NAS 2,593 

Kingsville NAS 3,955 

McGregor NIROP 9,789 

Waldon NALF 640 



125,295 

208,712 

3,985 

3,858 

27,880 

11,740 

15,546 

8,492 



3,215 
5,366 
3,911 
1,200 
2,893 
2,455 

961 
4,160 

800 
2,593 
3,955 
9,789 

640 



Total DOD 



466,527 



447,446 



Note: All leasing would be subject to military commander stipulations. 



Pecan Genetics and Improvement 
Research Laboratory 84 

Conservation and Production 
Research Laboratory 1,531 

Livestock Insects Laboratory 35 

Grassland, Soil and Water 
Research Laboratory 1.272 



84 

1,531 
35 

1.272 



Total ARS 



2,922 



2,922 



2-11 



TABLE 2-1 (Continued) 
FEDERAL LANDS OPEN FOR OIL AND GAS LEASING WITH STIPULATIONS 

UNDER ALTERNATIVE A 



SMA PROJECT/ AREA 



ACRES 



NSO/ND NSO/DD NSO/ELEV ORA-1 



ORA-2 



Amistad Reservoir 
Falcon Reservoir 



65,000 
87.000 



** 



Total USmWC 



152,000 



* NSO/ND within 2,300 feet of the centerline of the dam embankment. 

** NSO below the 1,144.3 foot elevation traverse (USIBWC Stip. No. 1). 
*** NSO below the 307 fool elevation traverse (USIBWC Stip. No. 1). 



Pantex. 



16.000 



16.000 



Total DOE 



16,000 



16,000 



GRAND TOTAL 1,774,545 64,458 1,342,503 



2-12 



TABLE 2-2 
FEDERAL LANDS OPEN FOR OIL AND GAS LEASING WITH STIPULATIONS 

UNDER ALTERNATIVE B 



SMA PROJECT/AREA 
Pat Mayse Lake 
Texoma Lake 



Total TD COE 



ACRES 

18,928 

193,500 



212,428 



NSO/ND 



NSO/DD 



NSO/ELEV 



ORA-1 



ORA-2 



1,200 
4,250 



5,450 



10,000 
85.500 



95,500 



ORA-3 

8,925 

11.429 

20,354 



AquillaLake 12,395 1,200 9,180 

BardwellLake 8,157 700 7,447 

BeltonLake 32,218 500 25,775 

BenbrookLake 11,275 950 10,526 

B.A. Steinhagen 22,800 500 18,554 

Canyon Lake 14,568 900 14,516 

Cooper Lake 57,328 1,500 37,045 

Georgetown Lake 5,830 300 4,315 

Granger Lake 15,303 2,500 12,425 

Grapevine Lake 17,761 1,800 17,716 

Hords Creek Lake 3,027 500 2,475 

Joe Pool Lake 20,776 2,800 17,775 

Lake O' the Pines 45,095 1,445 38,200 

LavonLake 37,565 1,500 36,500 

Lewisville Lake 45,506 2,500 39,080 

Navarro Mills Lake 14,216 730 12,925 

O.C. Fisher Lake 18,140 1,500 17,155 

Procter Lake 15,944 1,835 15,400 

Sam Rayburn Lake 159,754 2,650 146,324 

Ray Roberts Lake 48,353 2,005 39,700 

Somerville Lake 32,729 3,570 27,800 

Stillhouse Hollow Lake 16,181 2,130 13,755 

Waco Lake 21,327 3,357 21,327 

Whitney Lake 53,194 2,413 53,194 

Wright Patman Lake 157,526 2.523 157.526 



4,000 



6,500 



Total FW COE 



886,968 



42,308 



796,635 



10,500 



Choke Canyon Reservoir 26,000 
Palmetto Bend Lake 1 1 ,000 

Lake Meredith 700 

Total BR 37,700 



700 



700 



** 



NSO/ND restrictions will apply within area of the project where the U.S. owns 
100 percent fee title mineral interest. 

BR Project General Stipulations will apply in project areas where less than the 
full mineral interest has been acquired. 



2-13 



TABLE 2-2 (Continued) 
FEDERAL LANDS OPEN FOR OIL AND GAS LEASING WITH STD?ULATIONS 

UNDER ALTERNATIVE B 



SMA PROJECT/AREA ACRES 



NSO/ND NSO/DD 



NSO/ELEV 



ORA-1 



ORA-2 



ORA-3 



Fort Bliss 


125,295 


Fort Hood 


208,712 


Fort Wolters 


3,985 


Camp Bowie 


3,858 


Camp Bullis 


27,880 


Camp Swift* 


11,740 


Lone Star Army 




Ammunition Plant 


15,546 


Longhorn Army 




Ammunition Plant 


8,492 


Red River Army 




Depot 


19,081 


Bergstrom AFB 


3,215 


Dyess AFB 


5,366 


Laughlin AFB 


3,911 


Laughlin No. 1 AAF 


1,200 


Randolph AFB 


2,893 


Reese AFB 


2,455 


Seguin AAF 


961 


Sheppard AFB 


4,160 


Cabaniss NALF 


800 


Corpus Christi NAS 


2,593 


Kingsville NAS 


3,955 


McGregor NIROP 


9,789 


Waldon NALF 


640 


Total DOD 


466,527 



125,295 

208,712 

3,985 

3,858 

27,880 

11,740 

15,546 

8,492 



3,215 
5,366 
3,911 
1,200 
2,893 
2,455 

961 
4,160 

800 
2,593 
3,955 
9,789 

640 



Note: 



447,446 

In addition to stipulations required under Alternative A, NM-10, Coal 

Protection Stipulation, would apply to 11,740 acres. 

All leasing would be subject to military commander stipulations. 



Pecan Genetics and 

Improvement Research 

Laboratory 84 

Conservation and 

Production Research 

Laboratory 1,531 

Livestock Insects 

Laboratory 35 

Grassland, Soil and 

Water Research 

Laboratory 1,272 



84 

1,531 

35 

1,272 



Total ARS 



2,922 



2,922 



2-14 



TABLE 2-2 (Continued) 
FEDERAL LANDS OPEN FOR OIL AND GAS LEASING WITH STIPULATIONS 

UNDER ALTERNATIVE B 



SMA PROJECT/AREA ACRES 



NSO/ND 



NSO/DD 



NSO/ELEV 



ORA-1 



ORA-2 



ORA-3 



Amistad Reservoir 65,000 
Falcon Reservoir 87.000 



** 



Total USmWC 



152,000 



NSO/ND within 2,300 feet of the centerline of the dam embankment. 
NSO below the 1,144.3 foot elevation traverse (USE3WC Stip. No. 1). 
NSO below the 307 fool elevation traverse (USIBWC Stip. No. 1). 



Pantex 



16.000 



16,000 



Total DOE 



16,000 



16,000 



GRAND TOTAL 1,774,545 64,458 1,342,503 



30,854 



2-15 



ALTERNATIVE APPLICATION 



All Federal minerals within the planning area 
have been evaluated using the three 
alternatives as potential management 
guidance. The following description of 
alternative application is presented by specific 
location and includes a short description of 
how each alternative would apply to each 
location. The SMA lands are grouped 
according to agency jurisdiction, the 
split-estate lands are grouped by county by 
ecoregion. 

Federal minerals closed to leasing within 
Texas are listed by SMA in Table 2-3. 



Reasons for a SMA to withhold consent to 
lease vary from agency to agency however, 
43 CFR 3100.0-3 specifically identifies 
National Park Lands and areas within city 
limits as excluded from leasing. The fact 
that all acquired Federal lands in Texas were 
obtained for a purpose other than mineral 
leasing and that mineral leasing and 
development may not be compatible with the 
reason for acquisition, is sufficient to 
withhold consent. Additionally, it should be 
pointed out that while these areas are closed 
to leasing, if Federal mineral estate is being 
drained by adjacent oil and gas activities, the 
Federal mineral estate being drained could be 
leased for inclusion in a unit for royalty 
purposes. 



2-16 



TABLE 2-3 
FEDERAL LANDS CLOSED TO OIL AND GAS LEASING S ACRES AS OF 1995 



PROJECT/AREA 


SMA 


ACRES 


PROJECT/AREA 


SMA 


ACRES 


Amistad NRA 


NPS 


57,292 


Brooks AFB 


USAF 


1,310 


Alibates Flint NMo 


NPS 


1,079 


Carswell AFB 


USAF 


2,558 


Big Bend NP 


NPS 


775,279 


Goodfellow AFB 


USAF 


1,124 


Big Thicket Pres. 


NPS 


85,873 


Kelly AFB 


USAF 


410 


Chamizal NMe 


NPS 


54 


Lackland AFB 


USAF 


2,712 


Fort Davis NHS 


NPS 


460 


Camp Mabry 


US Army 


N/A 


Guadalupe Mts. NP 


NPS 


76,807 


Fort Sam Houston 


US Army 


2,997 


Lake Meredith NRA 


NPS 


44,977 


Dallas NIROP 


USN 


314 


LBJ NHP 


NPS 


548 


Total 


DOD 


11,425 


Padre Island NS 


NPS 


130,355 








San Antonio 












Missions NHP 


NPS 


258 


Big Spring Lab. 


ARS 


247 


Total DOI/NPS 


1,172,982 


College Station Lab 


ARS 


60 








Lubbock Lab. 


ARS 


47 








Temple Lab. 


ARS 


451 


Anahuac NWR 


FWS 


30,578 


Weslaco Lab. 


ARS 


3.369 


Aransas NWR 


FWS 


114,397 


Total USDA/ARS 


4,174 


Attwater Prairie 












Chicken NWR 


FWS 


7,984 








Balcones 






Bastrop FCI 


BP 


174 


Canyonlands NWR 


FWS 


10,959 


Big Spring FCI 


BP 


101 


Big Boggy NWR 


FWS 


4,526 


Bryan FCI 


BP 


37 


Brazoria NWR 


FWS 


43,388 


Carswell FCI 


BP 


180 


Buffalo Lake NWR 


FWS 


7,664 


Carswell AFB FCI 


BP 


94 


Laguna Grulla NWR 


FWS 


5 


El Paso FCI 


BP 


635 


Hagerman NWR 


FWS 


12,142 


Seguinville FCI 


BP 


128 


Atascosa NWR 


FWS 


45,187 


Texarkana FCI 


BP 


320 


Little Sandy NWR 


FWS 


3,802 


Three Rivers FCI 


BP 


302 


Lower Rio Grande 






Total 


DOJ/BP 


1,971 


Valley NWR 


FWS 


63,115 








McFaddin NWR 


FWS 


42,956 








Moody NWR 


FWS 


3,517 


GRAND TOTAL 




1,629,753 


Muleshoe NWR 


FWS 


5,809 








San Bernard NWR 


FWS 


27,414 








Santa Ana NWR 


FWS 


2,087 








Texas Point NWR 


FWS 


8,952 








Trinity River NWR 


FWS 


4,400 








Inks Dam NFH 


FWS 


99 








San Marcos NFH 


FWS 


119 








Uvalde NFH 


FWS 


101 








Total DOI/FWS 


439,201 









2-17 



SPECIFIC SITE DESCRIPTIONS 



The following descriptions of the various SMA 
projects are general and brief. A series of 
corresponding maps of each SMA project 
follows each SMAs section. 

(1) U.S. Army, COE Tulsa District Projects 

Oil and gas leasing stipulations for the Tulsa 
District COE projects are contained within the 
Districts Special Stipulations 1-A, a copy of 
which is contained in Appendix 3. These 1-A 
stipulations provide for the protection of 
surface resources through the use of surface 
occupancy restrictions, drilling restrictions or 
consultation requirements with authorized 
surface lessees. Generally, 1-A requires NSO 
or directional drilling within 2,000 feet under 
restricted areas. Restricted areas include the 
major structures such as the dam, spillways, 
embankments, etc. All existing or proposed 
public use areas, recreation areas, wildlife and 
waterfowl refuges, historical sites and hiking or 
horseback trails are designated NSO. The 1-A 
stipulations are standardized and apply to all 
Tulsa District projects. 

PAT MAYSE LAKE MAP 2-1 

Project area 18,928 acres 

Operations acres 

Wildlife Mgmt.(TPWD) 8,925 acres 

Description 

Pat Mayse Lake is located in the Red River 
Basin in Lamar County. The damsite is on 
Sanders Creek approximately 10 miles north of 
the town of Paris. The dam is an earthfill 
structure approximately 7,080 feet in length. 
At flood control elevation 460.5 feet Mean Sea 
Level (MSL) the lake covers a surface area of 
over 7,680 acres. The project was constructed 
for flood control, municipal and industrial 
water supply as well as for recreation and fish 
and wildlife habitat management. 



SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 1,200 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
2,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
10,000 acres as buffers to recreational 
facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified flood pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Pat Mayse 
Lake would be available for lease. Stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. In addition to stipulations 
required under Alternative A, ORA-3 Season 
of Use restrictions would apply from 
September 1 through March 31, on the 8,925 
acres of wildlife management lands. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



TEXOMA LAKE MAP 2-2 

Project area 193,500 acres 

Operations 2,050 acres 

Recreation (high density) .... 14,590 acres 
Recreation (low density) .... 44,003 acres 
Wildlife Mgmt. (ODWC) . . . 25,942 acres 
Wildlife Refuge (FWS) 28,049 acres 

Description 

Denison Dam is located on the Red River in 
Bryan County, Oklahoma and Grayson County, 
Texas approximately 5 miles northwest of 
Denison, Texas and 15 miles southwest of 
Durant, Oklahoma. Approximately 30 percent 
of the project area is situated within the State 
of Texas. Total length of the dam is 17,200 
feet and maximum height above stream bed is 
165 feet. Platter Dike is a small structure 
about 3 miles upstream from the left abutment 



2-18 



of the dam. This dike has a total length of 
6,000 feet and is similar to the main 
embankment in design. The Cumberland Dikes 
consist of two rolled earthfill levees 
approximately 23,500 feet in length on the 
Washita River near Cumberland, Oklahoma. 
At flood control elevation 640 feet MSL there 
are 143,300 surface areas and a total storage 
capacity of 5,381,900 acre-feet of water. The 
lake has two principal arms, the Red and 
Washita Rivers. The lake has a maximum 
width of about 3 miles. The Red River arm of 
the lake has a length of about 60 miles and the 
Washita arm of the lake is about 45 miles long. 
There are 580 miles of shoreline at the top of 
power pool elevation. 

The State of Texas has one park, the State of 
Oklahoma has two parks and the City of 
Tishomingo, Oklahoma, has two parks. 
Existing facilities at these areas include some 
or all of the following: access roads, a state 
lodge, golf course, paved parking areas, boat 
launching ramps, marinas, waterborne or 
masonry vault toilets, potable water, picnic 
tables, refuse containers, fireplaces, individual 
campsites and sanitary trailer dump stations. 
The Hagerman NWR occupies approximately 
11,429 acres in Texas and the Tishomingo 
NWR about 28,049 acres of project lands on 



the Oklahoma side. About 710 wells are 
located in the oil and gas fields on the edges of 
the project, 530 of the wells are within Texas 
and 180 of these wells are on the Oklahoma 
side of the project. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 4,250 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
2,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
85,500 acres as buffers to recreational 
facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified flood pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Texoma 
Lake would be available for lease. Stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. In addition to stipulations 
required under Alternative A, ORA-3 Season 
of Use restrictions would apply from 
September 1 through March 31, on the 11,429 
acres of wildlife management lands within 
Texas. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



2-19 




p*veo mao 

GRAVEL ROAD 
DMT ROAD 

LIMITS Of PUBLC USE AREAS 
- — - — FEE PURCHASE LIMITS 

COHSEflVATOH PCOL EL *SIO 
FLOOD CONTROL POOL EL *«O.S 

■ FLOWACE EASEtCHT EL *TfO 

61 SMOnCLINC MILES 

ELECTRICAL LHC 



PAT MAYSE LAKE 

PUBLIC USE- LAND UTILIZATION 



NGiNFjn DISTRICT. TULSA. CORPS OF ENGINE CRS. 



CB320-3B-93/4 



REVISED "Hi I9rti 





LOCALITY MAP 



o 



PUBLIC USE AREAS 



DAM SITE AREA 
BURNS RUN 
SUNSET CAMP 
W1LLAFA WOODS 
PLATTER FLATS 
LAKESIDE 
WILLOW SPRINGS 
JOHNSON CREEK 
NEWBERRY CREEK 
KANSAS CREEK 
BUTCHER PEN 
TISHOMINGO CITY PARK 
PENNINGTON CREEK 
CUMBERLAND COVE 
BRIDGE VIEW 
LITTLE GLASSES 
TEKOMA STATE PARK 
ALBERTA CREEK 
WASHITA POMT 
ROADS END 
SOLDIER CREEi; 
CANE Y CREEK 
ARROWHEAD POINT 



buncombe creek 

briar creek 
lebanon resort 
hickory creek 

rock creek 
p4w paw point 
paw paw creek resort 
cedar bayou 
juniper point 
cedar mills 

WALMjT CREEK 
BIG MINERAL 
FLOWWG WELLS 
PARADISE COVE 
MILL CREEK 
TREASURE ISLAND 
NORTH ISLAND 
HKJHPORT RESORT 
ISLAND VIEW 
PRESTON FISHING CAMP 
PRESTON rtasfT, 
PRESTON BEND JieSOHT 
GflANDPAPPY POINT 

Eisenhower state park 



1 PROJECT OPERATIONS 

, 1 OPERATIONS- RECREATION, 

y=\ INTENSIVE USE 

frTTTTT1 OPERATIONS-RECREATION, 
II 1 1 1 1 H LOW DENSITY USE 



WZb 



OPERATIONS -WILDLIFE 
MANAGEMENT -STATE 



LEGEND 

ROADS -PAVEO 
ROADS -IMPROVED 
ROAOS-COUNTY 

FLOOO CONTROL POOL EL.640.0 
CONSERVATON POOL EL 617.0 
580 SHORELINE MILES AT EL. 6(7.0 



SCaLE OF MILtS 



LAKE TEXOMA 




H 
ffl 

X 

o 
> 

> 

*d 

to 

■ 



DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 

Tulsa District Corps of Engineers 

Tulsa, Oklahoma 



(2) U.S. Army COE Fort Worth District 
Projects 

Oil and gas leasing stipulations for the Fort 
Worth District COE projects are contained 
within the Districts Special Stipulations. A 
copy is contained in Appendix 3. These 
stipulations provide for the protection of 
surface resources through the use of surface 
occupancy restrictions, drilling restrictions or 
consultation requirements with authorized 
surface lessees. Generally, Fort Worth District 
requires NSO/ND within 3,000 feet under 
restricted areas. Restricted areas include the 
major structures such as the dam, spillways, 
embankments, etc. A NSO restriction applies 
to all areas below the lakes flood elevation 
level and to existing or proposed public use 
areas, recreation areas, wildlife and waterfowl 
refuges, unique ecological areas, historical sites 
and hiking or horseback trails. The special 
stipulations are standardized and apply to all 
Fort Worth District projects. 

AOUILLA LAKE MAP 2-3 

Project Area 12,395 acres 

Operations Area 1,200 acres 

Wildlife Mgmt 9,700 acres 

Conservation Pool 3,280 acres 

Description 

Located on the Aquilla Creek in the lower 
Brazos River Basin this reservoir covers a 
normal area of 3,280 surface acres. The main 
purpose for this lake is flood control. This 
lake has a flood control storage capacity of 
86,700 acre-feet at an elevation of 551 feet 
MSL. The flood control pool covers an area 
of approximately 7 , 000 acres . Approximately , 
9,700 acres of land and water are leased to 
TPWD for wildlife management purposes. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO/ND on approximately 1,200 acres 

associated with the dam and spillway and a 



3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
9,180 acres as buffers to recreational facilities, 
roads, trails and other developments and within 
the identified conservation pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Aquilla 
Lake would be available for lease. Stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 

BARDWELL LAKE MAP 2-4 

Project Area 8,157 acres 

Recreation Area 1,238 acres 

Operations 274 acres 

Conservation Pool 3,570 acres 

Description 

Bardwell Lake is located at river mile 5 on 
Waxahachie Creek, about five miles south of 
Ennis, in Ellis County. Bardwell has a 
conservation pool of 3,570 acres and a shore 
line of 25 miles with a flood pool area of 
approximately 6,040 acres. Total storage 
capacity is 140,000 acre-feet of which 79,600 
acre-feet is in flood control at an elevation of 
425 feet MSL. There are seven public use 
areas on Bardwell Lake that provide facilities 
such as paved roads, picnic and camping sites, 
waterborne and vault restrooms, boat launch 
ramps and improved swimming beaches. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 700 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
7,447 acres as buffers to recreational facilities, 
roads, trails and other developments and within 
the identified flood pool. 



2-22 



The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Bardwell 
Lake would be available for lease. Stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



BELTON LAKE MAP 2-5 

Project Area (Texas) 30,725 acres 

Recreation Area 2,980 acres 

Conservation Pool 12,290 acres 

Operations Area 500 acres 

Description 

Located in Central Texas on the Leon River, 
16.7 miles upstream from its confluence with 
Little River and eight miles west of Temple. 
Belton Lake is one of six COE lakes designed 
to control floods and conserve water in the 
Brazos River Basin. The lake provides 
recreation and wildlife habitat, has over 136 
miles of shoreline with a storage capacity of 
1,097,600 acre-feet at an elevation of 591 feet 
MSL and has a surface area of over 12,000 
acres. 

Existing recreational facilities consist of roads, 
parking, boat launching ramps, drinking 
fountains, vault and waterborne toilets, picnic 
areas, tables and facilities to provide for the 
health and safety of the general public. Belton 
Lake holds outstanding surface use leases with 
the Boy Scouts of America, Girl Scouts of 
America and the Fort Hood Special Services. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 500 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
25,775 acres as buffers to recreational 



facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified flood pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Belton 
Lake would be available for lease. Stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. In addition to stipulations 
required under Alternative A, ORA-3 Season 
of Use restrictions would apply from 
September 1 through March 31, on the 
approximately 5,000 acres of wildlife 
management lands. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



BENBROOK LAKE MAP 2-6 

Project Area 11,275 acres 

Recreation Area 3,033 acres 

Operations 176 acres 

Conservation Pool 3,770 acres 

Description 

Benbrook Lake is located at river mile 15 of 
the Clear Fork of the Trinity River about 10 
miles southwest of the City of Fort Worth. 
The lake has a total conservation pool of 3,770 
acres and a shoreline of 40 miles. The lake 
provides flood control, water supply and 
recreation. Total storage capacity is 258,600 
acre-feet with 170,350 acre-feet devoted to 
flood control at an elevation of 694 feet MSL. 
The flood control pool surface area covers 
approximately 7,630 acres. Facilities include 
paved roads, picnic and camping areas, 
waterborne and vault restrooms, boat launch 
ramps and improved swimming beaches. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO/ND on approximately 950 acres 

associated with the dam and spillway and a 



2-23 



3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
10,526 acres as buffers to recreational 
facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified flood pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Benbrook 
Lake would be available for lease. Stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 

B.A. STEINHAGEN LAKE MAP 2-7 

Project Area 22,800 acres 

Operations 176 acres 

Recreation Area 2,185 acres 

Conservation Pool 13,700 acres 

Description 

The B.A. Steinhagen Project is located on the 
Neches River in Tyler and Jasper Counties, 
approximately .5 miles north of the town of 
Town Bluff. The project serves as a 
conservation storage site for municipal and 
industrial water needs for downstream 
communities. A small hydroelectric generating 
plant was completed in 1989. The lake has a 
water storage capacity of 94,200 acre-feet. It 
has a conservation pool of 13,700 acres, a 
flood pool of approximately 16,830 acres and 
controls runoff from 7,573 square miles of 
Neches River. The length of the shoreline is 
160 miles at the top of the conservation pool. 
The project also has a substantial recreational 
program that provides facilities such as paved 
roads, graveled roadways, paved parking area, 
graveled parking areas, boat launching ramps, 
water wells, drinking fountains, toilets and 
sanitary dump station. 



SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 500 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on 18,554 acres as 
buffers to recreational facilities, roads, trails 
and other developments and within the 
identified flood pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at 
B.A. Steinhagen Lake would be available for 
lease. Stipulations as described above would 
apply. 

Alternative B. In addition to stipulations 
required under Alternative A, ORA-3 Season 
of Use restrictions would apply from 
September 1 through March 31, on the 
approximately 13,450 acres of wildlife 
management lands. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 

CANYON LAKE MAP 2-8 

Project Area 14,568 acres 

Recreation Area 1,534 acres 

Operations 900 acres 

Conservation Pool 8,240 acres 

Description 

Canyon Lake is located at mile 303 of the 
Guadalupe River approximately 14 miles west 
of San Marcos and 12 miles northwest of 
New Braunfels. The main purpose of this 
project is to control flood waters on the 
Guadalupe River. It has a total storage 
capacity of 740,900 acre-feet, including 
346,400 acre-feet of flood storage at an 
elevation of 925 feet MSL and 394,500 
acre-feet of conservation and sediment reserve. 
This lake controls runoff from approximately 
1,425 square miles. The conservation pool 
area of Canyon Lake is 8,240 acres and has a 



2-24 



shoreline 80 miles long. The flood pool 
surface area is approximately 12,890 acres. 
The lake has seven developed public access 
areas that include such facilities as access 
roads, parking lots, boat launching ramps, 
picnic and camping sites with tables, toilets, 
trailer dumping sites, marine pump-out station, 
camping shelters, swimming beaches, public 
water supplies and litter barrels. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 900 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
14,516 acres as buffers to recreational 
facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified conservation pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Canyon 
Lake would be available for lease. Stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 

COOPER LAKE MAP 2-9 

Project Area 57,328 acres 

Recreation Area 6,445 acres 

Operations 1,000 acres 

Conservation Pool 19,280 acres 

Description 

Cooper Lake is located on the South Sulphur 
River. This lake is basically a flood control 
and water supply lake that controls water on 
the Sulphur River. It has 67,400 acre-feet of 
flood control at an elevation of 470.3 feet MSL 
and at flood elevation the surface area of the 
lake would be 30,600 acres. Two full-service 
state parks operated by TPWD are scheduled to 
open in 1996. Approximately 9,500 acres of 



perimeter lands are currently managed by 
TPWD for wildlife management purposes. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 1,000 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
37,045 acres as buffers to recreational 
facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified flood pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Cooper 
Lake would be available for lease. Stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 

GEORGETOWN LAKE MAP 2-10 

Project Area 5,830 acres 

Recreation Area 1,638 acres 

Operations 300 acres 

Conservation Pool 1,310 acres 

Description 

Georgetown Lake is the second lake in the San 
Gabriel River System designed mainly for 
recreational use and emergency flood control. 
The lake is located 3.5 miles west of 
Georgetown. This lake has a total surface area 
of 1,310 acres and has approximately 25 miles 
of shoreline. The lake has a flood storage 
capacity of 234,200 acre-feet at an elevation of 
834 feet MSL. The flood control pool would 
cover approximately 3,220 acres. 

Recreational facilities include park roads, 
parking areas, boat launching ramps, picnic 
and camping facilities. 



2-25 



SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 300 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
4,315 acres as buffers to recreational facilities, 
roads, trails and other developments and within 
the identified conservation pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at 
Georgetown Lake would be available for lease. 
Stipulations as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



GRANGER LAKE MAP 2-11 

Project Area 15,303 acres 

Recreation Area 1,385 acres 

Operations 2,500 acres 

Conservation Pool 4,400 acres 

Description 

Granger Lake is part of a three reservoir 
system on the San Gabriel river, built for flood 
control, water supply and recreation. The lake 
is located about 10 miles northeast of the town 
of Taylor. The flood pool covers an area of 
approximately 11,040 acres. 

Granger Lake, with a normal surface area of 
approximately 4,400 acres, lends itself to the 
development of recreation facilities for boating, 
waterskiing, fishing, swimming and other 
activities such as camping, picnicking, hiking, 
nature study and hunting. Facilities provided 
consist of park roads, parking areas, picnic, 
camping and sanitary facilities, potable water 
and boat launching ramps. Approximately 
10,800 acres of land and water are leased to 
TPWD for wildlife management purposes. 



SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 2,500 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
12,425 acres as buffers to recreational 
facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified flood pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Granger 
Lake would be available for lease. Stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. In addition to stipulations 
required under Alternative A, ORA-3 Season 
of Use restrictions would apply from 
September 1 through March 31, on the 
approximately 10,800 acres of wildlife 
management lands. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



GRAPEVINE LAKE MAP 2-12 

Project Area 17,761 acres 

Recreation Area 3,863 acres 

Operations 600 acres 

Conservation Pool 7,380 acres 

Description 

Grapevine Lake is located at river mile 11.7 on 
Denton creek near the City of Grapevine in 
Tarrant and Denton Counties, about twenty 
miles northwest of Dallas. Total storage 
capacity is 435,500 acre-feet with about 
238,250 in flood control at an elevation of 535 
feet MSL and a flood control surface area of 
approximately 13,853 acres. Grapevine has a 
total recreation surface area of 7,380 acres and 
about 60 miles of shoreline. Facilities include 
paved roads, picnic and camping sites, 
waterborne and vault restrooms, boat launch 
ramps and improved swimming beaches. 



2-26 



SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 1,800 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
17,716 acres as buffers to recreational 
facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified flood pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Grapevine 
Lake would be available for lease. Stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



HORDS CREEK LAKE MAP 2-13 

Project Area 3,027 acres 

Recreation Area 1,215 acres 

Operations 500 acres 

Conservation Pool 510 acres 

Description 

Hords Creek Lake is located in the central part 
of Coleman County. It is 8.75 miles west of 
the City of Coleman. The lake was 
constructed for flood control, water supply and 
recreation. The facilities include roads, 
parking areas, boat launching ramps, drinking 
fountains, electrical outlets, vault toilets and 
picnic and camping facilities. 

This project has a surface area of 1 ,260 acres 
and a storage capacity at flood level of 25,310 
acre-feet at an elevation of 1920 feet MSL. 
The lake is two miles long and has 1 1 miles of 
shoreline. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO/ND on approximately 500 acres 

associated with the dam and spillway and a 



3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
2,475 acres as buffers to recreational facilities, 
roads, trails and other developments and within 
the identified conservation pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Hords 
Creek Lake would be available for lease. 
Stipulations as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



JOE POOL LAKE MAP 2-14 

Project Area 17,121 acres 

Recreation Area 5,000 acres 

Operations 2,800 acres 

Conservation Pool 7,470 

Description 

Joe Pool Lake is located about 7 river miles 
above the existing Mountain Creek Dam. The 
dam site is in Dallas County about 10 miles 
southwest of the City of Dallas with the 
reservoir extending into Tarrant, Ellis and 
Johnson Counties. The main purposes of this 
reservoir is flood control, water conservation, 
recreation and fish and wildlife habitat. The 
lake has a storage capacity of 304,000 acre-feet 
at an elevation of 536.0 feet MSL with a 
surface area of 10,940 acres. 

The recreation and wildlife area consists of five 
public park areas. These areas provide for 
activities such as camping, picnicking, hiking, 
nature study and water-based activities such as 
boating, fishing, swimming and water skiing. 
Because of the lake's location near the Dallas 
metropolitan area, the lake is able to meet 
some of the cities demands for outdoor 
recreation. Facilities include roads, parking 



2-27 



areas, picnicking, camping facilities, sanitary 
facilities, potable water and boat launching 
ramps. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 2,800 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
17,775 acres as buffers to recreational 
facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified conservation pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Joe Pool 
Lake would be available for lease. Stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



LAKE O' THE PINES MAP 2-15 

Project Area 45,095 acres 

Recreation Area 754 acres 

Operations 1,445 acres 

Conservation Pool 19,780 acres 

Description 

Lake O' The Pines is located largely within 
Marion County, but extends into the adjacent 
counties of Harrison, Upshur, Morris, Camp 
and Titus. It is approximately 65 miles 
northwest of Shreveport, Louisiana; 130 miles 
east of Dallas; 45 miles south of Texarkana; 
and 58 miles east of Tyler. This lake is mainly 
used for controlling floodwater in the Red 
River Basin and has a floodwater storage 
capacity of 587,200 acre-feet at an elevation of 
249.5 feet MSL and 251,000 acre-feet of 
storage for conservation. It is also used for 
other public benefits such as recreation, 
conservation of fish and wildlife and the 



provision of domestic and industrial water 
supply. 

Recreation facilities include roads, boat ramps, 
picnic units, toilets, signs and safety features. 
Approximately 5,000 acres of land and water 
are leased to TPWD for wildlife management 
purposes. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 1,445 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
38,200 acres as buffers to recreational 
facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified conservation pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Lake O' 
The Pines would be available for lease. 
Stipulations as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



LAVON LAKE MAP 2-16 

Project Area 38,364 acres 

Recreation Area 2,834 acres 

Operations 1,500 acres 

Conservation Pool 21,400 acres 

Description 

Lavon Lake is located in North Central Texas 
at river mile 55.9 on the East Fork of the 
Trinity River approximately 25 miles northeast 
of Dallas in Collin County. The primary 
purpose of this lake is to provide flood control 
for East Fork farmlands and provide 
conservation storage for municipal and 
industrial purposes. Total storage on Lavon is 
748,200 acre-feet at an elevation of 503.5 feet 



2-28 



MSL with 33,500 acres in surface area and 121 
miles of shoreline. In addition to the flood 
control objective the lake also provides for 
many types of water based activities such as 
fishing, boating, swimming, picnicking, 
camping, nature study, photography and 
hunting. Hunting and fishing are allowed in 
undeveloped and non-public areas on an 
interim basis. To complement the activities 
offered the COE also provides a full host of 
facilities such as camping areas, picnic tables, 
toilets, boat launching ramps and parking 
areas. Some limited agricultural practices are 
allowed on portions of the project area that are 
not in public use and can be a benefit of the 
land. Lavon Lake is unique in that the TPWD 
opened a fishery as a research project to study 
more than 10 families and 44 species of fish on 
the lake. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 1,500 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
36,500 acres as buffers to recreational 
facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified flood pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Lavon 
Lake would be available for lease. Stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



LEWISVILLE LAKE MAP 2-17 

Project Area 51,691 acres 

Recreational Area 3,934 acres 

Operations 2,500 acres 

Conservation Pool 28,980 acres 

Description 

Lewisville Lake is located on the Elm Fork of 
the Trinity River, 30 miles upstream from its 
confluence with the West Fork of the Trinity 
River. The entire project is within Denton 
County and is about 22 miles north of Dallas. 
The main purposes for the Lewisville Lake and 
Dam are flood control and water supply. The 
lake has a normal total surface area of 23,280 
acres and approximately 183 miles of shoreline 
with a flood pool area of approximately 39,080 
acres. Facilities on the lake include roads, 
parking, boat launching ramps, vault toilets, 
picnic units, camping units and swimming 
beaches. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 2,500 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
39,080 acres as buffers to recreational 
facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified conservation pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Lewisville 
Lake would be available for lease. Stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



2-29 



NAVARRO MILLS LAKE MAP 2-18 

Project Area 14,216 acres 

Recreation Area 1,195 acres 

Operations 730 acres 

Conservation Pool 5,070 acres 

Description 

Navarro Mills Lake is located at river mile 
63.9 on Richland Creek, about 16 miles 
southwest of Corsicana, in Navarro and Hill 
Counties. The lake has a normal surface area 
of 5,070 acres and about 38 miles of shoreline 
with a flood pool of approximately 11,700 
acres. Total storage capacity is 212,200 
acre-feet with 143,200 acre-feet in flood 
control at an elevation of 443.0 feet MSL. 
The rest of the storage capacity is in sediment 
and conservation storage. The facilities 
available at the lake are paved roads, picnic 
and camping sites, vault restrooms, boat launch 
ramps and improved swimming beaches. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 730 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
12,925 acres as buffers to recreational 
facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified flood pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Navarro 
Mills Lake would be available for lease. 
Stipulations as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



O.C. FISHER LAKE MAP 2-19 

Project Area 17,975 acres 

Recreation Area 4,710 acres 

Operational Area 1,500 acres 

Conservation Pool 5,440 acres 

Description 

O.C. Fisher lake is located in the Colorado 
Basin about 2.3 miles northwest of the town of 
San Angelo, in Tom Green County. The dam 
and lake provides flood control protection to 
San Angelo as well as water supply for the 
city. The project provides many different 
types of recreation including golfing, 
picnicking, camping ,and boating. In addition 
to the recreational facilities there are facilities 
to provide for the safety and convenience to the 
general public. These include: picnic and 
camping tables, boat launching ramps, drinking 
fountains, rest rooms and roadways. Some of 
the lake area has been leased to various 
organizations. Angelo State University and 
Texas A&M both have large leases with 4,465 
and 1,564 respectively. In April, 1995, 
approximately 7,063 acres of land and water 
were leased to TPWD for park recreation and 
wildlife management purposes. The reservoir 
provides 396,000 acre-feet of storage capacity 
for flood control and water conservation needs 
at an elevation of 1,938 feet MSL. The flood 
pool surface area covers approximately 12,700 
acres. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 1,500 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
17,155 acres as buffers to recreational 
facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified conservation pool. 



2-30 



The RMP alternative selected would result in: The RMP alternative sele cted would result in: 



Alternative A. COE project lands at 
O.C. Fisher Lake would be available for lease. 
Stipulations as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



Alternative A. COE project lands at Proctor 
Lake would be available for lease. Stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



PROCTOR LAKE MAP 2-20 

Project Area 15,944 acres 

Recreation Area 1,210 acres 

Operations 1,835 acres 

Conservation Pool 4,610 acres 

Description 

Proctor Lake is located at river mile 238.9 of 
the Leon River in Comanche County, about 
eight miles northeast of the town of Comanche. 
It is located in a primarily rural area with 
Stephenville and Brownwood being the largest 
cities within a 50 mile radius. The main 
purposes for the establishment of this 
impoundment are flood control, water supply 
and recreation. This lake has a total storage 
capacity of 374,200 acre-feet with 310,100 in 
flood control at an elevation of 1 , 197 feet MSL 
covering an area of approximately 14,010 
acres. Recreation facilities include paved 
roads, picnic and camping areas, restrooms, 
boat launching ramps and water wells. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 1,835 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
15,400 acres as buffers to recreational 
facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified conservation pool. 



SAM RAYBURN LAKE MAP 2-21 

Project Area 159,754 acres 

Operations 2,650 acres 

Recreation Area 3,151 acres 

Description 

The Sam Rayburn Project is located on the 

Angelina River approximately 15 miles north 

of the town of Jasper. The dam is located 

about 25 river miles above the B. A. Steinhagen 

Lake. The project lands are surrounded by the 

Angelina National Forest and a small section of 

the Sabine National Forest. The primary 

purposes of this dam and reservoir are to 

provide flood control, hydroelectric power 

generation and water conservation. This lake 

has a total storage capacity of 3,997,600 

acre-feet, of which 1,099,400 acre-feet at an 

elevation of 173 feet MSL is for flood control 

and provides for a flood pool of 142,700 acres. 

Approximately 43,000 acre-feet are reserved 

for water supply, 1,403,200 acre-feet for 

power storage and 1,452,000 acre-feet for 

sediment reserve and head for power 

generation. This lake has a shoreline of 560 

miles and controls runoff from 3,449 square 

miles of the Angelina River. The hydroelectric 

plant generates 52,000 kilowatts. 



2-31 



Recreational activities at Sam Rayburn include 
sightseeing, boating, skiing, swimming, 
hunting and fishing. There are paved roads, 
parking areas, swimming areas, sanitary toilets 
and boat launching ramps. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 2,650 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
146,324 acres as buffers to recreational 
facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified conservation pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Sam 
Rayburn Reservoir would be available for 
lease. Stipulations as described above would 
apply. 



is extremely accessible to the large 
metropolitan communities. Recreational 
facilities include park roads, parking areas, 
boat launching areas, picnicking and camping 
facilities, sanitary facilities and potable water. 
The project area also offers several activities 
such as camping, picnicking, hiking and water 
based activities such as boating, fishing, 
swimming and water-skiing. The majority of 
project lands and waters are leased to TPWD 
for fish and wildlife management and 
recreation. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 2,005 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
39,700 acres as buffers to recreational 
facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified conservation pool. 



Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 



The RMP alternative selected would result in: 



Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



Alternative A. COE project lands at Ray 
Roberts Lake would be available for lease. 
Stipulations as described above would apply. 



RAY ROBERTS LAKE MAP 2-22 

Project Area 48,353 acres 

Recreation Area 2,800 acres 

Operations 2,005 acres 

Conservation Pool 29,350 acres 



Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 



Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



Description 

Ray Roberts Lake is located in parts of 
Denton, Cooke and Grayson counties in North 
Central Texas. It is approximately four miles 
northwest of Aubrey. The primary project 
purposes are flood control, water supply, 
recreation and wildlife. The total normal 
surface area is 29,350 acres and a total 
shoreline of approximately 207 miles with a 
flood pool surface area of approximately 
36,900 acres. The lake is located in the 
vicinity of Denton, Dallas and Fort Worth and 



SOMERVILLE LAKE MAP 2-23 

Project Area 32,729 acres 

Recreation Area 3,599 acres 

Operations 3,520 acres 

Conservation Area 11 ,460 acres 

Description 

Somerville Lake is located 20 river miles on 
the Yequa Creek about two miles south of 
Somerville. It includes parts of Burleson, Lee 
and Washington Counties. The largest cities 
within a 50 mile radius are Bryan, College 



2-32 



Station and Brenham. The lake's total storage 
capacity is 507,500 acre-feet with 337,700 of 
flood control and the rest in sediment and 
conservation storage. Somerville Lake has a 
normal surface area of 11,460 acres and 85 
miles of shoreline with a flood pool covering 
approximately 24,400 acres. The facilities at 
Somerville include paved roads, camping and 
picnicking sites, boat launching ramps and 
improved swimming beaches. The upper half 
of project lands and waters are leased to 
TPWD for fish and wildlife management and 
recreation. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 3,570 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
27,800 acres as buffers to recreational 
facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified flood pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Somerville 
Lake would be available for lease. Stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 



cities of Temple and Killeen and is within 50 
miles of the metropolitan areas of Waco and 
Austin. The main purposes of this lake are 
flood control, water supply and recreation. 
This lake has a normal surface area of 6,430 
acres and 58 miles of shoreline with a flood 
pool area of 11,830 acres. The storage 
capacity is 630,400 acre-feet with 390,600 in 
flood control at an elevation of 666 feet MSL 
and the rest in sediment and conservation 
storage. Facilities on the lake include paved 
roads, camping and picnicking, toilets and boat 
launching facilities. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 2,130 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
13,755 acres as buffers to recreational 
facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified flood pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Stillhouse 
Hollow Lake would be available for lease. 
Stipulations as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 



Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



STILLHOUSE HOLLOW 

LAKE MAP 2-24 

Project Area 16,181 acres 

Recreation Area 2,089 acres 

Operations 2,130 acres 

Conservation 6,430 acres 

Description 

Stillhouse Hollow is located on the Lampasas 
River in Bell County, about five miles 
southwest of Belton. It is located near the 



WACO LAKE MAP 2-25 

Project Area 21,327 acres 

Recreation Area 3,590 acres 

Operations 3,357 acres 

Conservation Pool 7,270 acres 

Description 

Waco Lake is located at river mile 4.6 of the 
Bosque River and forms the northwest edge of 
the City of Waco in McLennan County. The 
lake provides water supply for the City of 



2-33 



Waco, flood control and recreation. The lake 
has a surface area of 7,270 acres and has 60 
miles of shoreline. The total storage capacity 
is 726,400 acre-feet with 553,300 acre-feet of 
flood control at an elevation of 500 feet MSL. 
The flood control pool covers an area of over 
19,440 acres. The facilities include paved 
roads, toilets, concessions, boat launching 
ramps and camping. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 3,357 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
21,327 acres as buffers to recreational 
facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified conservation pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Waco 
Lake would be available for lease. Stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



area of 23,560 acres and a shoreline of 190 
miles. The flood pool covers approximately 
49,820 acres. The storage capacity of the lake 
is 1,999,500 acre-feet with 1,624,000 acre-feet 
devoted to flood control at an elevation of 571 
feet MSL and the rest in conservation and 
sediment reserve. The lake also has a 
hydroelectric plant and generates power for 
some of the surrounding communities. The 
facilities include paved roads, picnic and 
camping facilities, restrooms, boat ramps, 
water wells and improved swimming beaches. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 2,413 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
53,194 acres as buffers to recreational 
facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified conservation pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Whitney 
Lake would be available for lease. Stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 



WHITNEY LAKE MAP 2-26 

Project Lake 53,194 acres 

Recreational Area 5,438 acres 

Operations 2,413 acres 

Conservation Pool 23,560 acres 

Description 

Whitney Lake is located at river mile 442.4 of 
the Brazos River about nineteen miles 
southwest of Hillsboro, in Hill and Bosque 
Counties. It is within 50 miles of Hillsboro, 
Waco, Cleburne and Waxahachie and is within 
easy driving distance of the Dallas-Fort Worth 
area. The primary purpose of Whitney Lake is 
flood control. The lake has a normal surface 



Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



WRIGHT PATMAN LAKE MAP 2-27 

Project Area 157,526 acres 

Recreation Area 3,075 acres 

Operations 2,523 acres 

Conservation Area 20,300 acres 

Description 

Wright Patman Lake is located southwest of 
Texarkana and extends throughout portions of 
Bowie, Cass, Morris, Titus and Red River 
Counties. The towns of Redwater, Maud, 
Atlanta and Douglasville are around the lake 



2-34 



perimeter. Major objectives are to reduce 
downstream flooding, provide a municipal and 
industrial water source and recreation. The 
lake controls runoff from approximately 3,500 
acres from the Sulphur River. The 
conservation pool has a surface area of 20,300 
acres and a capacity of 145,300 acre-feet at an 
elevation of 259.5 feet MSL. The flood pool 
has a surface area of 119,700 acres. 

Wright Patman Lake provides for picnicking, 
camping, swimming, water-skiing, boating, 
sightseeing, fishing and hunting. Facilities 
include paved roads, parking lots, boat ramps, 
potable water supplies, toilets, camping and 
picnic sites. Approximately 27,000 acres of 
land and water is leased to TPWD for fish and 
wildlife management and recreation. The 
majority of this land (25,500 acres) is located 
at the White Oak Creek Wildlife Management 
Area. 



SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND on approximately 2,523 acres 
associated with the dam and spillway and a 
3,000 foot buffer. NSO on approximately 
157,526 acres as buffers to recreational 
facilities, roads, trails and other developments 
and within the identified flood pool. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. COE project lands at Wright 
Patman Lake would be available for lease. 
Stipulations as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



2-35 







IIC1L11ICI IIIMMI IT TIE SMEIIEEIT 

ruunu Fiiaiifi it ciiemtHiiiE 

MOTE, 

FACIUTKS SUCH AS PUBUC ACCESS, PICNIC AND CAMPGROUNDS 
WERE CONSTRUCTED WITH YOUR TAX DOLLARS FOR YOUR EN 
JOVMINT — USE THEM THOUGHTFULLY. 

THE MANAGEMENT Of FISH AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES IS 6EING 
CONDUCTED IN COOPERATION WITH THE TEXAS PARKS AND WILD- 
LIFE COMMISSION. 

SWIMMING AREAS ARE UNSUPERVISED AND DO NOT HAVE LIFE 
GUARDS. BOATTNG, SKIING, 5WIMMING, AND FISHING WILL BE DONE 
AT YOUR OWN RISK. 

INFORMATION ON AREAS WHERE HUNTING IS PERMITTED MAY 
BE SECURED AT PtOJECI HEADQUARTERS. 

THIS MAP B FURNISHED AS GENERAL INFORMATION ONLY AND 

IS NOT TO BE USED FOR tOCATING PtOPWTY UNES AND OTHER SUCH ffl 
MATTERS. K^ 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION MAY BE SECURED AT PROJECT HEAD- f\. 
QUARTERS OR BY WRITING TO OT 

RESERVOIR MANAGER J^! 

BAROWELL PROJECT OFPICE ^* 

ROUTE * BOX 33A fjj 

ENNIS. TEXAS 75119 |"H 



TELEMHE NO. |2U) 575-5111 



STANDARD LAKE MARKERS 



& d'OfcnS ttat si dai-(i' 


H 


A" 

STiPBOARO Side 

OF CHiNNEL 


SPtED LIMIT 


D*NGE " 


■ EE" tjul 


1 ■< C mO" '-**& 


u 




I 




i' 
"SSS"" 





BARDWELL LAKE 

US. ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT, FORT WORTH 
CORPS OF ENGINEERS 
FORT WORTH, TEXAS 

Scale of MM.. 

1 Ml 



00 



Molher Net) Slate Par* 





WHtM WINDS OF ?5 * t H M BOW Wt fflKUST N 
SLOWING BOATS ME C*LjnWH TO SUT NT tf OKI 
mm FORECASTS AMD MATKH KfOtlUTTW AM ffiSltl 
BT THt WtAMit BUREAU IKMttff 10CJU. RAW) SHAMS. 

FOR YOUR OWN SAFETY'S SAKE. 
HEED THE WARNING! 



Miller Spring Park 



f ACUITIES SUCH AS PUBLIC ACCESS. PICNIC AND CAMPGROUNDS 
ARE TO* YOUR ENJOYMENT — USE IHEM THOUGHTFULLY. 

THE MANAGEMENT OF FISH AND WfiOLif C RESOURCES IS BEING 
CONDUCTED IN COOPERATION WITH THE TEXAS PAHS AND WHO 
l»l COMMISSION. 

SWIMMING AREAS ARE UNSUPERVISED AND DO NOT HAVF lift 

CUAR05. BOATING, SKIING. SWIMMING. AND FISHING Will BE DONE 
AT YOUR OWN »ISK 



THIS MAP IS FURNISHED AS GENERAL INFORMATION ONLY AND 
IS NOT TO BE USED TOR LOCATING PROPERTY UNES AND OTHER SUCH 
MATTERS 



KESERVO'R MANAGER 
P 0- BOX 209 
BtlTOH UXAS. 76513 



Legend 

CIRStlliTlM flH. <L 1)4 • 
tlTtllREfll PBBPEIIT UM 
PlIM II Kill JBAIKEI IBM 

uinm si mrtini tun 
tiu» n nmriBfci imi 

SIBW SPICI aieis IS art] 

»i!liiC ISt AIE1S 

■iilKFE o*meEB£ii ma 

IBtT fIBB REC UtftS 

lUSEJ tl (Oil BOOB 

UNITE* HC (WIS 

HACI 

BUT imp 

UtlMCIM (ISNIKG BEEFS 



i 



8 ELTON LAKE 

Zexas 

U.S. ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT, FORT WORTH 
CORPS OF ENGINEERS 
FORT WORTH, TEXAS 



HSMS 



£i 



m 



STANDARD LAKE MARKERS 

SYMBOLS ■■ A 
A ad. mSnUI I twttefXD u« g| CUI gM HUH 
A firvni want 0( «mg« 

A tguut ar fKUn;J« Dp *w> Wotmiaen ^^l 1 1 
SffliMil m« M » iw mwttii m tvOfi ronT st0 E STARBOARD SIDE 
OF CHANNEL OF CHANNEL, 


TltH 

SPEED LIMIT DANGER 


tj 


Tl 

ANCHORING 
PROHIBITED 


□ 

Ml L> CHANNEL 


MOORINQ BUOY 


IKfOBMATION 
SIGNS 


DIVER III WATER 




A> 



LEGEND 

CONSERVATION POOL EL. 694' 
GOVERNMENT AREA AND PROPERTY LINE 
■ RECREATION AREAS (CORPS.) 
■M| RECREATION AREAS (BY OTHERS) 
i PAVED ROADS 

TRAILS 

— BOAT RAMPS 
d BEACH 
■I UNCLEARED AREA 



THIS MAP 18 FURNISHED AS GENERAL INFOR- 
MATION ONLY AND IS NOT TO BE USED FOR 
LOCATING PROPERTY LINES AND OTHER SUCH 
MATTERS. 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION MAY BE SECURED 
AT PROJECT HEADQUARTERS OR BY WRITING 



D 



m 

m 

Z 

w 

^) 

o 

o 



CO 



D 



OPERATING 
AGENCY 

CORPS OF ENGINEERS 
FORT WORTH (CITY) 
BEN BROOK (CITY) 
CORPS OF ENGINEERS 
CORPS OF ENGINEERS 
CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



£> 



13 BOTH 




STANDARD LAKE MARKERS 



to- 



-gffffi JIU >H 


.1: 


»- 


Tffl 


tffl 


t| 


?■ 


P 


a 


fP 


5. 



CANYON LAKE 



WHEN WHO! Of 15 H.M. 01 U01E (IE F0IEC1S1 01 IL0WIH0. 

■01IS HE HIIIIOIEO 10 lit) DOE OF Via »1IEI. FOKCASFS 

110 nulla IIF0IU1I0I >1E ISSUED II 0.1. HUIIEl I0IU0 

THIDUCH LOCAL tXD!0 STATIONS. 

EH toil tun SIFEirs SUE. HEED HE Kllllltl 



U.S.ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT. FORT WORTH 
CORPS OF ENGINEERS 
FORT WORTH. TEXAS 



to 
to 



LEGEND 
BJiiil CONSERVATION POOL EL. 440 
PARK AREA 



ZJ WILDLIFE MGT AREAS 

GOVT. PROPERTY LINE 

— — ROADS 

ITvJ?) UNCLEARED AREA 

- BOAT RAMP 

jK APPROXIMATE BRUSH PILE LOCATIONS 

JOHNS CREEK ACCESS 




SULPHUR RIVER BASIN 



R LAKE 



US Army Corps 
of Engineers 

Fort Worth District 



SEP 1994 

Scaly in miles 




KJ 



LAKE 

GEORGETOWN 

US Army Corps 
of Engineers 

Fort Worth District 

SEP 90 

SCALE IN FEET 
ta ao T teae _jj> w 



1 



WILLIS CREEK PARK 



FRIENDSHIP PARK 



WILSON H FOX PARK 




GRANGER LAKE 



] PROJECT OPERAIIONS 
BEACH 
BOAT RAMP 
STUMPS 
REGISTRATION BOX AND PARKING LOT 



US Army Corps 
of Engineers 

Fort Worth District 





OPERATING AQENCY 


TELEPHONE 


STATUS 


LYNN CREEK PARK 


TRINITY RIVER AUTHORITY 


817/487-210* 


OPEN 


LOYD PARK PARK 


,. 


• • 


■ 


BRITTON PARK 


,, 


.. 


■ 


CEDAR HILL PARK 


TEXAS PARKS AND WILDLIFE 


214/291-3900 


" 


OTHER PROPERTY 


CORPS OF ENGINEERS 


214/299-2227 





LEGEND 
B CONSERVATION POOL (ELV 522) 
■ PUBLIC USE AREA 
II LIMITED USE AREA 



GOVERNMENT PROPERTY LINE 

FLOWAGE EASEMENT 

ii PAVED ROAD 

. . GRAVELED ROAD 

,'i.V.W.nl PROJECT OPERATIONS 

ssan stumps 



CITY OF MANBFIELD 




JOE POOL LAKE 

SCALE IN MILES 




LOCATION 


L 




t 


- 


K 


| 


/ 


% 




% 


■ 




7 
- 




#/ 
- 




flmSfiS operating 

WWmfSf AGENCY 




■ 






























r 












corps of Engineers 


!"'. .-r-: C nc- F'o'i 














































CITT Of THE COLONY 


Easwalo Per* 




« 












































COOPS Of ENGINEERS 


Wynnewooa Part 
















































CITY OF THE COLONY 


Late Lewisv.la Sinia Parr 
















































STATE Of TEXAS 


LUno Ekn Park 
















































CITY OF LITTLE ELM 


:'■; 5ar-J> Accsw Area 
















































CORPS OF ENGINEERS 


WIS*. Grow Part 
















































CITY Of LAKE DALLAS 


.'< . : !!::> ■■ Part 










;■ 








~ 
























CORPS Of ENGINEERS 


Oakland Part 




^ 


_: 






- 




























CORPS OF ENGINEERS 


■■■■-•■■■■■:.: «£CSU AJBB 










































CORPS OF ENGINEERS 


Kcicny Creak Part 




*■ 


S a 


■! 


■ 


1 


~ 


n* 




r- 


















CORPS OF ENGINEERS 


Sycanxwa Bend Part 


= 


: 


%i\ 




























CORPS OF ENGINEERS 


P.W Knoll Park 


■■ 






■ 


2 


1 


. 










• 


















Cafwas Brurtti Part 
































KSGHLANO VILLAGE 


Tower Bay Acco&s Area 










- 






































CORPS Of ENGINEERS 


Lawttv* Lam Pa* 














































CITY Of LEWI5VILLE 


Pdkii Vula AccBM A/oa 
























f ; 
























CORPS OF ENGINEERS 


Hartoi Lano Part 
















































CITY OF HICKORY CREEK 


Cruscem Oats Pert 
















































CITY OF OAK POINT 


Cottonwood Part 
















































CITY Of LITTLE ELM 


(toe . : * n. ■.:■■■<;. 
















































CORPS Of ENGINEERS 


::.>■:■,,■-.■:• 
























> 






















CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



FAOUTES RJHO&CD 




J | son-E 



UOJl ■ ADOiTiOM*! ■NM.jRMJi'i-A M* 1 - HI S£CL!Ri.G *" 
WiOJIC' iMUQUAR'mi OR B" WHIIK TO 



a tr 578-nai 

FACILITIES SUCH AS PUBLIC ACCESS PICNIC AND CAMPGROUNDS 

ARE FOR YOUR ENJOYMENT USE THEM THOUGMTf IRLY. 

THt MANAGEMENT OF FISH AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES IS BEING 
CONDUCTED IN COOPERATION WITH THE TEXAS PARKS AND WILDLIFE 
DEPARTMENT 

SWIMMING AREAS ARE UNSUPERVISED AND DO NOT HAVE LIFE 
GUARDS. BOATING SKIING SWIM-MING. AND FISHING WILL BE DONE 
AT YOUR OWN SISK 

INFORMATION ON AREAS WHERE HUNTING IS PERMiTIED MAY BE 
SECURED AT PROJECT HEADQUARTERS 

THIS MAP IS FURNISHED AS GENERAL INFORMATION ONLY AND IS 
NOT 'O BE USED H3R LOCATING PROPERTY LINES AND OTHER SUCH 
MATTERS 



HEADQUARTERS 

NAVARRO MILLS 



LEGEND 



COHSCRVATIOM POOL ELV.4Z4.5 

COYEMMEKT PROPERTY LMC 

PAVED ROAD 

6RAVELED ROAD 

SLOW SPEED t HO BAKE > 

PUBLIC USE AREA 

LMITEO RECREATIONAL USE 

BOAT RAMPS 

S-AtHp 



> 



r 
r 

00 



> 

i 

H- > 

00 



nflVfiRRO (HILLS LflK€ 

U.S. ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT, FORT WORTH 
CORPS OF ENGINEERS 
FORT WORTH, TEXAS 



N3 
i 



utsTNEi rteniTiti 



.H. I .?.»HI.*IUS..M..S!» 
iuit _,„ ;» 

S«!tI»lIEI I! 

(Sl.lt: SI 

8ROWKWO0O II 

MIDLJLND Ill 

DDESS* 132 

Oil RIO 151 

who tn 

LUSIOCt „.... IN 

»»sim. :m 

SIN JMT0IIIO IIS 

F0I1 WOSTM m 

inns ;ss 




i 

LOCUTION a 


/* 


A/0sV/^///4////M/ 
A%%%n%Z3Mm<?w 


tit iinii mil 






X 







* 


o 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 




CtfFl IF [Kit. 


ikumi ijuu nn 






X 










X 


X 


X 


X 








curt if inn 


lumnti mi 






X 










X 


X 


X 


X 








CELH IF [MIS 


in tiui tm 






X 













X 


X 


X 


X 




X 




eitn if ikh 


uirjtset rut 














X 


X 


X 










X 


ui mat cm 



•Drive -Swim 'Hunt -Fish 
Preveht Grass Fires 



Legend 

MAXIMUM CONSERVATION POOL 
EL 1906-0 



GOVERNMENT AREA AND PROPERTY LINE 
PAVED OR HARD SURFACED ROAD 
GRAVELED OR IMPROVED ROAD 
SLOW SPEED AREAS (S MILES PER HOUfl) 
PUBLIC USE AREAS (CORPS OF ENGINEERS) 
PUBLIC USE AREAS [BY OIHERSI 



ilium i mas ii nil 



THE MANAGEMEN1 OF FISH AND WILOLIFE RESOURCES IS 
BEING CCNDUCTEO IN COOPERATION WITH THE TEXAS PARKS ANl 
WILDLIFE COMMISSION 

SWIMMING AREAS ARE UNSUPERVISED AND 00 NOT HAVE 
LIFE GUARDS. BOATING. SKIING , SWIMMING ANO FISHING WILL 
BE DONE AT VOUR OWN RISK. 

INFORMATION ON AREAS WHERE HUNTING AND OFF ROAD 
VEHICLES ARE PERMITTED MAY BE SECURED AT PROJECT 
HEADQUARTERS 

THIS MAP IS FURNISHED AS GENERAL IN10RMATION ONLY 
AND IS N01 TO BE USED FOR LOCATING PROPERTY LINES ANO 
OTHER SUCH MATTERS 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION MSY BE SECURED AT PROJECT 

HEADQUARTERS OR WRITING TO 

RESERVOIR MANAGER 

PO BOX 3085 i 

SAN ANGELO. TEXAS 76902 

AC 915-949-4757 



WHEN KINDS OF 25 M.P.H. OR MORE ARE FORECAST OR BLOK«S, 

BOATS JIBE CAUTIONED TO STAT OUT OF OPEH WATER FORECASTS 

AND WEATHER INFORMATION ARE ISSUED BT U.S. HEATHER BUREAU 

THROUGH LOCAL RADIO STATIONS 

FOR YOUR OWN SAFETY'S SAKE 

HEED THE WARNING! 



STANDARD LAKE MARKERS 







tffl 



Q 



or chunnEl 



A 



J 



OlVEP IN WATEO 



O.C. FISHER LAKE 
Zexas 



Scale of Miles 



O 
p 

i— i 
K 

3 

r 
m 

> 

*d 

i 

i— » 



U.S. ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT, FORT WORTH 
CORPS OF ENGINEERS 
FORT WORTH, TEXAS 



i? /ifijifi/yiw 
L ocat,ons m Vm ' I wi/s/i Wi 11 m If ° perat ' ng 

^ f if §f if*ISI §l*f£l*l*l*/$f*l*f*l AGENCY 












H rnoPSOF ENGINEERS 














| CORPS OF ENGINEERS 












BB CORPS OF ENGINEERS 


COPPERAS CREEK FARK^M ^H 








• M CORPS DF FHGiNEERS 



^FACILITIES FURNISHED BY THE GOVERNMENT 

NOTE: 

FACILITIES SUCH AS PUBLIC ACCESS. PICNIC AND CAMPGROUNDS 
ABE FOR YOUR ENJOYMENT-USE THEM THOUGHTFULLY 

THE MANAGEMENT OF FISH AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES IS BEING 
CONDUCTED IN COOPERATION WITH THE TEXAS PARKS AND WILD- 
LIFE COMMISSION 

SWIMMING AREAS ARE UNSUPERVISED AND DO NOT HAVE LIFE 
GUARDS BOATING. SKIING. SWIMMING, AND FISHING WILL BE DONE AT 
YOUR OWN RISK. 

INFORMATION ON AREAS WHERE HUNTING IS PERMITTEO MAY 8E 
SECURED AT PROJECT HEADOUARTERS 

THIS MAP IS FURNISHED AS GENERAL INFORMATION ONLY AND IS 
NOT TO BE USED FOR LOCATING PROPERTY LINES AND OTHER SUCH 
MATTERS 

NOTE— ADDITIONAL INFORMATION MAY BE SECURED •"^ 

AT PROJECT HEADOUARTERS OR BY WRITING ^|J 



STANDARD LAKE MARKERS 

SYMBOLS H'^ Jttv " 

B m w 

>o- ScDE STaPBOftHD SlOE >-j^ 

C«snn£l OF Channel <L 




COLLINSVILLE 




tirt US Army Corps 
Ui of Engineers 

Fort Worth District 



THIS MAP IS NOT TO BE SOLD 



RAY ROBERTS LAKE 

JUN 1991 

SCALE IN MILES 
1 S I * 



SWIMMING AREAS ARE UNSUPERVISED AND DO NOT HAVE ttfE 
GUARDS. BOATING, SKIING, SWIMMING, AND FISHING Will 6E DONE 
AT YOUR OWN RISK. 



SOMKRVILLE PROJECT HEADQUARTERS OR BY WRITING TO: 
HEADQUARTERS 




HIGHWAY MILES 
TO DAM 

Brenhom.— 14 

Bryon_ 26 

Rockdale. _-46 

Bastrop 78 

Houston. 88 

Austin 108 

Waco 116 

Dallas 205 

San Antonio 194 

Fort Worth-... 1 81 



. Tgy r T^ J CONSERVATION POOL EL. 238.0 
GOVERNMENT PROPERTY LINE 

PAVED OR HARD SURFACED ROAD 

. . GRAVELED OR IMPROVED ROAD 

^^= GRADED OR UNIMPROVED ROAD 
» » • SLOW SPEED AREAS (5 MPH) 

BEACH 
BOAT RAMP 



SOMERVILLE LAKE 

U.S. ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT, FORT WORTH 
CORPS OF ENGINEERS 
FORT WORTH, TEXAS 



to 

I 

oo 



China Spring 





\ / 




LEGEND 


j& 


Conservation Pool El 455.0 




Government Property Line 


=—• 


Paved Road 


-i i r- 


Graveled Road 





Unimproved Road 


ED 

m 


Restricted Use Area 

Park Area 

Wildlife Area (Hunting) 


Lsj 


Natural Area (No Hunting) 


i i 


Limited Recreation Area 


BS&I 


Trees and Stumps in Lake 


1 1 


Off Road Vehicle Area 



WHEN WINDS OF 25 M.P.H. OR MORE ARE FORECAST 
OR BLOWING, BOATS ARE CAUTIONED TO STAY OUT 
OF OPEN WATER. PLEASE LISTEN TO RADIO AND 
TELEVISION WEATHER REPORTS FOR WIND 
WARNINGS. 

FOR YOUR OWN SAFETY'S SAKE, 
HEED THE WARNING! 





iul 



US Army Corps 
of Engineers 

Fort Worth District 



Waco Lake 



FACILITIES 



AIRPOKT PAHK 



MIDWAY PARK I 



YPARX [WOOOWAY: 



SPEEOIEV'LLE I 



SPEEGLEVILLE II 



SPEEGLEVTLLE 111 




Corp! 0' Engineers 



McLennan Cojniy. 1 



• Facilities finished by operating agency 

■ Futilities lufnished by Concessionaire 

w Facilities furnished by operating agency and Concessit 



NOTE 



THIS MAP IS FURNISHED AS GENERAL INFORMATION ONLY AND IS NOT TO BE USED 
FOR LOCATING PROPERTY LINES AND OTHER SUCH MATTERS. 

WACO LAKE IS ENTIRELY WITHIN THE CITY LIMITS OF WACO. TEXAS AND ALL CITY 
ORDINANCES ARE !N EFFECT. 

SWIMMING AREAS ARE UNSUPERVISED AND DO NOT HAVE LIFEGUARDS. BOATING, 
SWIMMING, AND FISHING WILL BE DONE AT YOUR OWN RISK. 

A CAMPING FEE MAY BE CHARGED IN THE CAMPING AREAS OPERATED AND 
MANAGED BY THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS AND/OR CONCESSIONAIRE 

AT PARKS WITH GATE ATTENDANTS THE GATES ARE CLOSED FROM 11 P.M. TO 6 A.M. 

HUNTING IS PERMITTED IN WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREAS 8Y PERMIT PERMITS 
ARE AVAILABLE AT THE PROJECT HEADQUARTERS. 

RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING PUBLIC USE OF THE LANDS AND WATERS 
AT WACO LAKE ARE CONTAINED IN PART 327, CHAPTER III. TITLE 38. CODE OF FEDERAL 
REGULATIONS. 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION MAY BE SECURED FROM THE PROJECT HEADQUARTERS 
BY WRITING TO: RESERVOIR MANAGER, WACO LAKE, ROUTE 10. BOX 173-G, WACO, TEXAS 
76703 OR CALLING 617-756-5359. 



STANDARD LAKE MARKERS 



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MID-CHANNEL 



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AREA 



LOCATION 



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CONCESSIONAIRE 


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F FEE MAY BE CHARGED 

* FACILITIES FURNISHED 
BY THE GOVERNMENT 

ft FACILITIES FURNISHED 
BY THE CONCESSIONAIRE 

O FACILITIES FURNISHED 
BY THE GOVERNMENT 
1 CONCESSIONAIRE 



WHEN WINDS I 
OR BLOWING. I 
OPIK WATER 
AHE ISSUED 





1 CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



T> 



TOP POWER POOL EL. S33.0' 

GOVERNMENT PROPERTY LINE 

U.S. HIGHWAY 

STATE HIGHWAY 

FARM ROAD 

PAVED OR HARD SURFACEO ROAD 

GRAVELED OR IMPROVED ROAD 

GRADED OH UNIMPROVED ROAO 

SLOW SPEED AREAS 

PARK AREAS 

PARK AREAS BY OTHERS 

BEACH 

BOAT RAMP (All MEDIUM GRADE) 

COURTESY BOAT DOCK 

HUNTING AREA UNLESS POSTED 

NO HUNTING 

RIFLE HUNTING AREA 

WATER HAZARD AREA 

OPEN WATER 

FISH ATTRACTOR 



tF 26 MP H OR MORE ARE FORECAST 
OATS ARE CAUTIONED TO STAY OUT OF 
FORECASTS AMD WEATHER INFORMATION 
BY S. WEATHER BUREAU THROUGH 
LOCAL RADIO STATIONS 



FACILITIES SUCH AS PUBUC ACCESS, PICNtC AND CAMP 
GROUNDS ABE FOB YOUR ENJOYMENT - USE THEM 
THOUGHT FULL V. 

THE MANAGEMENT OF FISH AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES IS 
BEING CONDUCTED IN COOPERATION WITH THE TEXAS PARKS 

AND WILDLIFE COMMISSION 



SWIMMING AREAS AfiE UNSUPERVISED ANO DO NOT HAVE 
LIFE GUARDS BOATING, SKIING. SWIMMING. ANO FISHING WILL 
BE DONE AT YOUR OWN RISK. WATEfl SKIING IS NOT 
RECOMMENOED Oil THE LAKE ABOVE OLD FORT PARK 

this map is furnished as general information only 

AND IS NOT TO BE USED FOR LOCAT1NO PROPERTY LINES ANO 
OTHEA SUCH MATTE US 



WHITNEY PROJECT OFFICE 

P.O. BOX 5038 

LAGUNA PARK, TEXAS 76634-5038 

PHONE: 817-864-3189 
817-822-3332 



IAKE WHITNEY STATE PARK 



Xocas 

U.S. ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT, FORT WORTH 
CORPS OF ENGINEERS 
FORT WORTH. TEXAS 

trrioxiMtn scales 

I z 3 4 WHS 



Marina 

LOFERS BEND PARK 



RIVERSIDE PARK 
QUARTERS AREA 



ti viiitt mils 

SOLDIERS BLUFF PARK 



Whitney Like 
Apr 88 



"W H) CF 



TIT 



113 W 



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MAP 2-27a 



WHITE OAK CREEK WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA 




CO 
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MITIGATION POUHDARY 

Ml I ICA I liw! 

ROADS 



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RAILROAD 

l\V\l MOIST SOIL 

MANAGEMENT AREA 

BLIC ENTRANCES 

10 -13 MANAGEMEN 1 
ENTRANCES 

PARKING ARFAS 

PROPOSFI) H • i All 



SOURCE: CORPS OF ENCUMBERS 



2-61 



(3) BR Projects 



Oil and gas leasing stipulations for the 
following reservoir sites are contained in the 
BR GP-135 Special Stipulations document 
which is contained in Appendix 3. The 
GP-135 stipulations provide for protection of 
BR projects by use of buffer zones which 
prohibit occupancy and/or drilling for a 
specific distance. 

Maximum project protection is provided by the 
use of NSO/ND to within 1000 feet under the 
Maximum Water Surface (MWS) by elevation 
as defined in Standing Operating Procedures of 
BR or to within 2,000 feet under dam 
embankments and appurtenance structures, 
outlet works, spillways, etc. or to within 
one-half mile (2,640 feet) of the centerline of 
any tunnel. Should the maximum project 
protection stipulation be waived by the BR, 
additional restrictions protect recreational 
developments, wildlife habitats, project 
facilities and water supplies by creating a 
NSO/DD buffer ranging from 200 to 500 feet 
around these areas. Stipulations protecting 
special wildlife habitats or significant surface 
resources have been identified by project site. 
The overlapping buffer zones identified for 
each surface resource results in special 
stipulations covering acreage greater than the 
project total. 

In all cases, GP-135 requires a site specific 
surface use plan approved by the BR Area 
Manager prior to any lease development. 
Whenever a conflict occurs concerning the 
applicability of a BR stipulation, the more 
restrictive stipulation will apply. 



CHOKE CANYON DAM AND 
RESERVOIR - NUECES RIVER 

PROJECT MAP 2-28 

BR Project 26,000 acres 

Description 

The Nueces River Project is located in Live 
Oak and McMullen Counties, midway between 
the cities of San Antonio and Corpus Christi. 
Choke Canyon Dam is on the Frio River about 
4 miles west of the town of Three Rivers 
named for the confluence of the Frio, Nueces 
and Atascosa Rivers. Low-lying hills force the 
three rivers into a constricted channel, thus the 
name Choke Canyon. Live oak and post oak 
trees are generally found near the rivers while 
mesquite, huisache, blackbrush and grasses 
cover most of the area. The area has long and 
hot summers, mild winters and erratic 
precipitation. Occasional hurricanes produce 
major storms and flooding. The Nueces River 
Project was authorized by P.L. 93-493, dated 
October 27, 1972, to develop a dependable 
water supply for municipal and industrial use 
by the City of Corpus Christi and other areas 
of the Coastal Bend. The multipurpose project 
also provides for fish and wildlife conservation 
and recreational opportunities. 

Operation and maintenance of the project has 
been turned over to the City and the Nueces 
River Authority. Under the terms of a separate 
agreement, the land and water areas within the 
reservoir boundary are managed for recreation 
and fish and wildlife purposes by the TPWD 
except for a designated area around the dam. 
The dam and surrounding area are operated 
and maintained by the City of Corpus Christi. 



2-62 



SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND restrictions will apply within areas of 
the project where the United States owns 100 
percent fee title mineral interest. In project 
areas where less than the full mineral interest 
has been acquired, Nueces River Project 
General Stipulations will apply. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. BR project lands at the Nueces 
River Project would be available for lease. 
Stipulations as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



PALMETTO BEND DAM AND LAKE 
TEXANA MAP 2-29 

BR Project 11,000 acres 

Description 

The Palmetto Bend Project is located in the 
west Gulf Coastal Plain area in Jackson 
County, approximately 7 miles southeast of 
Edna. Palmetto Bend Dam is situated in the 
Navidad River Valley 4 miles upstream from 
the confluence of the Lavaca and Navidad 
Rivers. The reservoir, Lake Texana, includes 
an eighteen mile reach of the Navidad River 
Valley and the lower portions of the Mustang 
creek and Sandy Creek Valleys. Water is 
collected from about 400 square miles of the 
Navidad River Basin above the damsite. The 
Palmetto Bend Project was authorized by 
P.L. 90-562 dated October 12, 1968, for the 
primary purpose of providing a dependable 
municipal and industrial water supply of 
75,000 acre-feet annually to the Central Gulf 
Coast area. Lake Texana also provides 
associated recreational fish and wildlife 
facilities to several surrounding counties. The 



Lavaca-Navidad River Authority is responsible 
for operation and maintenance of the project. 
The TPWD manages Texana State Park located 
within the Lake Texana boundary. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND restrictions will apply within areas of 
the project where the United States owns 100 
percent fee title mineral interest. In project 
areas where less than the full mineral interest 
has been acquired, Palmetto Bend Project 
General Stipulations will apply. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. BR project lands at Lake 
Texana would be available for lease. 
Stipulations as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



SANFORD DAM AND LAKE MEREDITH 
CANADIAN RIVER PROJECT MAP 2-30 

BR Project - 700 acres 

Description 

Sanford Dam and Reservoir is located on the 
High Plains in parts of Potter, Moore, 
Hutchinson and Carson Counties and is 
approximately 40 miles northeast of the city of 
Amarillo. The aqueduct feature of the project 
is approximately 320 miles long, traverses 
several Texas Panhandle counties and serves 11 
cities in the High Plains area. The Canadian 
River Project was authorized by an act dated 
December 29, 1950, for the purpose of 
delivering water for municipal and industrial 
use, controlling floods and providing recreation 
and fish and wildlife benefits. Under the terms 
of the repayment contract for project 
construction costs, operation and maintenance 



2-63 



of Sanford Dam and Lake Meredith was 
originally turned over to the Canadian River 
Municipal Water Authority (CRMWA). 

By legislation dated November 28, 1990, the 
lands, waters and interests therein, except for 
approximately 700 acres around Sanford Dam, 
were transferred to the NPS for administration 
as a NRA. The 700 acre area at the dam 
remain under the jurisdiction of BR and is 
operated and maintained by the CRMWA. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO/ND stipulation will apply within the area 
of the dam remaining under BR jurisdiction. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. BR project lands at Lake 
Meredith would be available for lease. 
Stipulations as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



TWIN BUTTES DAM AND RESERVOIR 
SAN ANGELO PROJECT MAP 2-31 



Twin Buttes Dam controls and regulates the 
flows of the Middle and South Concho Rivers 
and Spring Creek. The San Angelo Project 
was authorized by P.L. 85-152, dated 
August 16, 1957, for the purpose of providing 
irrigation water to land in Tom Green County 
and for municipal, industrial and domestic use, 
controlling floods and providing recreation and 
fish and wildlife benefits. Under the terms of 
various contracts, operation and maintenance of 
Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir have been 
turned over to the San Angelo Water Supply 
Corporation and he city of San Angelo. The 
project's irrigation facilities are operated and 
maintained by the Tom Green County Water 
Control and Improvement District No. 1, 
located in Veribest. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND restrictions will apply within areas of 
the project where the United States owns 100 
percent fee title mineral interest. In project 
areas where less than the full mineral interest 
has been acquired, San Angelo Project General 
Stipulations will apply. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. BR project lands at the San 
Angelo Project would be available for lease. 
Stipulations as described above would apply. 



Description 

The San Angelo Project is located in Tom 
Green County, approximately 7 miles 
southwest of the city of San Angelo. 



Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 



Alternative C. Federal minerals within this 
project would not be available for lease. 



2-64 



MAP 2-28 



CHOKE CANYON RESERVOIR 




MAP 2-29 



LAKETEXANA 




SOURCE: BUREAU OF RECLAMATION 



2-66 



8 



i 



O ST»#CTT 



TO STINNETT 




TO PAMPA 



TO PANHANDLE 



TO AMARILLO 



TO AMARILLO 



" 



PARC BOUNDARY 
LAKE NB3EDTTVI 
NATIONAL MCNLNENT 
TOWN BOINDARY 



f 



i 
OS 

-J 



1 

g 



to 



MAP 2-31 



TWIN BUTTES RESERVIOR 




SOURCE: SHEARER PUBLISHING 

2-68 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 
MILITARY LANDS 

Department of Defense (DOD) lands acquired 
for military purposes are available for oil and 
gas leasing subject to DOD leasing stipulations, 
the approval of the base commander as well as 
the inclusion of base specific lease stipulations. 
There are numerous active military facilities 
located within Texas, those facilities currently 
available for leasing under the Acquired 
Minerals Leasing Act are listed below by 
branch of service. 

Generally, DOD military lands are leased with 
the NSO/DD stipulation, however, the 
NSO/ND stipulation has been used to keep 
drilling rigs from impacting mission required 
air space. 

(4) U.S. Army: Forts Bliss, Hood and 
Wolters, Camps Bowie, Bullis and Swift, Lone 
Star and Longhorn Army Ammunition Plants 
and Red River Army Depot. 



FORT BLISS 



MAP 2-32 



Total Area in Texas 125,295 acres 

Description 

Fort Bliss located in El Paso county was 
established in 1848 to protect trails and 
settlers. Fort Bliss became a cavalry post in 
the early 1900's and remained so until 1942 
when it became a center for anti-aircraft 
artillery training. The current mission, since 
1957, is that of the U.S. Army Air Defense 
Artillery Center, where U.S. and Allied 
personnel are trained in the use of all types of 
air defense weapons, including missiles and 
other anti-aircraft weapons. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 125,295 acres. 



The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at Fort 
Bliss be available for lease, stipulations as 
described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at Fort Bliss 
would not be available for lease. 



FORT HOOD MAP 2-33 

Total Area 208,712 acres 

Description 

Fort Hood is located in central Texas in Bell 
and Coryell Counties approximately 58 miles 
north of Austin. The facility supports the 
activities of the ITI Corp as well as training for 
Army Reserve and Army National Guard 
Units. Land uses at Fort Hood are divided into 
mission training areas, cantonments, airfields 
and Belton Lake Recreation Area. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 208,712 acres. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at Fort 
Hood be available for lease, stipulations as 
described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at Fort Hood 
would not be available for lease. 



2-69 



FORT WOLTERS 



MAP 2-34 



Total Area 3,985 acres 

Description 

Fort Wolters, located in Parker and Palo Pinto 
counties, was originally activated in March, 
1941, as an Infantry Replacement Training 
Center. Army recruits received basic training 
at Camp Wolters before being sent overseas as 
replacements. Camp Wolters was inactivated 
in 1945. After World War II, Camp Wolters 
was purchased from the then War Department 
by a group of local business men and became 
known as Camp Wolters Enterprises. Wolters 
AFB was activated in 1951 with the first 
contingent of aviation engineer trainees. From 
1951 through 1956, the air base personnel were 
trained to insure the maintenance of the highest 
possible level of operational readiness. In 
1956, Wolters AFB was redesignated Fort 
Wolters and returned to the control of the U.S. 
Army with the primary mission of conducting 
training for the U.S. Army Primary Helicopter 
School. 



was established as an infantry replacement 
training camp in 1941. In 1947, Camp Bowie 
was declared to the War Assets Administration 
for disposal as surplus property. In 1948, the 
Department of the Army withdrew from 
surplus the 104.3 acres made available for use 
by the Texas National Guard and 10.3 acres 
being used for Organized Reserve Corps in 
1948. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 3,858 acres. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at 
Camp Bowie be available for lease, stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at Camp Bowie 
would not be available for lease. 



SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 3,985 acres. 



CAMP BULLIS 



MAP 2-36 



Total Area 27,880 acres 



The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at Fort 
Wolters be available for lease, stipulations as 
described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 



Description 

Camp Bullis, located in Bexar and Comal 
counties, was established in 1906 as a target 
range for Fort Sam Houston. The facility is 
currently used for field training exercises by 
active Army units from Fort Sam Houston and 
also by Army Reserve components. 



Alternative C. Federal minerals at Fort Wolters 
would not be available for lease. 



SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 27,880 acres. 



CAMP BOWIE 



MAP 2-35 



Total Area 3,858 acres 

Description 

Camp Bowie is located in Brown County and 



The RMP alternative selected would result in: 



Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at 
Camp Bullis be available for lease, stipulations 
as described above would apply. 



2-70 



Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at Camp Bullis 
would not be available for lease. 



MAP 2-37 



CAMP SWIFT 

Total Area 11,740 acres 

Description 

Camp Swift, located in Bastrop county north of 
the town of Bastrop, was created in 1941 as an 
infantry training base. Currently the facility is 
used for training by the Texas Army National 
Guard. A complete description of Camp Swift 
is contained in the Draft and Final "Camp 
Swift Lignite Leasing EIS" of 1980 prepared 
by the BLM. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 11,740 acres. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at 
Camp Swift be available for lease, stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. In addition to stipulations 
required under Alternative A, NM-10, Coal 
Protection Stipulation, would apply to 11,740 
acres. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at Camp Swift 
would not be available for lease. 



LONE 
PLANT 



STAR ARMY 



AMMUNITION 
MAP 2-38 



Total Acres 15,546 

Description 

Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant, located in 
Bowie County approximately 10 miles west of 
Texarkana, is part of the U.S. Army 



Armament, Munitions and Chemical 
Command. It was built in 1941. It's current 
mission is to load, assemble and pack 
conventional ammunition. The plant is 
government owned and contractor operated. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 15,546 acres. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at Lone 
Star be available for lease, stipulations as 
described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at Lone Star 
would not be available for lease. 



LONGHORN 
PLANT 



ARMY AMMUNITION 
MAP 2-39 



Total Area 8,492 acres 

Description 

Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant is located 
in Harrison County south of Caddo Lake 
approximately 2 miles east of the town of 
Karnack. The plant is part of the U.S. Army 
Armament, Munitions and Chemical 
Command. The plant is government owned 
and contractor operated. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 8,492 acres. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at 
Longhorn be available for lease, stipulations as 
described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 



2-71 



Alternative C. Federal minerals at Longhorn 
would not be available for lease. 



RED RIVER ARMY DEPOT MAP 2-38 

Total Area 19,081 acres 

Description 

Red River Army Depot is located 
approximately 18 miles west of Texarkana and 
is adjacent to Lone star Army Ammunition 
Plant. Improved and semi-improved lands 
comprise 3,376 acres with a majority of the 
remaining balance being unimproved lands 
utilized to satisfy safety buffer zone 
requirements. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

All leasing subject to base commander 

stipulations. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at Red 
River be available for lease, stipulations as 
described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at Red River 
would not be available for lease. 

(5) U.S. AIR FORCE: Bergstrom, Dyess, 
Laughlin, Randolph, Reese and Sheppard AFBs 
as well as Laughlin No. 1 and Seguin AAFs. 



SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 3,215 acres. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at 
Bergstrom AFB be available for lease, 
stipulations as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at Bergstrom 
AFB would not be available for lease. 



DYESS AFB 



MAP 2-41 



Total Area 5,366 acres 

Description 

Dyess AFB is located within Taylor County 

and adjoins the Cities of Abilene and Tye. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 5,366 acres. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at 
Dyess AFB be available for lease, stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at Dyess AFB 
would not be available for lease. 



BERGSTROM AFB 



MAP 2-40 



LAUGHLIN AFB 



MAP 2-42 



Total Area 3,215 acres Total Area 3,911 acres 



Description 

Bergstrom AFB is located within Travis 

County, southeast of, and adjoining the city of 

Austin. 



Description 

Laughlin AFB is located in Val Verde County 

in close proximity to the city of Del Rio. 



2-72 



SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 3,911 acres. 



SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 2,893 acres. 



The RMP alternative selected would result in: The RMP al ternative selected would result in: 



Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at 
Laughlin AFB be available for lease, 
stipulations as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at Laughlin 
AFB would not be available for lease. 



Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at 
Randolph AFB be available for lease, 
stipulations as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at Randolph 
AFB would not be available for lease. 



LAUGHLIN NO. 1 AAF 



MAP 2-43 



REESE AFB 



MAP 2-45 



Total Area 1,200 acres Total Area 2,455 acres 



Description 

Laughlin No. 1 AAF is located in Maverick 
County in close proximity to the towns of 
Quemado, Normandy and Eagle Pass. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 1,200 acres. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at 
Laughlin No. 1 AAF be available for lease, 
stipulations as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at Laughlin 
No. 1 AAF would not be available for lease. 



RANDOLPH AFB 



MAP 2-44 



Total Area 2,893 acres 

Description 

Randolph AFB is located within Bexar County 

adjacent to the City of San Antonio. 



Description 

Reese AFB is located within Lubbock County 

and adjoins the City of Lubbock. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 2,455 acres. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at 
Reese AFB be available for lease, stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at Reese AFB 
would not be available for lease. 



SEGUINAAF 



MAP 2-46 



Total Area 961 acres 

Description 

Seguin AAF (associated with Randolph AFB) 
is located in Guadalupe County and adjoins the 
City of Seguin. 



2-73 



SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 961 acres. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at 
Seguin AAF be available for lease, stipulations 
as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at Seguin AAF 
would not be available for lease. 



SHEPPARD AFB 



MAP 2-47 



Total Area 4,160 acres 

Sheppard AFB is located in Wichita County 
and adjoins the City of Wichita Falls. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 4,160 acres. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at 
Sheppard AFB be available for lease, 
stipulations as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at Sheppard 
AFB would not be available for lease. 



(6) U.S. Navy: Corpus Christi and Kingsville 
NAS, Cabaniss and Waldron NALF and the 
McGregor Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance 
Plant (NIROP). 



CORPUS CHRISTI NAS MAP 2-48 

WALDON AND CABANISS 

NALF (NO MAP) 

Total Area Corpus Christi NAS . 2,593 acres 

Cabaniss NALF 800 acres 

Waldon NALF 640 acres 

Description 

Corpus Christi NAS, Cabaniss and Waldon 
NALF are located in Nueces County on the 
southern and western edges of the City of 
Corpus Christi. These facilities are all located 
within the corporate limits of the City of 
Corpus Christi. 

The NAS is a roughly rectangular base on the 
west of Corpus Christi Bay which borders the 
Gulf of Mexico. The Base is surrounded on 
three sides by water, on the west by Oso Bay, 
the north by Corpus Christi Bay and the east 
by Laguna Madre. 

Note: The Federal minerals within the 
corporate city limits of the City of Corpus 
Christi are subject to leasing by special act of 
the U.S. Congress. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 4,033 acres. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at these 
facilities be available for lease, stipulations as 
described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at these 
facilities would not be available for lease. 



2-74 



KINGSVILLE NAS 



MAP 2-48 McGREGER NIROP 



MAP 2-49 



Total Area 3,955 acres Total Area 9,789 acres 



Description 

Kingsville NAS is located on the east side of 

the town of Kingsville in Kleburg County. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 3,955 acres. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at 
Kingsville NAS be available for lease, 
stipulations as described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at Kingsville 
NAS would not be available for lease. 



Description 

The NIROP is located near the town of 
McGreger in portions of McLennan and 
Coryell Counties. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 9,789 acres. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at this 
facility be available for lease, stipulations as 
described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at this facility 
would not be available for lease. 



2-75 



FORT BLISS MAP 2-32 




2-76 



FORT HOOD MAP 2-33 



North Fort Hood 

.-LONGHORN 
'KyAIRSTRIP 




Salton Lake 
Recreation Area 



1) MANEUVER/LIVE-FIRE AREA 

2) FORT HOOD URBAN AREA 



Source: Ft. Hood GRASS 



2-77 



MAP 2-34 



FORT WOLTERS 




SOURCE: U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



2-78 



MAP 2-35 



CAMP BOWIE 




2-79 



SOURCE: SHEARER PUBLISHING 



MAP 2-36 



CAMP BULLIS 




SOURCE: SHEARER PUBLISHING 

2-80 



MAP 2-37 



CAMP SWIFT 




SOURCE: SHEARER PUBLISHING 



nimwMmwT nnTfTTMnmiMinTMrnwnnTiT' 'nTBiUTi uniiiniiiniimM ■■iih—mmiii m mmh |i| nil h i 



MAP 2-38 



RED RIVER ARMY DEPOT 

AND 

LONE STAR ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT 




SOURCE: SHEARER PUBLISHING 



2-82 



MAP 2-39 



LONGHORN ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT 




2-83 



SOURCE: SHEARER PUBLISHING 



MAP 2-40 
BERGSTROM AIR FORCE BASE 




SOURCE: U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



2-84 



MAP 2-41 



DYESS AIR FORCE BASE 




SOURCE: U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



2-85 



MAP 2-42 



LAUGHLIN AIR FORCE BASE 




SOURCE: U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



2-86 



■ ._.. -■-•■■■'■■ :- ■:- 



MAP 2-43 

LAUGHLIN AIR FORCE BASE 
AUXILIARY NO. 1 




2-87 



SOURCE: SHEARER PUBLISHING 



MAP 2-44 



RANDOLPH AIR FORCE BASE 




SOURCE: U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



2-88 



MAP 2-45 
REESE AIR FORCE BASE 




2-89 



SOURCE: SHEARER PUBLISHING 



MAP 2-46 



U.S. AIR FORCE 
SEGUIN AUXILIARY AIRFIELD 




SOURCE: SHEARER PUBLISHING 



2-90 



MAP 2-47 



SHEPPARD AIR FORCE BASE 




2-91 



SOURCE: SHEARER PUBLISHING 



MAP 2-48 



CORPUS CHRISTI NAVAL AIR STATION 




KINGSVILLE NAVAL AIR STATION 




SOURCE: SHEARER PUBUSMNO 

2-92 



MAP 2-49 



McGregor naval industrial 
reserve ordinance plant 




SOURCE: SHEARER PUBLISHING 



2-93 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



(7) Agricultural Research Service (ARS): 
Brownwood, Bushland, Kerrville and Riesel 
facilities. 

PECAN GENETICS AND IMPROVEMENT 
RESEARCH LABORATORY MAP 2-50 

Total Area 84 acres 

Description 

The Pecan Genetics and Improvement Research 
Laboratory in the City of Brownwood, works 
to develop superior pecan cultivars, develop 
superior rootstocks, determine heritability 
constants for superior tree and nut 
characteristics, develop host plant resistance to 
control pecan insects and diseases and collect 
and maintain pecan, hickory and chestnut 
germplasm in the National Clonal Germplasm 
Repository. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 84 acres. 



as a response to the devastation of the Dust 
Bowl era. The laboratory was a component of 
the Soil Conservation Service until the 1950' s, 
when research functions were consolidated 
under the ARS. Research at the laboratory 
currently focuses on water management, soil 
and crop management and bovine respiratory 
diseases. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 1,531 acres. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at this 
facility be available for lease, stipulations as 
described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at this facility 
would not be available for lease. 



The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at this 
facility be available for lease, stipulations as 
described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at this facility 
would not be available for lease. 



CONSERVATION AND PRODUCTION 
RESEARCH LABORATORMAP 2-51 

Total Area 1,531 acres 

Description 

Located in the town of Bushland, the 
Conservation and Production Research 
Laboratory was established in the late 1930's 



THE U.S. LIVESTOCK INSECTS 

LABORATORY MAP 2-52 

Total Area 35 acres 

Description 

The U.S. Livestock Insects Laboratory was 
established in Kerrvile in 1946. In 1977, the 
laboratory was reorganized to focus on 
research in applied basic aspects of veterinary 
entomology and to assume responsibility for 
scabies and mange research. Today, research 
continues to focus on the biology and 
control of parasitic insects, ticks and mites that 
affect livestock. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 35 acres. 



2-94 



The RMP alternative selected would result in: Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 



Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at this 
facility be available for lease, stipulations as 
described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at this facility 
would not be available for lease. 



GRASSLAND, SOIL AND WATER 
RESEARCH T,ABORATOR Y MAP 2-53 
Total Area 1,272 acres 

The USDA facility at Riesel was established in 
the mid-1930's to study the impact of farming 
systems on hydrology and sedimentation 
processes. In 1961, the research activities at 
Riesel and Temple were combined to form one 
unit, known since 1972 as the Grassland, Soil 
and Water Research Laboratory. Riesel is the 
work site of the main laboratory at Temple. 
The present mission is to develop technology 
for maximizing forage and crop production; 
revegetating depleted, brush- infested 
watersheds; controlling noneconomic brush and 
weeds; breeding forages with increased quality 
and yield potential; and solving problems 
relating to efficient use of soil and water, crop 
production, soil fertility, erosion, hydrology 
and water quality. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO on approximately 1,272 acres. 



Alternative C. Federal minerals at this facility 
would not be available for lease. 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

(8) International Boundary an d Water 
Commission. United S tates and Mexico, 
United States Section (USD3WC): Amistad 
and Falcon Reservoirs. 



AMISTAD RESERVOIR 



MAP 2-54 



Total Area 65,000 acres 

Description 

Amistad Dam is located on the Rio Grande, 
12 miles upstream from the town of Del Rio. 
The Amistad Reservoir has a surface area of 
approximately 138 square miles. In addition to 
the primary functions of flood control, water 
conservation and power generation, Amistad 
Reservoir also provides recreational 
opportunities. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 
NSO/ND within 2300 feet of the centerline of 
the dam embankment. NSO below the 1144.3 
foot elevation traverse. (USIBWC Stip. No. 1) 

The RMP alternative selected wou ld result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at this 
facility be available for lease, stipulations as 
described above would apply. 



The RMP alternative selected would result in: Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 



Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at this 
facility be available for lease, stipulations as 
described above would apply. 



Alternative C. Federal minerals at this facility 
would not be available for lease. 



2-95 



FALCON RESERVOIR 



Total Area 87,000 acres 

Description 

Falcon Reservoir is located on the Rio Grande 
about 130 miles upstream from Brownsville. 
The reservoir was created in 1953 to provide 
power, conservation, flood control and 
irrigation along both sides of the border in the 
lower Rio Grande Valley. The 60 mile long 
lake is a popular recreation site and Falcon 
State Park is located approximately 1.5 miles 
from the dam site. 



MAP 2-55 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) 



(9) DOE; Pantex 



PANTEX 



MAP 2-56 



Total Area 16,000 acres 

The Pantex plant is America's only nuclear 
weapons assembly and disassembly facility. 
Located on the High Plains of the Texas 
Panhandle, 17 miles northeast of Amarillo, 
Pantex is centered on a 16,000 acre site just 
north of U.S. Highway 60 in Carson County. 



SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO/ND within 2300 feet of the centerline of 
the dam embankment. NSO below the 307 
foot elevation traverse. (USIBWC Stip. No. 1) 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at this 
facility be available for lease, stipulations as 
described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at this facility 
would not be available for lease. 



SMA Lease Stipulations 

NSO/ND on the approximately 16,000 acres 

controlled by the Pantex facility. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. Should Federal minerals at this 
facility be available for lease, stipulations as 
described above would apply. 

Alternative B. Same as Alternative A. 

Alternative C. Federal minerals at this facility 
would not be available for lease. 



2-96 



MAP 2-50 



PECAN GENETICS AND IMPROVEMENT 
RESEARCH LABORATORY 




SOURCE: U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



2-97 



MAP 2-51 

CONSERVATION AND PRODUCTION 
RESEARCH LABORATORY 




SOURCE: U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



2-98 



mmamm^muamuBm^mm^ 



MAP 2-52 



U.S. LIVESTOCK INSECTS LABORATORY 




SOURCE: U.S. C3EOLOGICAL SURVEY 



2-99 



MAP 2-53 



GRASSLAND, SOIL, AND WATER 
RESEARCH LABORATORY 




SOURCE: U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

2-100 



aMMaamaiMeaaasimm 



MAP 2-54 



AMISTAD RESERVOIR 




SOURCE: SHEARER PUBLISHING 



2-101 



MAP 2-55 



FALCON RESERVOIR 







SOURCE: INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION 



2-102 



MAP 2-56 



PANTEX 




SOURCE: SHEARER PUBLISHING 



2-103 



SPLIT-ESTATE TRACTS 

All Federal land ownership within Texas has 
been acquired through purchase, foreclosure 
and/or donation. 

When these acquired lands are no longer 
needed, the government disposes of these lands 
through transfer to non-Federal ownership. In 
some cases the government retains ownership 
of the mineral estate under those lands 
disposed. These severed mineral estates are 
known as split-estate. For oil and gas leasing 
purposes the BLM is the SMA for split-estate 
tracts within Texas. 

Currently, there are approximately 30,000 
acres of split-estate tracts which vary in size 
from less than one acre to several thousand 
acres, and are located throughout the state. 
The larger tracts result from military base 
closing where the minerals were retained such 
as Eagle Mountain Marine Corps Air Station 
north of the City of Fort Worth or Ellington 
AFB in the City of Houston. 

Split-estate acreage figures will increase with 
future military base closing as well as the 
disposal of Federal surface locations within the 
State. 

SMA Lease Stipulations 

Due to the fact that the exact location of all 

split-estate minerals within Texas is unknown 



and/or unmapped, the BLM is not able to 
evaluate this split-estate on a site specific basis 
at this time for the RMP/EIS effort. All 
leasing of split-estate minerals to date within 
Texas has required the development of site 
specific EAs at the time of lease 
application/nomination. The site specific lease 
stipulations are developed at the time of EA 
preparation. 

The RMP alternative selected would result in: 

Alternative A. The applicant nominating a 
split-estate tract will be required to provide all 
necessary maps and resource information 
needed by the BLM to complete a site specific 
EA/EIS at the time of application. Following 
the completion of the site specific EA or EIS, 
the BLM will either reject the nomination or 
allow the parcel to be placed on a sale list for 
competitive bid with the appropriate leasing 
stipulations attached. These stipulations could 
be ORA-1 or ORA-2. No split-estate within 
city limits would be available for lease. 

Alternative B. In addition to the requirements 
presented under Alternative A, lease 
stipulations ORA-3 and ORA-4 could be 
applied. 

Alternative C. Split-estate would not be 
available for lease. 



2-104 



CHAPTER THREE 
AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT 




CHAPTER THREE 
AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT 



INTRODUCTION 



This chapter presents a description of the 
physical features of the planning area to be 
covered by the RMP/EIS as well as 
descriptions of the environmental components 
that could be impacted by implementing the 
alternatives. An RMP/EIS planning area is 
usually the size of one or two counties. 
However, the scattered and isolated nature of 
the Federal ownership within Texas, the 
numerous Federal SMAs and the fact that the 
BLM Tulsa District is responsible for Federal 
minerals management for the entire state 
precludes adherence to that formula. 
Therefore, the Texas RMP/EIS planning area 
encompasses the entire state. The size of the 
State of Texas, as well as the diverse 
ecosystems occurring within the state has 
resulted in a regional approach to the 
development of this RMP/EIS. 

The BLM has adopted an ecosystem based 
approach to both land use planning and natural 
resources management. For land use planning 
purposes, this RMP/EIS effort will utilize 
ecoregion descriptions from the recently 
published Ecological Subregions of the United 
States: Section Descriptions (McNab, W. 
Henry; Avers, Peter E., comps. 1994. 
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of 
Agriculture, Forest Service. 267 p.) provided 
by the USFS. These ecoregions are shown on 
Map Al-1 and described in Appendix 1. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES 

The following general descriptions of the 
physical features of the State of Texas 
encompass several specific ecoregions. 

The physical features of the State of Texas 
include it's location, size, topography and 



climate. These features influence and help 
form the environmental components which may 
be influenced by human actions. The physical 
features themselves are not subject to 
significant influence by mankind. 

Location & Size 

The State of Texas is situated in the 
south-central portion of the contiguous 
forty-eight states of the United States and is 
bordered by four American states; Arkansas, 
Louisiana, New Mexico and Oklahoma and 
four Mexican states; Chihuahua, Coahuila, 
Nuevo Leon and Tampaulipas. The area of the 
state is approximately 266,807 square miles, 
which consist of 262,017 square miles of land 
and 4,790 square miles of inland water. Texas 
is divided into 254 counties and has a coastline 
of 624 miles along the Gulf of Mexico. 

Topography 

The highest point in Texas is Guadalupe Peak 
with an elevation of 8,749 feet above sea level. 
Guadalupe and its twin, El Capitan (8,085 feet) 
are in West Texas near the Texas, New 
Mexico border. A plateau, most of it 2,600 to 
4,300 feet above sea level, extends across West 
Texas above the Cap Rock. Below that 
escarpment, the surface slopes downward to 
sea level along the Gulf of Mexico. 

All of the true mountains and most of the 
topographic features are found in the western 
half of Texas. These include the canyons of 
the Big Bend of the Rio Grande and it's 
tributaries in the southwest, the Edwards 
Plateau, the Cap Rock Escarpment and Palo 
Duro Canyon. In addition to Guadalupe and El 
Capitan, other known, named peaks more than 



8,000 feet above sea level include Shumard, 
8,165 feet, Bartlett, 8,508 feet, Bush 
Mountain, 8,631 feet and Pine Top Mountain, 
8,676 feet. 

Most of the canyons of Texas are found in the 
Trans-Pecos, Staked Plains, Bumet-Llano and 
Edwards Plateau regions. The Big Bend of the 
Rio Grande has the famed Santa Elena gorge, 
with perpendicular walls of some 1,700 feet 
and the Boquilias and Mariscal Canyons. 
Tributaries of the Rio Grande form other 
canyons, such as the Maravillas. Other 
Trans-Pecos canyons include Capote, 
McKittrick, Pine, Limpia, Musquiz, Cherry 
and Madera and the Box Canyon. Along the 
edges of the Edwards Plateau are canyons on 
such rivers as the Frio, Nueces, Sabinal, 
Guadalupe, Medina and Devils. Palo Duro and 
Tule Canyons are features of the Staked Plains. 

Climate 

Average annual precipitation is extremely 
varied. The southeastern area of Texas 
receives over 55 inches while the western 
portions experience less than 12 inches. Texas 
has mild winters and very warm summers. A 
more detailed description of the climate of 
Texas is presented by section in the Ecoregion 
descriptions in Appendix 1. 

Environmental Components 

The environmental components that could be 
affected include: (1) air quality, (2) water, 
(3) soils, (4) vegetation, (5) wildlife, 
(6) cultural/historic and paleontological 
resources, (7) mineral resources and (8) social 
and economic conditions. 



extremely general due to the vast expanse of 
the planning area. 

Ambient air pollutant levels would normally be 
expected to be below the measurable limits in 
the undeveloped rural areas of the state. Areas 
thought to be subject to decreasing air quality 
would include the immediate vicinities of 
industrial developments (i.e., power plants, 
factories, etc.) and within larger towns and 
cities (resultant from automobile exhaust, wood 
smoke, etc.). 

Particulate matter concentrations are expected 
to be higher near industrial areas, towns and 
cities and along unpaved roads. During 
periods of drought, dust storms are common 
and would also contribute to the total 
suspended particulate levels. 

(2) Water Resources 

Water resources descriptions are divided into 
surface waters and subsurface or ground 
waters. All water resources information has 
been extrapolated from various sources such as 
the COE, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and 
Texas Water Development Board. 

Water Resources/Surface Water 

Texas' abundant surface water resources 
include rivers, streams and both natural and 
man-made reservoirs as depicted on Map 3-1. 
There are several major river basins with 
surface water resources having been developed 
through construction of numerous reservoirs. 
Additional projects are planned or are now 
under construction. 



(1) Air Quality 

This discussion of existing air quality 
conditions for the entire State of Texas is 



3-2 



SURFACE WATER DEVELOPMENT 




MAP 3-1 
SURFACE WATER DEVELOPMENT 



3-3 



Water Resources/Groundwater 



(4) Vegetation 



Groundwater deposits underlie about 76 percent 
of the area of the state of Texas and it is 
considered to be one of the states most valuable 
resources. Sixty percent of the freshwater used 
in Texas is supplied from 23 major aquifers. 
Groundwater supplies are produced from 
numerous saturated geologic formations 
comprised of various mineralogic types such as 
sand and gravel alluviums and cavernous 
limestones and dolomites. 

(3) Soils 

The USDA's Soil Conservation Service (SCS) 
has completed extensive soil surveys of most 
counties in Texas and these documents are 
available as source information to the public 
and other Federal, state and local agencies. 

Generally, soils are classified based upon the 
properties of texture, structure and relative p_h 
(i.e., acidity or alkalinity). Soils develop a 
series of layers or horizons under the influence 
of environmental factors and constitute the soil 
profile. Thus, the soil texture and structure, as 
well as the depth and color of the horizons are 
determined by the parent materials, climate and 
vegetation. The varied climate and topography 
of Texas have combined to produce broad 
differences in state soils. In the eastern part of 
the state, soils have been developed where 
leaching is intense and conditions are humid. 
These conditions have produced soils low in 
phosphorous and potassium, while at the same 
time being moderately to strongly acid. 
Western soils, being developed in an area of 
lesser rainfall, are usually light red in color, 
less leached than eastern soils, moderately 
acidic and low in phosphorous and nitrogen. A 
more specific, detailed description of the soils 
of Texas is presented by section in the 
Ecoregion descriptions in Appendix 1 . 



Differences in amount and frequency of 
rainfall, variation in soils and temperatures 
gives Texas a great diversity of vegetation. 
From the grassy plains of North Texas to the 
coastal and inland wetlands to the semi-arid 
brush lands of South Texas, plant species 
change accordingly. 

A.W. Kiichler's (1964) "Potential Natural 
Vegetation" types are discussed in the 
Ecoregion descriptions in Appendix 1 . 

Craig A. McMahan (et al., 1984) mapped and 
described 45 vegetation types (and an 
additional 7 subtypes) in Texas. This 1984 
publication and color wall poster size map 
provide the most detailed and up to date 
depiction of Texas' vegetation types. F.W. 
Gould's (et al., 1960) representation of the 10 
vegetational areas of Texas provides yet 
another system for discussing the vast array of 
vegetation types in Texas. 

(5) Wildlife 

During some part of the year, Texas is home to 
more species of birds than any other state. 
The Texas Ornithological Society has 
documented 570 species of birds in Texas and 
acknowledges another 34 species that might 
occur in the state. This represents about 
three-fourths of all the species of birds found 
in the entire United States. Only 24 of these 
species are recognized as commonly occurring 
throughout the state. Each ecoregion has its 
own distinct bird life, in both seasonal visitors 
and year round residents (Garrett, 1992-1993). 

In addition to the rich avifauna, there are over 
142 species of mammals, reptiles and 
amphibians which are known to occur in 
Texas. Texas has many native species of 



3-4 



wildlife and introduced exotics to be found on 
privately owned game preserves (Kingston, 
1994-1995). 

A more detailed accounting of wildlife species 
can be found in the Ecoregions descriptions 
contained in Appendix 1 . 

(6) Special Status Species (SSS) 

SSS include, but are not limited to, Federal or 
state listed threatened or endangered plant or 
animal species, species proposed for state or 
Federal listing, candidate category one or two 
species under review by the FWS and species 
being considered for future listing by the state. 

There are over 125 species listed as either 
threatened or endangered by the State of Texas 
(refer to species lists in Appendix 4). The 
Texas Natural Heritage Inventory, housed 
within the TPWD monitors data on hundreds of 
additional species which are not currently 
listed, but for which there is data to suggest 
that future state listing may be necessary. 

Under the Federal ESA there are 
approximately 75 species of plants and animals 
in Texas listed as threatened, endangered or 
proposed for listing and more than 175 
considered candidates for listing (FWS's 
candidate category 1 and 2 species) (refer to 
species lists in Appendix 4). 

The state and Federal lists contain such coastal 
area species as the West Indian manatee and 
four species of whales. In the east Texas pine 
forest, listed species includes the red-cockaded 
woodpecker and Texas trailing phlox and in 
arid southwest Texas, the listings includes the 
Lloyd's hedgehog cactus and the endangered 
cats, ocelot and jaguarundi. The hill country 
in the Austin area contains caves and canyons 
which are habitats for SSS such as the 



golden-cheeked warbler and the tooth cave 
pseudoscorpion. 

Further insight into the complexity of the SSS 
program in Texas may be obtained by 
reviewing the " Fauna " sections within the 
ecoregions descriptions appearing in 
Appendix 1. 

(7) Cultural Resources 

Cultural resources as defined here include 
historic sites, prehistoric sites, modern sacred 
or ceremonial sites and unmarked Indian 
graves. The age of sites found in Texas ranges 
across nearly every archeological period in the 
United States. These include Paleo-Indian, 
Archaic, Woodland, Plains Woodland, 
Missippian, Plains Village, NeoAmerican, and 
Historic. Pleistocene or ice age sites are 
recorded in Texas and some have associations 
with extinct animals used by the first humans 
to occupy North America. 

Counting all sites, districts, structures, objects 
and thematic groups (multiple resource 
nominations) listed on the National Register of 
Historic Places, as of August 1, 1995, there 
are over 10,000 National Register properties 
listed for the State of Texas. Many additional 
sites within the state have been considered 
"eligible for the National Register", but for 
various reasons their nominations were never 
completed. These "eligible" sites have 
important historical values, but would not be 
included in the number now listed as "on the 
National Register", although they receive 
similar legal protection. The "eligible" sites 
would be included in the list of all recorded 
sites compiled by the Texas Archeological 
Research Lab (TARL). 

Based on the most recent counting of 
archeological sites by the TARL, in August, 



3-5 



1994 there were 51,502 recorded sites in the 
State of Texas. In the 254 counties of Texas 
there is a wide range of recorded sites. 
Ranging from one site reported in each of the 
three counties of Yoakum, Cochran and 
Hockley, clustered in northwest Texas to 4,775 
recorded sites in El Paso County in far west 
Texas. 

These records are continually updated and 
maintained by the Texas State Historic 
Preservation Office (SHPO) and TARL. The 
BLM has copies of some of these site records, 
but most of the BLM site data derives from the 
Texas state site files. The exact site locations 
are not open to inspection by the general public 
and are exempt from the Freedom of 
Information Act. Review and evaluation of 
sites and potential impact on sites is done on a 
project by project basis. 

Currently, there are three Federally recognized 
Tribes in Texas: The Alabama-Coushatta 
Tribe of Texas in Polk County, the Isleta Del 



Sur Pueblo (or Tigua) at El Paso and the 
Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas which 
lives near Eagle Pass in Maverick County. 
Many other tribes had historical occupation 
areas in Texas, such as the Caddo, Comanche, 
Cherokee, Kiowa, Wichita, Tonkawa and 
Apache, but now have their tribal lands in 
Oklahoma. Other historically known tribes 
lived in Texas, but have been totally 
exterminated or assimilated, such as the 
Karankawan and the Coahuiltecan tribes 
(Newcomb, 1961). The 12 Geographic regions 
of Texas (Arbingast, et al., 1973) commonly 
used by archeologists can be lumped roughly 
into the 4 USFS main Ecoregions of 
Subtropical (231), Prairie (255), 
Tropical-Subtropical Steppe (315), 
Tropical-Subtropical Desert (321). Table 3-1 
shows the increase in number of recorded sites 
over 10 years and compares the number of 
archeological sites to the number of acres per 
Ecoregion to give the average density of 
archeological sites in each Ecoregion. 



3-6 



TABLE 3-1 
ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES BY ECOREGION 



ECOREGION 


[1] 
1985 DATA 
# OF RECORDED 
SITES BY REGION 


[2] 

NUMBER 

OF ACRES 

BY REGION 


[3] 
1994 DATA 
# OF RECORDED 
SITES-REGION 


[4] 
1994 DATA 
# OF ACRES 
PER SITE 


1. Subtropical (231) 
[36 counties] 
a. Pine Woods Region 




1.705 


17.029.723 




(Average) 
(Density) 


Subtotal 

2. Prairie (255) 

[90 counties] 

a. Gulf Coast Plain 

b. Post Oak Belt 

c. Blackland Prairie 

d. Grand Prairie 

e. Cross Timbers 


(315) 

(321) 
on 


1,705 

2,029 
2,279 
1,193 
1,092 
703 


17,029,723 


6,278 

(12%) 


2,712 


Subtotal 

3. Tropical/Subtropical Steppe 
[140 counties] 

a. South Texas Plain 

b. Llano Basin 

c. High Plains 

d. Lower Plains 

e. Edwards Plateau 


7,296 

1,255 
415 
1,344 
2,009 
2.455 


40,327,062 


15,862 

(31%) 


2,542 


Subtotal 

4. Tropical/Subtropical Desert 

[21 counties] 

a. Mountain/Basin Reei 


7,478 
3.661 


86,044,025 


18,454 

(36%) 


4,662 


Subtotal 




3,661 


26,924,861 


10,908 

(21%) 


2,468 


TOTAL 




20,140 


170,325,671* 


51,502 

(100%) 


3,0% 



* (# does not include river bed or offshore acres underwater) 



3-7 



Two key observations are possible in 
examination of Table 3-1 . First, the number of 
recorded archeological sites in the ten years 
from 1985 to 1995 has more than doubled. In 
the Mountain and Basin Region and the Pine 
Woods Regions the number of recorded sites 
tripled in those ten years. 

The second observation based on column [4] of 
the table is that dividing the number of acres 
by the number of recorded sites will yield an 
average density of sites in that Ecoregion in 
1,000's of acres per site. Using this 
procedure, the order of high to low density of 
sites in each Ecoregion is: 

1. Tropical/Subtropical Desert, 2,468 acres per 

site. 

2. Prairie, 2,542 acres per site. 

3. Subtropical, 2,712 acres per site. 

4. Tropical/Subtropical Steppe, 4,662 acres per 

site. 

This density order is surprising considering that 
the Ecoregion with the largest number of 
archeological sites and the largest number of 
acres (Tropical/Subtropical Steppe) has the 
lowest density of sites of the 4 Ecoregions in 
Texas. 

Evaluations of the cultural resources in Texas 
are based largely on the regional archeological 
overviews including: (Hofman, et al. 1989), 
(Hester et al. 1989), (Story, et al. 1990), 
(Simmons, et al. 1989) and (Gunnerson 1987). 

(8) Paleontological Resources 

Paleontological resources located in Texas on 
Federal surface are only partially recorded. If 
significant paleontological sites are discovered 
during a BLM permitted action in Texas, 
professional paleontologists would be contacted 
to help evaluate and decide whether mitigation 



was necessary. As standard procedure, the 
archeologists who perform cultural inventories 
for BLM permitted projects are asked to report 
any exposed fossils that may be impacted by 
construction or surface disturbance. 

(9) Minerals 

Geology/Surface Geology 

Of the eight major physiographic regions of the 
United States, five are found within Texas. 
These are: 1. The Gulf Coastal Plains, 2. The 
Interior Lowland, 3. The Llano Estacado or 
Staked Plains, 4. The Edwards Plateau and, 
5. The Great Basin or Basin and Range 
Province. Each of these regions is described 
below, as well as in the Ecoregion descriptions 
in Appendix 1 . 

1. The Gulf Coastal Plains, extending from the 
Atlantic to beyond the Rio Grande, were once 
an ocean floor. The Balcones Escarpment, 
running roughly in a curved line from Del Rio 
on the Rio Grande, through San Antonio, 
Austin and Temple, is the interior boundary of 
the Coastal Plains. North of the Brazos River, 
that boundary is marked by the contact between 
the harder Lower Cretaceous rock on the west 
and the softer Upper Cretaceous material on 
the east. The elevation varies from less than 
950 feet at the extreme southwestern end of the 
region to sea level along the Gulf Coast. Low 
barrier islands offshore form shallow bays and 
lagoons next to the mainland. The Balcones 
Fault Line is a single, definite geologic feature, 
accompanied by a line of southward and 
eastward-facing hills. This fault line is usually 
accepted as the boundary between lowland and 
upland Texas. South of this fault line the 
surface of the ground is characteristically 
coastal plains. North of the Balcones Fault the 
surface of the ground is characteristically 
interior rolling plains. 



3-8 



2. The Interior Lowland extends from Canada 
to west central Texas. Elevations within Texas 
range from approximately 1,000 feet on the 
east to 2,200 feet at the base of the Cap Rock 
Escarpment on the west. The relatively level 
prairies and undulating plains give way toward 
the western extremity of this region to badlands 
topography of sheer cliffs and colorful canyons 
created by erosion of Triassic and Jurassic 
rocks. 

3. The Llano Estacado (Staked Plain), part of 
the High Plains and Plateaus region, is in West 
Texas. The Llano Estacado is relatively level 
without distinguishing landforms except where 
streams intersect or where playas catch runoff 
water. Elevations range from approximately 
2,500 feet to 4,500 feet. The Cap Rock 
Escarpment is the dividing line between the 
high plains and the lower rolling plains of West 
Texas. Like the Balcones Escarpment, the Cap 
Rock Escarpment is an outstanding natural 
boundary line. Unlike the Balcones 
Escarpment, the Cap Rock Escarpment is 
caused by surface erosion. In many places this 
escarpment is a striking physical feature, rising 
abruptly from 200 to 500 feet and, in some 
places, almost 1,000 feet above the plains. 
Where rivers issue from the eastern face of this 
escarpment, there frequently are notable 
canyons. The Palo Duro Canyon on the main 
channel of the Red River and the breaks along 
the Canadian River as it crosses the Panhandle 
north of Amarillo are examples. 

4. The Edwards Plateau is on the southeastern 
end of this region, with the Balcones 
Escarpment at its eastern boundary. On the 
Edwards Plateau, known as the Texas Hill 
Country, elevations range from 850 feet on the 
east to 4,000 feet at the base of the mountains 
west of the Pecos River. The Edwards Plateau 
is composed of a massive accumulation of 
extremely durable Lower Cretaceous limestone 



that is almost indestructible in the semi-arid 
climate. 

5. The Great Basin, or Basin and Range 
Province, is an extension of the terrain found 
in portions of the American West and northern 
Mexico. It consists of broad interior drainage 
basins interspersed with scattered fault-block 
mountain ranges. The highest elevation in 
Texas, Guadalupe Peak at 8,751 feet, is in this 
region. The area of the Guadalupe Mountains 
along the Texas, New Mexico boundary is also 
considered to be part of the Rocky Mountains 
region, another major physiographic region in 
the United States. 

Geology/Subsurface Geology 

Anadarko Basin and Amarillo Uplift 

The western portion of the Anadarko Basin is 
present in the northeastern part of the Texas 
Panhandle. This basin is one of the deepest 
and most prolific hydrocarbon producers in the 
continental United States. Although up to 
40,000 feet of Cambrian to Permian sediments 
are present along its northwest-trending 
depocenter, located immediately north of the 
Wichita-Amarillo Uplift in Oklahoma, the 
maximum amount of sediment present in the 
Texas Panhandle is not much in excess of 
20,000 feet. The Anadarko Basin becomes 
progressively more shallow to the west and 
north in the Panhandle area where it is 
bounded on the south by the Amarillo Uplift, 
the west by the Cimarron Arch and to the north 
by the broad shelf of the Hugoton Embayment. 

Palo Duro, Dalhart, Hardeman Basins and 
Matador Arch 

The Palo Duro Basin is an asymmetric 
intracratonic basin which occupies the southern 
half of the Texas Panhandle. The Palo Duro 



3-9 



Basin is bordered by the Amarillo Uplift to the 
north and the Matador Arch to the south. The 
Dalhart Basin to the northwest, the Hardeman 
Basin to the east and the Tucumcari Basin to 
the west, in New Mexico, are separated only 
by structural highs and have somewhat similar 
geologic histories. The Matador Arch is an 
east-west structural trend composed of isolated 
high areas commonly bounded by faults. 

Only about 10,000 feet of sediments or less are 
present in the deeper portions of the Palo Duro 
Basin, which is filled by sedimentary rocks of 
mostly Mississippian, Pennsylvanian and 
Permian age. The deepest parts of the Dalhart 
Basin contain only about 9,500 feet of 
sediments. The tectonic activity that formed 
these basins began in Late Mississippian or 
Early Pennsylvanian. 

Permian Basin Region 

The Permian Basin is one of the largest Middle 
Devonian-Middle Triassic structural basins in 
North America. It was penecontemporaneously 
filled mainly with Paleozoic sediments. It 
acquired its present structural form by early 
Permian time and was further accentuated by 
tectonic activity and downwarping during the 
Permian and Triassic Periods. The region is 
divisible into several distinct structural and 
tectonic elements. They are the Central Basin 
Platform and the Ozona Arch, which separate 
the Delaware and Val Verde Basins on the west 
from the Midland Basin on the east; the Marfa 
Basin, separated from the Delaware Basin by 
the Diablo Platform; the Northwestern Shelf on 
the southern extremity of the Perdenal Uplift 
and Matador Arch; and the eastern Shelf on the 
western periphery of the Bend Arch. 

From Cambrian through Late Mississippian 
time, the Permian Basin was a relatively stable, 
gently dipping, uniform marine shell area, 
which gradually developed into a marine basin 



with surrounding peripheral shelves. From 
Late Mississippian to Early Permian time, the 
region was subjected to intense structural 
deformation and orogenic movement. This 
culminated in the development of the present 
identifiable tectonic elements. Coarse clastic 
sediments were deposited near the basin 
shorelines and graded seaward into limestones 
and extensive reef development. During 
Permian time, reef development was extensive, 
especially along basin hingelines and the deep 
basins became progressively smaller as they 
became sediment filled. The Paleozoic era was 
brought to a close with the widespread 
formation of evaporite and red bed sequences 
in the Late Permian. Representative 
stratigraphic sections of all Paleozoic systems 
are present and reach a maximum combined 
thickness in excess of 25,000 feet. However, 
most of the sediments are restricted to 
thicknesses of less than 15,000 feet. 

Marathon Fold Belt, Diablo Uplift and Marfa 
Basin (Trans-Pecos Area) 

The Trans-Pecos area is located in extreme 
southwestern Texas along the Rio Grande 
River and includes all or part of El Paso, 
Hudspeth, Culbertson, Jeff Davis, Presidio, 
Brewster and Pecos Counties. It includes 
many highly complex subsurface geologic 
features including all or part of the 
Ouachita-Marathon Structural Belt, the 
Laramide Thrust Belt, the Marfa Basin, the 
Diablo Platform and numerous smaller 
structural features. Deformation and volcanism 
of the Basin and Range Province was later 
imposed on all of the above features in the 
Trans-Pecos area. 

The Marathon Fold Belt covers most of 
Brewster County and the most southern portion 
of Pecos County. It is described as a 
structurally complex area that has been the site 
of large scale subsidence, thick sedimentary 



3-10 



accumulations and intense folding and faulting 
associated with thrusting. 

This entire area is intensely and complexly 
faulted and fractured. The 

Permo-Pennsylvanian was a major tectonic 
period for the Trans-Pecos area. The early 
Tertiary was another period of uplift and 
erosion that was later followed by explosive 
volcanic activity during middle and late 
Tertiary. This resulted in a blanket of volcanic 
rocks, up to 3,000 feet thick, over the Marfa 
Basin and some adjoining areas, along with 
intrusives of the same age. 

Several hundred caves of the Edwards Plateau 
and other rugged areas of Texas are known. 
Many are listed in the Texas Cave Survey and 
index. A few noteworthy caves include, by 
counties: Longhorn Cavern in Burnet; Wonder 
Cave in Hays (name changed to Wonder World 
to include park area); Natural Bridge Cavern in 
Cornal; Devil's Sinkhole, Palace, Dragool, 
Kickapoo and Green Caves in Edwards; 
caverns of Sonora and Feltron Cave in Sutton; 
Cascade Caverns and the Century Caverns in 
Kendall; Indian Creek, Rambie's and Frio Bat 
Caves in Uvalde; Fern, Diablo, Fawcett and 
Lead Caves in Val Verde; Marathon Cave in 
Brewster; 0-9 Water Well Cave in Crockett 
and Menard Count's Jack Pit Cave, with 
19,000 feet of passage, the longest officially 
mapped Texas cave. Inner Space Cave near 
Georgetown, was discovered in the 1960's. 



(10) Socio-Economics 

Texas is the third most populous state with 
over 17 million people, however, much of its 
land area is used for agricultural purposes. 
Over 81 percent of the population resides in the 
metropolitan counties surrounding the larger 
cities. Texas ranked second in the United 
States in cash receipts from agriculture and 
ranked first in cattle production in 1990. 
While no estimates of rural vs. urban land uses 
were located, these figures indicate a 
predominately urban population with large 
areas of lower population densities. 

Oil and natural gas are the most valuable 
minerals produced in Texas, contributing 28 
percent of the oil production and 33 percent of 
the gas production in the United States in 1984. 
Oil and gas have been produced from most 
areas of Texas and from rocks of all geologic 
eras except the Precambrian. All of the major 
sedimentary basins of Texas have produced 
some oil or gas. The well known Permian 
Basin of West Texas has yielded large 
quantities of oil since 1921 and it is an area of 
considerable promise for future production as 
well. Although large quantities of petroleum 
have been produced from rocks of Permian 
age, production in the area also occurs from 
older Paleozoic rocks. Production from rocks 
of Paleozoic age occurs primarily from the 
North Central Region westward to New 
Mexico and southwestward to the Rio Grande, 
but there is also significant Paleozoic 
production in North Texas in Tarrant, Grayson 
and Cooke counties. 



3-11 



CHAPTER FOUR 
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES 




CHAPTER FOUR 
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES 



INTRODUCTION 

This chapter analyzes the impacts which would 
result from implementing any of the three RMP 
alternatives. The alternatives under 

consideration are Alternative A, in which there 
would be no change from the present 
management, Alternative B, which would 
provide management with additional surface 
protection measures and Alternative C, which 
would eliminate oil and gas leasing. 

This chapter also analyzes the cumulative 
impacts resulting from CMG which are 
common to all alternatives and would likely 
occur no matter which alternative is selected. 
This chapter further analyzes the anticipated 
impacts of the issue as it relates to each of the 
alternatives. 

Knowledge of the area and professional 
judgement, based upon observation and 
analysis of similar conditions and responses in 
similar areas, have been used to infer 
environmental impacts where data are limited. 
The "long-term", for purposes of the analysis 
in this document, is 20 years and the 
"short-term" is 5 years. 

The analysis of unavoidable adverse impacts, 
short-term versus long-term productivity, and 
irreversible and irretrievable impacts is 
discussed, by alternative, in the impact analysis 
for each resource rather than under a separate 
heading. If irreversible and irretrievable 
impacts or short versus long-term productivity 
are not discussed in a given section, there are 
none. 

In order to accomplish an analysis of the 
cumulative impacts of Federal oil and gas 
leasing and development within Texas, it was 
necessary to develop certain assumptions 



concerning the level of activity that may occur 
over the optimum 20 year life of the RMP. 

The BLM has prepared an evaluation of the 
potential for the occurrence and development of 
Federal oil and gas within the state of Texas. 
This evaluation, called the Fluid Minerals 
Assessment (FMA), available for review at the 
BLM, contains the Baseline Reasonable 
Foreseeable Development (RFD) scenario. 
The RFD scenario evaluates historic oil and 
gas activity and presents this as trends and 
projections. The RFD assumptions specifically 
dealing with the number of Federal wells which 
could be expected to be drilled, area of 
disturbance and well distribution were used in 
developing the impact analysis of each 
alternative. 

In order to analyze potential cumulative 
impacts of Federal oil and gas leasing, an 
estimate of total number of Federal wells to be 
drilled over the life of the plan was made. The 
RFD projection is for the development of over 
103,200 wells (both non-Federal and Federal) 
to be drilled within Texas during the next 20 
years based upon current economic conditions 
and drilling trends from the years 1985-1991. 

For planning purposes, this projection is 
further refined to estimate that 20 Federal oil 
and gas wells will be completed each year in 
the planning area over the next 20 years. This 
estimate is based upon the percentage of 
Federal mineral ownership (less that 1 percent) 
and the fact that 60 percent of the Federal 
development is on U.S. Forest Service lands 
not included in the planning area. 

The estimated number of Federal wells will be 
the same for Alternatives A and B. The 



additional stipulations applied under 
Alternative B would not reduce anticipated 
activity, but would control timing of lease 
operations and could add additional costs. As 
oil and gas fields are depleted, oil and gas 
drilling activity would decrease under 
Alternative C. As existing lease acreage is 
reduced by nonproduction, fewer wells would 
be drilled to hold depleted fields. For land use 
planing purposes under Alternative C, 1,000 
acres of Federal lease termination annually due 



to nonproduction would result in less than half 
the projected activity estimated for 
Alternatives A and B. Another product of this 
evaluation are maps which display the Potential 
for Conventional Oil and Gas Occurrence (Map 
4-1), Oil and Gas Proved Reserves Potential 
(Map 4-2) and Oil and Gas Development 
Potential (Map 4-3) which display the areas in 
the state where this oil and gas activity will 
likely take place. 



4-2 



POTENTIAL FOR CONVENTIONAL OIL AND GAS OCCURRENCE 



-106.000 



■104.000 



■102.000 



■100.000 



-98.000 



-96.000 



-94.00D 



/ N 



r 



30.000 




30.000 



-106.000 



■104.000 



■102.000 -100.000 -98.000 

Scale 1 :8000000. 



-96.000 



-94.000 



-100.0CO 






56.000 



G 

2 



§ 



r 



OIL AND GAS 
PROVED RESERVES 
POTENTIAL 




H - HIGH 
M ■ MEDIUM 
L-LOW 
N - NONE 



Scale 1:8000000. 



-104.000 



-100.000 



-96.000 



36.000 



N 



t 

w 



26.000 



OIL AND GAS 
DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL 




H - HIGH 
M - MEDIUM 
L-LOW 



32.000 



30.000 



28.000 



26.000 



-104.000 



£ 



Scale 1:8000000. 



ranu^BunaanHHOi 



OIL AND GAS LEASING AND 
DEVELOPMENT 

The following assumptions were used to 
analyze each alternative: 



1. Oil and gas drilling activity will slowly 
increase in Texas over the next 20 years. As 
reserves are depleted, a stable demand will 
result in a need for more discoveries. 

2. The percentage of new oil and gas well 
starts on Federal minerals will continue to be 
less than one percent of total wells drilled in 
Texas. Federal minerals make up less than one 
percent of mineral ownership within the state 
and do not always occur in productive areas. 

3. Drilling activity on Federal minerals will 
occur within existing fields or as an extension 
(within 2 miles) of these fields. The majority 
(more than 50 percent) of the wells projected 
for Alternatives A and B, and all of the wells 
projected for Alternative C, will be drilled on 
lands already under lease (as of 1995). 

4. If leased, isolated tracts of Federal minerals 
of less than 40 acres in size would not be 
drilled except as a last resort by a prudent 
operator. Small tracts are typically grouped 
with other developed tracts into a 
communitization agreement. 

5. The laws and regulations pertaining to 
Federal minerals management as well as BLM 
policies and procedures will not change 
substantially over the next 20 years. 

6. All lease terms, conditions and stipulations 
will be adhered to and will be effective in 
mitigating potential impacts. 

7. Reclamation procedures will be completed 
and will be successful. 



The baseline RFD scenario would apply to both 
Alternative A and B. This development 
scenario would be expected with no change in 
current management as well as with an increase 
in environmental protection at the lease stage. 
As the preceding assumptions would indicate, 
the differences between the RFDs for the three 
alternatives are minor. 

Land surface needed for an oil and gas well 
site varies somewhat with the well location, 
depth and type of equipment used to drill the 
well. Drill sites usually range from one to 
several acres in size, with deeper wells 
requiring more area due to larger drilling rigs, 
additional ancillary facilities and the need for 
more equipment and supplies than shallow 
wells. The estimated average size of a drill 
pad for the purpose of this planning effort is 
3.4 acres. 

Deep wells may require a year or more to 
drill, whereas, shallow wells take only a few 
days. Based upon the information presented in 
the RFD, the assumption is made for planning 
purposes that most Federal wells will be 
completed in a short time (3-4 weeks) with 
adequate time for revegetation or rehabilitation 
during the first year. 

Producing oil wells, particularly flowing wells, 
require a smaller area than drilling sites and 
pumping wells. Gas wells generally involve 
even less surface area than oil wells due to less 
production equipment being required. 
Completed wells, with tank batteries for 
separating liquids and storage of production, 
occupy a half acre or less. For the purpose of 
this planning effort, the assumption is made 
that 2.9 acres of a 3.4 acre drill pad will be 
revegetated or rehabilitated during the 
following year. Typically, this land is returned 
to its previous use. 



4-6 



Temporary access roads, 16 to 40 feet wide, 
are built to well locations in such a manner that 
reclamation will be easier and less costly in the 
event of a dry hole. Usually, the most direct 
or least costly route to a well site is from an 
existing road and will normally not exceed one 
mile in length. Approximately two and 
one-quarter acres of surface disturbance for 
roads and pipelines are used for the purpose of 
this planning effort. 

The anticipated short-term surface acres 
disturbed by Federal oil and gas wells is 
presented on Table 4-1. The surface 
disturbance anticipated to be remaining 
following rehabilitation or revegetation after 
the first year is presented on Table 4-2. 
Specific rehabilitation or revegetation 
requirements will be established by the BLM at 
APD stage. 



TABLE 4-1 

ESTIMATED SHORT-TERM SURFACE 

DISTURBANCE CAUSED BY FEDERAL 

OIL AND GAS ACTIVITY IN TEXAS 

BY ALTERNATIVE 





AVG. # 




TOTAL 




WELLS 


ACRES 


DISTURBED 




PER 


PER 


PER 


ALTERNATIVE 


YEAR 


WELL* 


YEAR 


Alt. A Continuation of 








Present Management 20 


5.65 


113 


Alt. B Intensive Surface 








Management 


20 


5.65 


113 


Alt. C No Leasing 


10 


5.65 


56.5 



* Drill pad and access road 
(Source: BLM) 



TABLE 4-2 

ESTIMATED SURFACE DISTURBANCE 

CAUSED BY FEDERAL OIL AND GAS 

ACTIVITY IN TEXAS BY 

ALTERNATIVE FOLLOWING 

REHABILITATION AFTER ONE YEAR 





AVG. tt 




TOTAL 




WELLS 


ACRES 


DISTURBED 




PER 


PER 


PER 


ALTERNATIVE 


YEAR 


WELL* 


YEAR 


Alt. A Continuation of 








Present Management 20 


2.75 


55 


Alt. B Intensive Surface 








Management 


20 


2.75 


55 


Alt. C No Leasing 


10 


2.75 


27.5 



*Drill pad and access road 
(Source: BLM) 

Most oil and gas fields range from less than 
1,000 acres up to many thousands of acres in 
size. Field development practices vary widely 
depending on the nature and characteristics of 
each individual field. Generally, oil wells are 
drilled on 40-acre spacing. Forty-acre spacing 
results in 16 wells per 640 acre section with 
wells being located 1,320 feet apart. In this 
pattern of development, several oil wells would 
produce into central tank batteries through 
pipelines. Gas wells are usually drilled on 
640-acre spacing, but poor drainage 
characteristics or other considerations may 
result in an increased density of 320 or 
160-acre spacing. Gas wells drilled on 
160-acre spacing would result in 4 wells per 
section. These development scenarios would 
each require multiple roads and pipelines. 
Therefore, cumulative land use requirements 
associated with the above described actions are 
difficult to quantify. All estimates of 
cumulative impacts in Table 4-3 are based 
upon an average of 20 Federal wells drilled per 
year extrapolated over the life of the plan to 



4-7 



the year 2016. The estimates of cumulative 
surface disturbance following rehabilitation or 
revegetation occurring after the first year are 
presented on Table 4-4. 

TABLE 4-3 

ESTIMATED CUMULATIVE 

SHORT-TERM SURFACE 

DISTURBANCE CAUSED BY FEDERAL 

OIL AND GAS ACTIVITY IN TEXAS 

BY ALTERNATIVE THROUGH THE 

YEAR 2016 



ALTERNATIVE 



TOTAL AVG. AVG. TOTAL 
§ PAD ROAD ACRES 

WELLS ACRES ACRES DISTURBED 



Alt. A 










Continuation of 










Present Management 


400 


1,360 


900 


2,260 


Alt. B 










Intensive Surface 










Management 


400 


1,360 


900 


2,260 


Alt. C 










No Leasing 


200 


680 


450 


1.130 



(Source: BLM) 

TABLE 4-4 

ESTIMATED CUMULATrVE SURFACE 

DISTURBANCE CAUSED BY FEDERAL 

OIL AND GAS ACTIVITY IN TEXAS BY 

ALTERNATIVE FOLLOWING 

REHABH.IT ATION THROUGH THE 

YEAR 2016 



ALTERNATIVE 


TOTAL 

tt 
WELLS 


AVG. 

PAD 

ACRES 


AVG. 

ROAD 

ACRES 


TOTAL 

ACRES 

DISTURBED 


Alt. A 

Continuation of 
Present Management 


400 


200 


900 


1,100 


Alt. B 

Intensive Surface 
Management 


400 


200 


900 


1,100 


Alt. C 
No Leasing 


200 


100 


450 


550 



Based upon the projections of total oil and gas 
development, the total acreage disturbed by all 
oil and gas activities in Texas will average 
29,154 acres annually. The small amount of 
total surface disturbance attributed to Federal 
oil and gas development is due to the small 
number of Federal wells expected to be drilled 
(less than 0.5 percent of the total wells drilled 
in Texas each year) and the fact that many 
Federal mineral tracts are leased for pooling 
purposes only and are never drilled. 



MANAGEMENT 



CONTINUING 
GUIDANCE (CMG) 



Alternative A is the application of CMG. The 
application of leasing and development 
guidelines and policy to each tract of Federal 
mineral estate is displayed in Chapter 2, as 
well as site specific application of alternatives. 
CMG would be applicable to all alternatives 
and reflected in the analysis of the impacts of 
the alternatives on the affected environmental 
components. 

ENVIRONMENTAL COMPONENTS 

The environmental components are those that 
could be impacted by implementation of one or 
more of the alternatives. 

The environmental concerns or components 
that are known to be affected by oil and gas 
development include air quality, water, soils, 
vegetation, wildlife, cultural resources, 
paleontological resources, minerals and social 
and economic conditions. 



(Source: BLM) 



4-8 



IMPACTS OF ALTERNATIVE A, 
CONTINUATION OF PRESENT 
MANAGEMENT (NO ACTION) AND 
ALTERNATIVE B. INTENSIVE SURFACE 
PROTECTION (PREFERRED 
ALTERNATIVE) 

Under Alternative A and B, approximately 20 
Federal oil and gas wells would be drilled per 
year in Texas. 

1. Air Quality 

Impacts to air quality will typically be minor, 
short-term and very localized. Road and pad 
development would result in small amounts of 
fugitive dust production, vehicle exhaust 
emissions and associated release of carbon 
monoxide. 

Impacts to air quality will be reduced at the 
project stage by development of site specific 
COA for an APD or other action. These site 
specific requirements could range from 
watering access roads, to keep particulates low, 
to required flaring of hazardous gases. 

2. Water Resources 

Activities associated with oil and gas 
development could have adverse impacts on 
surface and subsurface waters. 



Waste fluids associated with oil and gas 
operations would present another potentially 
adverse impact to surface waters. Reserve pit 
and/or produced waters could migrate from 
unlined pits into nearby surface waters, 
possibly degrading water quality. Reserve pit 
fluids may contain small amounts of toxic 
elements used in drilling mud, such as 
chromium (hexavalent) and other heavy metals. 
Drilling and completion fluids may have high 
salt concentrations. Produced waters may also 
contain high concentrations of salts 
(particularly sodium and chloride) and heavy 
metals. 

COA for APDs within Texas have been 
developed to reduce impacts to surface waters. 
Operators are required to construct pits from 
clay to reduce migration, line pits with an 
impervious membrane or use a closed drilling 
system. Also, erosion control measures such 
as the strategic placement of hay bales, silt 
fences, etc. may be required. 

Subsurface Waters 

Oil and gas operators are required to protect 
freshwater zones by the placement of casing, 
cement, packers and/or other downhole 
devices. Improper or inadequate placement 
could result in adverse impacts to fresh water 
aquifers. 



Surface Waters 

Detrimental impacts could occur to surface 
waters such as lakes and perennial streams 
from increased soil erosion resulting from pad 
and road development within watersheds. 
Increased sediment and salinity loads in 
streams and sedimentation of reservoirs leads 
to lowered productivity and loss of fisheries 
habitats. 



3. Soils 

Oil and gas development will have a direct 
adverse impact on soils physically disturbed. 
This impact would be limited to the areas 
where the vegetation is removed, destroyed or 
damaged by vehicular traffic. The impacts 
would be of two types: (1) physical removal, 
mixing, or burying of the surface soils or 
(2) damage or destruction of soil properties in 
place. 



4-9 



The first impact would be caused by site 
preparation for well pads, related structures, 
roads, erosion and slope failures. This would 
destroy the soil texture, mix the soil horizons, 
and cause a short-term reduction in the 
potential productivity of the soils. 

Revegetation of these disturbed areas would 
initiate the process of creating new soil 
structure and soil horizons. The revegetation 
rate would vary depending on soil moisture, 
rainfall and time of year. The initial soil 
productivity would be influenced by organic 
matter incorporated into the soil by the 
rehabilitation method used. Soil productivity 
should not be significantly different from 
undisturbed areas following rehabilitation. 

Soil compaction, the second impact, would be 
caused by vehicle or machinery operation. 
Wide variations in the amount of compaction 
would be expected due to the wide weight 
ranges of different equipment. Soil compaction 
would decrease water and air infiltration into 
the soil profile and thus, reduce soil 
productivity. Where soil compaction is severe, 
soil vegetation productivity would be virtually 
eliminated in the short-term without mechanical 
treatment to reduce compaction. 

A COA utilized to reduce impacts to soils is to 
require the operator to stockpile the topsoil for 
later use in rehabilitation. The small amount 
of soil disturbance anticipated from developing 
20 wells (113 acres) on Federal leases in a 
given year or cumulatively for 400 wells 
(2,260 acres) for the life of the RMP, would 
result in no measurable effect on total 
vegetative productivity within a particular soil 
or vegetative type. 

4. Vegetation 

Construction of access roads, pipelines and 
drill pads would result in the loss of 



approximately 5.65 acres of vegetation per well 
site. With proper reclamation following 
drilling, this loss of vegetation would be 
short-term, assuming that reclamation success 
would take approximately two years for native 
grasses or one year for crops. 

Although as much as 2.9 acres of the 3.4 acre 
drill pad may be reclaimed at the time of 
developing a well site, additional road 
widening to accommodate a pipeline or power 
line could offset this reclamation success. 
Approximately 113 acres of vegetation could 
be expected to be disturbed annually due to 
Federal oil and gas lease development under 
Alternative A and B. Cumulative vegetation 
disturbed regardless of rehabilitation success 
would be approximately 2,260 acres under 
these alternatives. 

Impacts to riparian and wetland vegetation 
would be minimized. Under Alternatives A 
and B, no oil and gas development would be 
allowed to result in a net loss of these 
vegetation types. Pursuant to 

43 CFR 3101.1-1, proposed operations can be 
relocated up to 200 meters in the absence of a 
stipulation. Under Alternatives A and B, 
stipulation ORA-2 could result in relocation of 
proposed operations in excess of 200 meters. 

E.O. 11990 and the BLM's policies regarding 
wetland and riparian area management and 
protection, govern the types of surface 
disturbing activities permitted in these high 
value resource areas. 

To comply with the requirements of the ESA, 
proposed oil and gas surface disturbance sites 
would be evaluated and then inventoried, if 
necessary, for SSS occurrence at the 
operational stage. This would ensure that sites 
having the potential for special status plant 
species would be inventoried and well locations 
changed to avoid any discovered species. 



4-10 



5. Wildlife 

Oil and gas leasing and subsequent 
development impacts wildlife both directly and 
indirectly. Direct impacts consist of actions 
that result in immediate mortality to an 
individual or several members of a group, such 
as collision with vehicles and soil compaction 
by machinery. Indirect impacts include actions 
that affect animal behavior or habitat quality or 
quantity. 

The direct loss of habitat as a result of surface 
disturbance of approximately 2,260 acres due 
to Federal oil and gas leasing over the next 20 
years would not be a significant impact to the 
wildlife of the state of Texas. If oil and gas 
activities were concentrated in a small area 
over an extended period, detectable impacts 
may occur. The major concern would be the 
impact of human activity associated with the 
surface disturbance. The severity of impacts 
would depend on factors such as time of year, 
duration of activity, and sensitivity of species 
involved. 

Oil and gas extraction may have an additional 
impact upon wildlife populations causing a 
particular species or population to expend more 
energy due to disruptions in seasonal activity 
patterns, habitat avoidance due to surface 
activities or flight to escape. These effects are 
more significant during critical seasons when 
the animals are already under stress. 

No significant impact to general wildlife 
populations is anticipated under 
Alternative A after application of appropriate 
mitigating measures. 

Impacts to wildlife under Alternative B would 
be less than those described for Alternative A. 
Under Alternative B, additional, optional 
stipulations (ORA-3 and ORA-4) would be 
included to provide both species and habitat 



protection. The impact to seasonal wildlife use 
areas caused by human presence would be 
mitigated under Alternative B by application of 
ORA-3. For example, a season of use 
stipulation, ORA-3, would protect wintering 
waterfowl from disturbance in areas adjacent to 
wetlands. 

6. Special Status Species (SSS) 

The protection of SSS is a requirement of 
operating on a Federal oil and gas lease. 

To comply with the requirements of the ESA, 
most oil and gas pre-leasing actions for Federal 
split-estate minerals in Texas and all proposed 
surface disturbance sites (APDs, Sundry 
Notices, etc.) would be evaluated for SSS 
occurrence at the time that a nomination for 
lease or operational application is received. 

This ensures that each site having the potential 
for special status plant and animal species 
would be evaluated, inventoried if necessary 
and proposed projects modified to avoid 
impacts to SSS. 

The BLM will evaluate each lease nomination 
of split-estate lands using information provided 
by the applicant. The decision to enter into 
agency coordination with the TPWD and the 
FWS for these proposed lease areas will be 
made on a case by case basis. Agency 
coordination would be initiated should the 
proposed lease area warrant evaluation beyond 
review of maps (and other available 
information) and application of the lease 
stipulations and notices presented in this RMP. 

The BLM, at the APD (operational, post-lease) 
stage, will write the TPWD and the FWS for 
their regulatory involvement comments 
regarding SSS, wetlands and other significant 
wildlife resources they may be aware of in the 
vicinity of the site specific project. These two 



4-11 



agencies provide their analyses of the 
likelihood of SSS or other important wildlife 
resources occurring in the vicinity of the 
project and their recommendations whether site 
specific SSS surveys are necessary. The 
operator/applicant is responsible for hiring a 
qualified biologist/botanist to be acknowledged 
by the TPWD and the FWS. The 
operator/applicant is also responsible for 
completion of the surveys and subsequent 
reports in a manner acceptable to BLM, TPWD 
and the FWS. 

In the absence of pre-leasing SSS information 
and T&E lease notices, the information and 
recommendations received through post-leasing 
agency coordination can be imposed on the 
applicant through Section 6 of the BLM Lease 
Terms. These terms appear on the back of 
every BLM oil and gas lease (Offer to Lease 
and Lease for Oil and Gas, Form 3100-11). 
Pursuant to Section 6 of these lease terms the 
company submitting the APD can be required 
to perform studies and/or surveys for SSS. 
The need for, and results of, such surveys are 
coordinated with the above mentioned agencies 
and culminates in imposing the necessary 
requirements to comply with the ESA and state 
of Texas endangered species laws. 

Accidental deaths of bats and migratory birds 
at BLM approved oil and gas facilities will be 
minimized by the use of COAs and general 
requirements designed to modify, equip or 
construct facilities in such a manner as to 
protect these SSS resources. These measures 
have been discussed in Chapter Two of this 
document. 

Impacts to SSS or other species of wildlife will 
not be significant due to the measures discussed 
above and the relatively small number of total 
acres (2,260 acres) to be disturbed over 20 
years of Federal oil and gas lease development. 



Alternatives A and B are not likely to 
adversely affect Federal or state listed T&E 
plant or animal species, designated critical 
habitat, species proposed for listing, category 
one or two species under review by the FWS 
or any other SSS. 

7. Cultural Resources 

There are both positive and adverse cumulative 
impacts upon cultural resources under 
Alternatives A and B. Development of Federal 
oil and gas resources would mean that more 
areas would have undergone Class III survey 
inventory. This would provide more 
information related to past human activities in 
the planning area. 

The cultural resources that could be impacted 
by oil and gas development are protected by a 
group of Federal laws, particularly Section 106 
of the National Historic Preservation Act as 
amended (NHPA). Procedures and 

responsibilities in this law are based on the 
earlier preservation laws, the NHPA as 
amended, E.O. 11593, the Archeological and 
Historic Preservation Act of 1974, FLPMA, 
the American Indian Religious Freedom Act 
of 1978, the Archeological Resources 
Protection Act of 1979 and Native American 
Grave Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990. 
Policy and management for Texas cultural 
resources are drawn from these laws using 
BLM's 8100 manual for cultural resources. 
Cultural resources are also protected by NEPA. 

A majority of the workload in cultural 
resources involves compliance with Section 106 
of the NHPA. Section 106 requires the BLM 
to take into account the effects of oil and gas 
development on all cultural resources. The 
BLM's policy is to avoid impacts to significant 
cultural resources, but if impacts cannot be 
avoided, then mitigation may be required 
before approval of the undertaking. When it is 



4-12 



determined that oil and gas development will 
have an effect on cultural resources, 
consultation is initiated with the SHPO or the 
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation to 
resolve the matter on a case by case basis. 

8. Paleontology 

Oil and gas development in Texas could disturb 
surface exposure of geologic formations 
bearing fossils or trackways. Many Texas 
counties have produced fossil material, 
particularly Somervell, and Brewster Counties. 
The disturbance would be in the form of a 
direct impact, such as drill pad excavation or 
from pipeline and road building. In most well 
impacts within Texas, preservation of 
individual outcrops is unimportant, either 
because of lack of significance or the absence 
of fossil material. 

Under Alternatives A and B, there would be no 
significant impact to the paleontological 
resources of Texas after application of the 
appropriate mitigation measures. 

9. Minerals 

Federal oil and gas leasing and development 
would occur under Alternatives A and B. 

Under Alternatives A and B, approximately 20 
wells per year will be drilled on Federal oil 
and gas leases. 

The low amount of Federal oil and gas activity 
that results from the Federal mineral estate 
would not be a significant impact on the states 
mineral resources, however, the extraction of 
Federal oil and gas could be termed significant 
on a local level. Extraction of oil and gas 
would result in an irreversible and irretrievable 
loss of the resources. 



10. Social And Economic 

Projected oil and gas development indicates 
that regardless of which Federal oil and gas 
leasing alternative is selected as the RMP, 
approximately 103,200 oil and gas wells will 
be drilled in the state over the next 20 years. 

Under Alternatives A and B, approximately 
400 Federal oil and gas wells would be drilled 
in the same period. The relative small 
percentage of Federal oil and gas activity 
results in insignificant impacts to the economy 
and social structure of the state of Texas. 
However, the economic and social structure of 
individual small communities could be expected 
to be impacted by local operations on Federal 
minerals. Overall, Federal oil and gas leasing 
and development within the RMP area would 
not have a significant impact on state-wide oil 
and gas based economics under Alternatives A 
andB. 

Impacts to the states' social and economic 
structure under these alternatives would be the 
same, except that lease development under 
Alternative B could be more costly to operators 
due to restrictions on the location and timing of 
operations. Bonus bids could also be less and 
therefore, less revenue would be generated to 
the Federal government. 

IMPACTS OF ALTERNATIVE C. NO 
LEASING 

Under Alternative C, approximately 10 Federal 
oil and gas wells would be drilled per year in 
Texas. These wells would be drilled on 
existing leases. 

1. Air Quality 

Impacts to air quality under Alternative C 
would be approximately half the described 
impacts for Alternatives A and B. 



4-13 



2. Water Resources 



7. Cultural Resources 



Impacts to both surface and subsurface waters 
under Alternative C would be approximately 
half those described for Alternatives A and B. 



Impacts to cultural resources under 
Alternative C would be approximately half 
those described for Alternatives A and B. 



3. Soils 

Impacts to soils under Alternative C would be 
approximately half the described impacts for 
Alternatives A and B. 



8. Paleontology 

Impacts to paleontological resources under 
Alternative C would be approximately half 
those described for Alternatives A and B. 



4. Vegetation 

Impacts to vegetation under Alternative C 
would be approximately half those described 
for Alternatives A and B. 

5. Wildlife 

Impacts to wildlife under Alternative C would 
be approximately half those described for 
Alternatives A and B. None of the additional 
stipulations or lease notices applicable to 
Alternative B would apply to leased tracts. 

6. Special Status Species 

Impacts to SSS under Alternative C would be 
the same as described for Alternatives A 
and B. The protection of SSS is a requirement 
of operating on a Federal oil and gas lease. 



9. Minerals 

Impacts to mineral resources under 
Alternative C would be approximately half 
those described for Alternatives A and B. No 
additional Federal oil and gas would be leased, 
but existing leases would continue to be 
developed. 

10. Social and Economic 

Impacts to the states social and economic 
structure under Alternative C would be 
approximately half those described for 
Alternatives A and B, except that Alternative C 
would result in a loss of Federal lease revenues 
to the state and Federal governments from 
lease sale bonus bids, lease rentals and fees, 
royalties and taxes. 



4-14 



CHAPTER FIVE 
CONSULTATION AND COORDINATION 




CHAPTER FIVE 
CONSULTATION AND COORDINATION 



INTRODUCTION 

This chapter summarizes the consultation and 
coordination conducted in preparation of the 
Draft Texas RMP/EIS. During preparation of 
this document, both formal and informal efforts 
have been made to involve the public, other 
Federal agencies, state agencies and local 
governments in the planning process. Several 
points of public involvement are mandated by 
regulations and were complied with. 

Prior to the preparation of this document, the 
process of data collection and other preliminary 
activities occurred. This process included 
inventory, public participation, interagency 
coordination and preparation of a MSA. The 
MSA, as well as documentation of consultation 
and coordination efforts, are on file in the 
BLM office. Consultation and coordination 
with other Federal agencies, state agencies, 
organizations and individuals occurred in a 
variety of ways throughout the planning 
process. SSS information was requested from 
the FWS and TPWD by correspondence dated 
October 25, 1994. Lists of SSS from these 
agencies appear in Appendix 4. The FWS and 
the TPWD realize the statewide scope of this 
RMP\EIS effort and are familiar with the site 
specific project review process currently in 
use. 

The BLM will continue ESA consultation and 
coordination for the Texas RMP/EIS by issuing 
an "Evaluation of Special Status Species, 
Wetlands and Riparian Zones" report which 
will contain BLM' s "No-Effect" determination. 
This evaluation will use the Draft RMPNEIS as 
documentation and these two documents 
together will serve as BLM's Biological 
Assessment. The FWS and the TPWD will be 
asked to review, comment and concur with 
BLM's "No-Effect" determination. BLM's 



"No-Effect" determination is predicated upon 
the use of leasing stipulations, lease notices, 
site specific impact analysis and wildlife 
agency coordination prior to site specific 
Federal actions. These measures are developed 
and discussed throughout this document. 

The Texas RMP/EIS was prepared by an 
interdisciplinary team of resource specialists 
from the Tulsa District. Table 5-1 lists the 
names and qualifications of each team member. 

CONSISTENCY WITH OTHER PLANS 

The BLM planning regulations require that 
RMPs be "consistent with officially approved 
or adopted resource-related plans and the 
policies and procedures contained therein, of 
other Federal agencies, state and local 
governments and Indian tribes, so long as the 
guidance and RMPs are also consistent with the 
purposes, policies and programs of Federal 
laws and regulations applicable to public 
lands ..." (43 CFR 1610.3-2). In order to 
ensure consistency, finalized resource 
management plans were solicited from all 
Federal, state and local agencies involved 
and/or cooperating in the development of this 
plan. 

PUBLIC PARTICIPATION 

Public involvement in the preparation of a land 
use plan is a dynamic process occurring 
throughout the development and 
implementation of an RMP. In addition to the 
formal public participation steps, informal 
contacts occur frequently with Federal oil and 
gas operators, lessees and other interested 
persons and groups through meetings, 
telephone calls and/or letters. All applicable 



^^■^■■■^ 



'.. ■■■'...•JwwwaMBMWiwflK 



public participation is documented throughout 
the planning process. Public participatory 
input for the Texas RMP/EIS was solicited 
through the following methods: 

1. A "Notice of Intent" to conduct land use 
planning, call for coal, other mineral, and 
resource information and an announcement of 
dates, locations and times of the public 
meetings/open houses provided to receive oral 
comments was published on August 24, 1992, 
in the Federal Register, 57 FR 38324. 

2. A news release announcing initiation of the 
land use planning effort and repeating the 
information contained in the Federal Register 
notice was sent on August 26, 1992, to the 
approximately 350 groups, individuals, 
corporations and agencies contained on the 
Texas RMP/EIS mailing list. 

3. A duplicate News Release of the one sent 
to the Mailing List, was sent to 107 
newspapers throughout the state on August 24, 
1992. 



4. Public meetings/open houses were held in 
Texas at: Austin, September 24, Amarillo, 
September 28, Midland, September 29, 
Arlington, October 13, Houston, October 14, 
and Corpus Christi, October 15, 1992. These 
meetings were a means to provide the public 
the opportunity to provide comments and 
identify potential issues orally. 

Copies of the Federal Register notices, news 
releases, the RMP/EIS mailing list and the list 
of the newspapers receiving copies of the news 
releases are available for review, during the 
hours of 8:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m., at the BLM 
office in Moore, Oklahoma. 

PUBLIC REVIEW OF THE DRAFT 
RMP/EIS 

Table 5-2 is a partial listing of various Federal, 
state and local agencies, organizations, groups 
and individuals to which the Draft RMP/EIS is 
being sent for review and comment. 



5-2 



TABLE 5-1 
LIST OF PREPARERS 



NAME/ 

RMP RESPONSIBILITY 



EDUCATION/EXPERIENCE 



Brian Mills 
Team Leader 



Phil Keasling 
Wildlife, Vegetation 



John Ledbetter 
Writer/Editor, 
Lands & Realty 



John Northcutt 
Cultural Resources, 
Paleontology 



Bob Prickett 

Environmental Protection 
Specialist 



Keith Tyler 

Environmental Protection 
Specialist 



Catherine Wolff-White 
Environmental Protection 
Specialist 



B.S., Wildlife Ecology, Oklahoma State University. 

BLM 21 years (Wildlife Biologist, 11 years, Natural Resource Specialist, 2 years, 
and Planning Team Leader, 8 years). Experience with DOD and the private sector 
(Amoco Production Inc., Research Division) prior to BLM service. 

B.S., Zoology, Oklahoma State University. 

BLM 18 years as a Wildlife Biologist. Experience with both Oklahoma State 

University and the University of Wisconsin, Madison, prior to BLM service. 

B.S., Industrial Arts Educ, Southwestern Oklahoma State University. 
BLM 11 years (Realty Specialist, 7 years, Petroleum Engineering Technician, 
4 years). Experience with DOD and private sector (Dresser Magcobar) prior to 
BLM service. 

B.A., English and Educ, Phillips University; M.A., Anthropology, Oklahoma 
University; A.A.S., Data Processing, Cameron University. 
BLM 7 years as an Archeologist. Experience as a contract Archeologist 15 years 
(7 years with the Museum of the Great Plains). 

B.S., Asian Studies; M.A., Recreation/Public Administration, University of 

Oklahoma. 

BLM 19 years (Outdoor Recreation Planner, 12 years, Technical Information 

Specialist, 4 years, Environmental Protection Specialist, 3 years). 

B.S., Biology /Fisheries Biology, Colorado State University. Post-graduate studies, 
Hazardous Materials Manager certification/MS degree. 

BLM 13 years (Hazardous Materials Coordinator, 6 years, Petroleum Engineering 
Technician, 6 years, Fisheries Biologist, 1 year). Experience with private sector 
(Global Fluids, Mud Logging Engineer). 

B.S., Geography/Cartography and Remote Sensing, Pennsylvania State University. 
BLM 11 years (Cartographic Technician, 2 years, Geographer, 6 years, 
Environmental Protection Specialist, 3 years). 



5-3 



TABLE 5-2 
LISTING OF DOCUMENT RECIPIENTS 



U.S. SENATORS 

Phil Gramm 

Kay Bailey Hutchison 



U.S. REPRESENTATIVES 

W R (Bill) Archer 
Richard Armey 
Joe Barton 
Ken Bentsen 
Henry Bonilla 
John Bryant 
Jim Chapman 
Ronald Coleman 
Larry Combest 
E (Kika) De La Garza 
Tom Delay 
Lloyd Doggett 
Chet Edwards 
Jack Fields 
Martin Frost 
Pete Geren 
Henry B Gonzalez 
Gene Green 
Ralph Hall 

Eddie Bernice Johnson 
Sam Johnson 
Greg Laughlin 
Sheila Jackson Lee 
Solomon P Ortiz 
Lamar Smith 
Charles Stenholm 
Steve Stockman 
Frank Tejeda 
William Thomberry 
Charles Wilson 



TEXAS STATE SENATORS 

Ken Armbrister 

Gonzalo Barrientos 

Teel Bivins 

James E "Buster" Brown 

David Cain 

Rodney Ellis 

Mario Gallegos 



Michael Galloway 
Chris Harris 
Tom Haywood 
Don Henderson 
John Leedom 
Eddie Lucio 
Gregory Luna 
Frank Madia 
Mike Moncrief 
John Montford 
Jane Nelson 
Drew Nixon 
Jerry Patterson 
Bill Ratliff 
Peggy Rosson 
Florence Shapiro 
David Sibley 
Bill Sims 
Carlos Truan 
Jim Turner 
Royce West 
Jeff Wentworth 
John Whitmire 
Judith Zaffirini 



TEXAS STATE REPRESENATTVES 

All house members 
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 

Department of Agriculture 

Agricultural Research Service 

U.S. Forest Service 

Soil Conservation Service 
Department of Defense 

U.S. Air Force 

U.S. Army 

Corps of Engineers 

U.S. Navy 
Department of Energy 
Department of the Interior 

Bureau of Indian Affairs 

Bureau of Mines 

Bureau of Reclamation 

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 

National Park Service 

Office of Environmental Affairs 



5-4 



Office of Surface Mining 
Department of Transportation 

Federal Aviation Administration 
Environmental Protection Agency 
International Boundary and Water Commission 



STATE GOVERNMENT 

Governor of Texas 

Commissioner of Agriculture 

Conservation Foundation 

Department of Commerce 

Department of Health 

Department of Highways and Public Transportation 

General Land Office 

Historical Commission 

Legislative Reference Library 

Library and Archives Commission 

Office of State-Federal Relations 

Office of the Attorney General 

Parks and Wildlife Department 

Public Utilities Commission 

Railroad Commission 

Texas Federal Rural Development Council 

Texas State Forester 

Water Commission 



CITY, COUNTY & TRIBAL 
ORGANIZATION/GOVERNMENT 

Alabama Coushatta Tribal Office 

Angelina and Neches River Authority 

Bastrop County Soil and Water Conservation District 

Caddo Lake Compact Commission 

City of Austin 

City of Bastrop 

City of San Antonio 

Bandera County River Authority 

Brazos River Authority 

Canadian River Municipal Water Authority 

Concho River Water and Soil Conservation Authority 

Guadalupe River Authority Upper 

Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority 

Lavaca-Navidad River Authority 

Lower Colorado River Authority 

Neches Valley Authority Lower 

Pecos River Compact Commission 

Red River Authority Board 

Runnels County Water Authority 

Sabine River Authority 



San Antonio River Authority 
San Jacinto River Authority 
Tigua Tribe (Pueblo Isleta) 
Trinity River Authority of Texas 



INDUSTRY, UNIVERSITIES & SPECIAL 
INTEREST GROUPS 

Abilene Christian University 

Adams Resources Exploration Corp 

Amoco Production Company 

Anadarko Petroleum Corporation 

Arco Oil and Gas Company 

Bastrop Advertiser 

Bastrop County News 

Bastrop ISD 

Baylor University 

Beard Oil Company 

Bechtel Environmental INC 

Bird Rescue 

Black Stone Oil Company 

Central Texas Lignite Watch 

Champion International Timber Company 

Coastal Oil and Gas Corporation 

Davis Mountains Land Commission 

Dekalb Energy Company 

East Texas State University 

Environmental Management Associates 

Espey Huston and Associates Inc 

Exxon/ Arco Exploration Company 

Exxon USA 

Frontera Audubon 

GEO-Marine Inc 

Grace Petroleum Corporation 

Grant Tensor Geophysical Corp. 

Greenbriar ISD 

Hall Southwest Water Consultants Inc 

Horizon Environmental Services 

Houston Audubon Society 

International Association of Geophysical Contractors 

Lotus Home Birthing Inc 

Louis Dreyfus Natural Gas Corp 

Maersk Energy Inc 

Mcfarlane and Associates Environmental Consultants 

Midwestern State University 

Mina Land Company 

Mitchel Energy Corp 

Mobil Exploration and Production US Inc 

Morrison Knudsen Company 

Murphy Operating Company 

Murray State College 



5-5 



National Audubon Society 
National Wildlife Federation 
Native Plant Project 
North American Consultants Inc 
North Texas State University 
Pasha Publications 
Phillips Petroleum 
Sanchez-O'Brien Oil and Gas Corp 
Shell Oil Company 
Sierra Club— Austin 



Sierra Club— Houston 
Southern Opera Workshops Inc 
Stephen F Austin University 
Temple-Inland Forest Products Corp 
Texas A & M University 
Texas Tech University 
The Bastrop County Times 
Union Pacific Resources Company 
University of Texas 
Western Geophysical 



5-6 



APPENDIX 1 

ECOLOGICAL SUBREGIONS 
OF TEXAS: 

Section Descriptions 



ECOREGIONS OF TEXAS MAP Al-1 

Preface Al-4 

Acknowledgements Al-4 

Section 231E— Mid Coastal Plains, Western Al-7 

Section 231F— Eastern Gulf Pradues and Marshes Al-8 

Section 232E— Louisiana Coast Prahoes and Marshes Al-10 

Section 232F— Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Western Gulf . Al-10 

Section 255A— Cross Timbers and Pradues Al-12 

Section 255B— Blackland Prahues Al-13 

Section 255C— Oak Woods and Prairdis Al-14 

Section 255D— Central Gulf Prahues and Marshes Al-14 

Section 311A— Redbed Plains Al-16 

Section 315B— Texas High Plains Al-17 

Section 315C— Rolling Plains Al-19 

Section 315D— Edwards Plateau Al-20 

Section 315E— Rio Grande Plain Al-20 

Section 315F— Southern Gulf Pradues and Marshes Al-21 

Section M313B— Sacramento-Manzano Mountain Al-22 

Section 321A— Basin and Range Al-24 

Section 321B— Stockton Plateau Al-25 

Section 331B— Southern High Plains Al-27 



ECOREGIONS OF TEXAS 




232F 



232E 



200 HUMID TEMPERATE DOMAIN 
230 Subtropical Division 

231 Southeastern Mixed Forest Province 

23 IE Mid Coastal Plains, Western Section 

23 IF Eastern Gulf Prairies and Marshes Section 

232 Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province 

232E Louisiana Coast Prairies and Marshes Section 
232F Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Western Gulf Section | 
250 Prairie Division 

255 Prairie Parkland (Subtropical) Province 
255A Cross Timbers and Prairie Section 
255B Blackland Prairies Section 
25 5 C Oak Woods and Prairies Section 
255D Central Gulf Prairies and Marshes Section 
300 DRY DOMAIN 

310 Tropical/Subtropical Steppe Division 

311 Great Plains Steppe and Shrub Province 

31 1 A Redbed Plains Section 
315 Southwest Plateau and Plains Dry Steppe and Shrub Province 
315B Texas High Plains Section 
315C Rolling Plains Section 
315D Edwards Plateau Section 
315E Rio Grande Plain Section 
315F Southern Gulf Prairies and Marshes Section 
M310 Tropical/Subtropical Regime Mountains . 

M313 Arizona-New Mexico Mountains Semi-Desert - Open Woodland - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province 
M313B Sacramento-Monzano Mountain Section 
320 Tropical/Subtropical Desert Division 
321 Chihuahuan Semi-Desert Province 
321 A Basin and Range Section 
32 IB Stockton Plateau Section 
330 Temperate Steppe Division 

331 Great Plains-Palouse Dry Steppe Province 
33 IB Southern High Plains Section 



Al-1 



This page intentionally left blank. 



Al-2 



Ecological Subregions 
of the United States: 

Section Descriptions 

WO-WSA-5 

Compiled by W. Henry McNab and Peter E. Avers 



Prepared in cooperation with 

Regional Compilers and the 

ECO MAP Team of the Forest Service 



July 1994 



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Preface 



This document contains the biophysical descriptions of 
the Sections as depicted on the map "Ecoregions and 
Subregions of the United States," dated June 1994. The 
basis for the map and this document is the National 
Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units (ECOMAP 
1993). This framework provides a standardized method 
for classifying, mapping, and describing ecological units at 
various geographic planning and analysis scales. 

This text, which supplements the map by describing 
the delineated Section ecological units, is the product 
of collaboration and teamwork by compilers from all 
Forest Service Regions, other Forest Service administrative 
units, States, and individuals. Because this document 
presents information on a wide range of environmental, 
biological, and cultural characteristics of ecosystems at 
the subregion scale, many compilers were involved in 
its development. Each compiler drew upon personal 
knowledge of environmental relationships and mapping 
principles and obtained help from other resource 
specialists to develop these map unit descriptions. 

This text should be viewed as a continually evolving 
and refined draft of our ability to recognize and describe 
ecosystems at the subregion scale. Because this is the first 
edition and it was prepared by many persons in a short 
time, this text undoubtedly contains errors and perhaps 
omits pertinent information. Also, because our current 
knowledge of ecosystems is limited, new relationships 
will be discovered continually. The Fttrest Service is 
committed to management based on ecological principles 
and intends to update the subregion map and this text as 
required. Users should report errors in this document 
and new knowledge applicable at the Section level in 
the national hierarchy to the Forest Service Region 
primarily responsible for its compilation. Addresses of 
Regional contacts are listed in Appendix E. Comments 
and suggestions about this document as a whole should 
be directed to the Chief, USDA Forest Service, Box 
96090, Washington, DC. 20090-6090, ATTN: Ecosystem 
Management. 



Acknowledgments 

The development and completion of this national 
document in a relatively short time period is a direct 
result of the coordination, persistent efforts, and diligent 
teamwork of many persons. Principal compilers were 
responsible for map unit delineations, developed the 
overall framework of the Section map unit descriptions, 
compiled map unit descriptions, and guided overall 
coordination and completion of tasks associated with 
this text in their Regions. Assistant compilers aided 



some principal compilers by locating and organizing 
resource information pertaining to broad geographical 
areas, synthesizing general information into succinct 
summaries, and reviewing map unit descriptions for 
accuracy. Other assistant compilers made contributions 
such as developing specific elements of the map unit 
descriptions or providing technical knowledge and support. 
Associate compilers participated by serving as subject- 
matter experts, summarizing information for specific 
geographical areas, reviewing descriptions for accuracy, 
and performing other tasks that contributed to the 
production of this text. Other individuals undoubtedly 
contributed to this document, but, unfortunately, will 
remain unknown. This text was produced through the 
collective, dilligent efforts of the following individuals. 



Principal Compilers: 

Alaska Region Terry Brock 

Eastern Region Walter E. Russell 

Intermountain Region Thomas M. Collins 

Northern Region John Nesser 

Pacific Northwest Region Robert T. Meurisse 

Pacific Southwest Region Charles B. Goudey 

Rocky Mountain Region Jerry Freeouf 

Southern Region James E. Keys, Jr. 

Southwestern Region Wayne Robbie 

Southeastern Forest Experiment 

Station W. Henry McNab 

Washington Office Peter E. Avers 



Assistant Compilers: 

Alaska Region Greg Nowacki 

Eastern Region Andy Rorick 

Intermountain Region John Lott 

Northeastern Area State 

and Private Forestry Constance Carpenter 

Northeastern Forest Experiment 

Station Marie-Louise Smith 

Northern Region Jim Shelden 

Pacific Northwest Region J. Bailey 

Pacific Northwest Region J. Keyser 

Pacific Northwest Region D. Lammers 

Pacific Northwest Region R. Pedersen 

Southern Region Marilyn J. Robertson 

Southwestern Region Mike Linden 

Southwestern Region R. Steinke 

Washington Office Robert G. Bailey 

Washington Office James Fen wood 

Washington Office Thomas King 

Washington Office Greg Super 



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Associate Compilers: 

Forest Service Compilers: 

Alaska Region. R. Dipold, L. Suring. 

Eastern Region. B. Acciavatti, J. Ball, S. Behling, R. 
Berrisford, A. Boss, R. Brinker, R. Brooks, M. Bruhy, S. 
Chandler, A. Cramer, D. Dagnan, T. DeMeo, D. Duffield, 
J. Edde, R. Ewing, K. Flegel, S. Forney, C. Grove, M. 
Herth, D. Hoppe, L. Houston, D. Hurst, J. Jordan, 
L. Kempf, A. Krieger, D. Lacey, J. Lanier, H. Lesser, 
B. Leuelling, A. Levasseur, H. Mahoney, L. Martin, J. 
Mathisen, M. McCorvie, T. McLellan, P. Merchant, W. 
Moriarity, R. Moss, C. Nowak, E. Padley, L. Parker, 
H. Pawelczyk, G. Peters, C. Price, R. Rabideaux, L. 
Richards, K. Roenke, J. Scott, M. Spanel, K. Sykes, L. 
Tracy, J. Wargo, J. Wettstaed, L. Wright, M. Yamasaki. 

Intermountain Region. A. Agnew, J. Arnold, F. 
Bartlett, J. Bayer, T. Bowerman, C. Butler, R. Campbell, 
R. Davis, D. Fallon, S. Feltis, P. Flood, S. Goodrich, F. 
Gordon, G. Jackson, D. Johnson, R. Jorgensen, D. Larsen, 
R. Leiby, B. Lowry, T. Mark, D. Monte, D. Nelson, B. 
Noblitt, M. Orme, W. Padgett, K. Paulin, R. Player, K. 
Ramsey, D. Reeder, R. Rodriguez, M. Schwalbach, M. 
Smith, T. Svalberg, D. Tart, R. Thompson, L. Welch, C. 
Williams, R. Williams, A. Winward, D. Zamudio. 

Northern Region. S. Jacobson, T. Layser. 

Pacific Northwest Region. J. Bailey, D. Lammers, J. 
Keyser, R. Pedersen, B. Smith. 

Pacific Southwest Region. D. Diaz, J. Chatoian, S. 
Frankel, K. Friday, S. Husari, J. Kliejaus, S. Miles, J. 
Neisess, L. Newell, J. Rose. 

Rocky Mountain Region. R. Dersch, S. Franklin, M. 
Holm, T. Sullivan, D. Wheeler, M. Zimmerman. 

Southern Region. V. Bishop, T. Collins, N. Covington, 
S. Croy, R. Evans, J. Herrig, S. Hooks, J. MacGregor, 
S. McCorquodale, K. McLaughlin, J. Novasad, B. Pell, 
W. Pistrang, T. Rami, A. Rorick (Eastern Region), R. 
Rightmyer, S. Simon, K. Stoneking, C. Williams, A. 
Williamson. 

Southwestern Region. T. Cartledge, P. Gadd, J. 
Hanson, D. Johnson, J. McDonald, P. Pilles, J. Propper, 
S. Wood, J.N. Young. 

State and Private Forestry: 

Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry. 

K. Sykes. 

Other Contributors: 

Bryan Hargrave - Minnesota Department of Natural 

Resources- 
Max Hutchinson - Illinois Chapter, The Nature Conser- 
vancy. 
Timothy A. Nigh - Missouri Department of Conservation. 



Glendon W. Smalley — retired, USDA Forest Service, 
Southern Forest Experiment Station. 



Photograph Credits: 

Many photographers also made important contributions 
to this document by providing pictures that illustrate 
the physical, biological, and cultural characteristics of 
the subregion ecological map units. Unless otherwise 
noted, photographers are employees of the USDA Forest 
Service. When the photograph was obtained from Forest 
Service files and the photographer is unknown, the 
person providing the photograph is noted. Credits for 
photographs are arranged by Region and Section. 

Alaska Region. 125B - USDI Fish and Wildlife Service; 
M121B - USDI National Park Service; M125A - USDI 
National Park Service; M126A - USDA Soil Conservation 
Service; M127A - USDI National Park Service; M131A 

- USDI Bureau of Land Management; M131B - USDI 
Geological Survey; M135A, M139A, M244A - USDI 
National Park Service; M245B - USDA Forest Service. 

Eastern Region. 212A - Don Collins, USDA Soil 
Conservation Service; 212B - L. Safford; 212C - M. 
Torsello; 212D - Richard Hallett, University of New 
Hampshire; 212F - C. Carpenter; 212K - Bryan Hargrave, 
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources; 212L - 
from B. Leuelling; M212A - from M. Smith; M212B - 
from M. Smith; M212C - M. Smith; M212E - P. Rudge; 
221E - James Omernik USEPA; 222A - Donald R. 
Kurz, Missouri Conservation Department; 222D - Ned 
Trovillion, independent photographer; 2221 (upper) - 
James Omernik USEPA; 2221 (lower) - M. Keister; 222L 

- James Omernik USEPA; M221A, M221B - from T. 
DeMeo; 251C - Donald K. Kurz, Missouri Conservation 
Department; 251D - Joel Dexter, Hlinois State Geological 
Survey; 251 E - Donald R. Kurz, Missouri Conservation 
Department. 

Intermountain Region. M331D - from USDA Forest 
Service; M331D - J. Lott; M332F, 341B - J. Lott; M341C 
(first) - J. Lott; M341C (second) - P. Johnson. 

Northern Region. M332B - K. McBride; M332E - A. 
Greene; M333B - J. Nesser. 

Pacific Northwest Region. 242A, M242A (both), 
M242B (both), M242C (both), M332G, M333A, 342H - 
R. Meurisse. 

Pacific Southwest Region. M261A, M261B, M261D, 
M261G - S. Miles; M262A, M262B, M423A - D. Diaz. 

Rocky Mountain Region. 251G - J. Freeouf; 331B 

- K. Grove; 3311 - from J. Freeouf; 33U - from J. 
Freeouf; 332C - K. Grove; 332D - D. Steinke; M331A - 
K. Houston; M331B (upper) - J. Nesser; M331B (lower) - 
F. Lloyd; M331G - J. Freeouf; M331H - from J. Freeouf; 
M331I - from J. Freeouf; M33U - M. Holm; M334A - K. 
Grove; 342F - J. Freeouf; 342G - from J. Freeouf. 



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Southern Region. 221H - H. McNab; 221J - Glendon 
W. Smalley, retired, Southern Forest Experiment Station; 
M221D - Christine Coulter McNab, volunteer, USDA 
Forest Service; M222A - from C. Minehart; 231A - H. 
McNab; 231D - J. King; 231 E - D. Bradbury; 231G - 
from C. Minehart; 232B (upper and lower) - H. McNab; 
232C - B. Kaylor; 232D - from P. Beyer; 232F, 234A - 
J. Caldwell; M231A - from W. Pell; 255A, 315B, 315C 
- H. McNab; 411A - Mr. and Mrs. W. H. McNab, Jr., 
independent photographers; M411A (both) - from USDA 
Forest Service. 



Southwestern Region. 313A, 313B, 313C, 313D, 
M313A, 321A, 322B, M331F - W. Robbie. 



Miscellaneous: 

The Southeastern Forest Experiment Station provided 
funding for editing the Section map unit descriptions 
compiled by each Region and preparing the document 
for printing using the TgX typesetting program. Several 
persons volunteered all or a significant portion of their 
services: William A. Hamilton, retired, USDA Forest 
Service, WO-PAO, designed the document format and 
typography; John H. Currie, retired, advertising art 
director, assisted with page design and photograph 
layout; and Christine Coulter McNab, volunteer, USDA 
Forest Service, assisted with proofreading and produced 
Appendixes A and D. 



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t\l,400 mm). Temperature averages60 to 62. °F (16 to 17 
The growing season lasts for 200 to 210 days. 

Sur%ice Water Characteristics. There is a moderate 
densiV of small to medium size perennial streams and 
associated rivers, mostly with low to moderate rates of 
flow ana moderate velocity. Dendritic drainage pattern 
has devSoped, with influence from the underlying 
bedrock.! 

Disturbance Regimes. Fire has probably been the 
principal hiltorical disturbance. Climatic influences 
include occaaonal summer droughts, winter ice storms, 
and occasions! tornadoes. 

Land Use. Naural vegetation has been cleared for 
agriculture on aViut 30 percent of the area. 

Cultural Ecolog* Reserved. 

Compiled by Soutfeastern Forest Experiment Station 
and Southern Region 



Section 231D-Sout\ern Ridge and Valley 

Geomorphology. This Section is in the Ridge and 
Valley geomorphic provinA The area is a folded, faulted, 
and uplifted belt of paralle^alleys and ridges, strongly 
dissected by differential erosfcn, mass wasting, fluvial 
erosion, and transport and deposition. About 60 percent 
of this Section consists of plails with hills and 40 percent 
consists of open high hills. Election ranges from 650 to 
2,000 ft (200 to 600 m). Local ttlief ranges from 300 to 
500 ft (90 to 150 m) in areas of Wains, with elevation 
ranging from 500 to 1,000 ft (150\o 300 m) in areas of 
high hills. 

Lithology and Stratigraphy. RoA units formed during 
the Paleozoic Era. Strata consists of % mosaic of marine 
deposits of Lower Cambrian clastic roAs (granites), and a 
mixture of marine deposits of Cambriam(carbonates and 
shales), Lower Ordovician (carbonates), %id Mississippian 
(shales, limestone, and chert) ages. 

Soil Taxa. Soils are mostly Udults with sfflhie Ochrepts. 
Paleudults dominate upland areas underlainwy lime- 
stone. Hapludults are in valleys underlain bytshale. Dys- 
trochrepts are common on side slopes of ridged Haplu- 
dolls and Eutrochrepts are on bottom lands. Sfcls have an 
udic moisture regime and thermic or mesic temwerature 
regime. Almost all soils are well drained. Soils ringe from 
shallow on sandstone and shales to very deep on Imestone 
formations. 

Potential Natural Vegetation. Kuchler mapped 
vegetation as oak-hickory-pine forest and southern mmed 
forest. The predominant vegetation form is needle-lea«d, 
evergreen trees with cold deciduous, broad-leaved foresfl 
The principal cover type is oak-hickory, which includes 



1 1 1 1 .li- 



ssome areas, loblolly and shortleaf pines are dominant. 

Fau\a. Among the fauna in this Section are white-tailed 
deer,\lack bear, bobcat, gray fox, raccoon, cottontail 
rabbitjwray squirrel, fox squirrel, eastern chipmunk, 
white-fomed mouse, pine vole, short-tailed shrew, and 
cotton mnse. The turkey, bobwhite, and mourning dove 
are game unrds in various parts of this Section. Songbirds 
include the »l-eyed vireo, cardinal, tufted titmouse, wood 
thrush, summw tanager, blue-gray gnatcatcher, hooded 
warbler, and Cwolina wren. The herpetofauna include the 
box turtle, comwn garter snake, and timber rattlesnake. 

Climate. Precipitation averages 36 to 55 in (900 to 1,400 
mm) annually. MeanWinnual temperature is from55 to 61 
°F (13 to 16 °C). The^rowing season lasts about 170 to 
210 days. 

Surface Water Characteristics. This Section has 
a moderate density of smalroto medium size perennial 
streams and associated rivers\mostly with low to 
moderate rates of flow and moljerate velocity. Trellis 
drainage pattern has developed^ith bedrock structural 
control. One of the major rivers \raining this Section is 
the Coosa. 

Disturbance Regimes. Fire has prJbably been the 
principal historical disturbance, previoumy burning over 
small areas between natural barriers wiA moderate 
frequency and low intensity. Insect relate^disturbances 
have resulted from southern pine beetles. Slimatic related 
influences include occasional droughts and icV storms. 

Land Use. Natural vegetation has been clearea for 
agriculture on over 60 percent of the area. 

Cultural Ecology. Reserved. 

Compiled by Southern Region and Southeastern Fore 

»H P "H A * 



Section 231E-Mid Coastal Plains, Western 

Geomorphology. This Section is in the Coastal 
Plains geomorphic province. The predominant landform 
occupying about 80 percent of the Section consists of 
moderately dissected irregular plains of marine origin. 
The plains were formed by deposition of continental 
sediments onto submerged, shallow continental shelf, 
which was later exposed by sea level subsidence. Other 
landforms consist of plains with hills and smooth plains. 
Elevations range from 80 to 650 ft (25 to 200 m). Local 
relief ranges from 100 to 300 ft (30 to 90 m). 

Lithology and Stratigraphy. Rock units formed 
during the Cenozoic Era. Strata consist of Tertiary 
marine deposits (glauconitic sands and clays with lenses 
of coquinid limestone; clay and silty clay). 



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Soil Taxa. Soils are predominantly Udults. Paleudults, 
Hapludults, Hapludalfs, Paleudalfs, and Albaqualfs are 
on uplands. Fluvaquents, Udifluvents, Eutrochrepts, and 
Glossaqualfs are on bottom lands along major streams. 
Soils have a thermic temperature regime, a udic moisture 
regime, and siliceous or mixed mineralogy. Most soils have 
formed from sandstone and shale parent materials. Soils 
are generally coarse textured, deep, and have adequate 
moisture for plant growth during the growing season. 

Potential Natural Vegetation. Kuchler mapped this 
area as oak-hickory-pine forest, southern mixed forest, and 
southern floodplain forest. The predominant vegetation 
form consists of needle-leaved evergreen trees. Belts of 
cold deciduous, broad-leaved hardwoods are prevalent 
along rivers. The principal forest cover type is loblolly 
and longleaf pines. Where hardwoods are prevalent, 
species consist of post, white, blackjack, and southern red 
oaks. Species of bottom lands are red maple, green ash, 
Nuttall oak, sweetgum, and swamp hickory. 

Fauna. The elk, mountain lion, wolf, Carolina parakeet, 
and ivory-billed woodpecker once inhabited this Section. 
Presently, the fauna include white-tailed deer, black 
bear, bobcat, gray fox, raccoon, cottontail rabbit, gray 
squirrel, fox squirrel, striped skunk, swamp rabbit, and 
many small rodents and shrews. The turkey, bobwhite, 
and mourning dove are game birds in various parts of 
this Section. In flooded areas, ibises, cormorants, herons, 
egrets, and kingfishers are common. Songbirds include the 
red-eyed vireo, cardinal, tufted titmouse, wood thrush, 
summer tanager, blue-gray gnatcatcher, hooded warbler, 
and Carolina wren. The herpetofauna include the box 
turtle, common garter snake, and timber rattlesnake. 

Climate. Annual precipitation averages 40 to 54 in 
(1,000 to 1,300 mm). Temperature averages61 to 68 "F 
(16 to 20 C). The growing season lasts about 200 to 270 
days. 

Surface Water Characteristics. There is a moderate 
density of small to medium size perennial streams and 
associated rivers, most with moderate volume of water 
flowing at low velocity. Dendritic drainage pattern has 
developed. Major rivers draining this Section include the 
Red and Ouachita. 

Disturbance Regimes. Fire has probably been the 
principal historical disturbance. Climatic influences 
include occasional summer droughts and winter ice 
storms, and infrequent hurricanes. Insect disturbances 
are often caused by southern pine beetles. 

Land Use. Natural vegetation has been cleared for 
agriculture on about 25 percent of the area. Much of the 
non-cleared land is managed for forestry. 

Cultural Ecology. Reserved. 

Compiled by Southern Region and Southeastern Forest 
Experiment Station. 



Section 231F— Eastern Gulf Prairies and 
Marshes 

Geomorphology. This Section is in the Coastal Plains 
geomorphic province. The predominant landform is a flat, 
weakly dissected alluvial plain formed by deposition of 
continental sediments onto submerged, shallow continental 
shelf, which was later exposed by sea level subsidence. 
Along the coast, fluvial deposition and shore zone 
processes are active in developing and maintaining 
beaches, swamps, and mud flats. Elevation ranges from 
10 to 330 ft (3 to 100 m). Local relief ranges from to 
100 ft (0 to 30 m). 

Lithology and Stratigraphy. Rock units formed during 
the Cenozoic Era. Strata consist of Quaternary marine 
deposits (non-glacial sand, silt, and clay deposits of 
upland origin). 

Soil Taxa. Aquolls, Saprists, Aquents, and Hemists are 
the principal soils along the coast. Also along the coast 
are Aquolls, Haplaquolls, Medisaprists, Hydraquents, 
and Medihemists, all of which are poorly drained and 
subject to flooding and high water tables. These soils 
have a thermic temperature regime and an aquic moisture 
regime. Farther inland, Uderts and Aqualfs are the 
main soils, especially where saline prairie vegetation is 
present. Soils farther inland on low lands are Pelluderts, 
Pellusterts, Albaqualfs, Ochraqualfs, and Glossaqualfs. 
Situated on flood plains are Argiaquolls, Haplaquolls, 
and Haplaquepts. Soils have a thermic to hyperthermic 
moisture regime, and an aquic moisture regime. These 
soils are deep, clayey, poorly drained, and have subsoils 
that are slowly permeable. 

Potential Natural Vegetation. Kuchler classified 
vegetation as bluestem-sacahuista prairie and southern 
cordgrass prairie. Predominant vegetation is mid to 
tall grass grasslands. Species consist of little bluestem, 
indiangrass, switchgrass, and big bluestem. Occasional 
areas of live oak are present. Poorly drained areas 
along the coast support freshwater and saltwater marsh 
vegetation of sedges, rushes, saltgrass, and cordgrass. 

Fauna. Typical large herbivores and carnivores include 
manatee, coyote, red wolf, ringtail, ocelots, and river 
otter. Smaller herbivores include swamp rabbit, fulvous 
harvest mouse, eastern wood rat, and nutria. Common 
birds of freshwater marshes, lakes, ponds, and rivers 
include reddish egret, white-faced ibis, white-fronted 
goose, and olivaceous cormorant. Attwater's prairie 
chicken was once common in the grasslands. Reptiles and 
amphibians include American alligator, Gulf coast salt 
marsh snake, Gulf coast toad and pig frog, diamondback 
terrapin, Mediterranean gecko, and the Texas horned 
lizard. 

Climate. Average annual precipitation is from 30 to 55 
in (750 to 1,400 mm). Temperature averages66 to 74 °F 
(19 to 23 °C). The growing season lasts 250 to 330 days. 



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Surface Water Characteristics. There is a moderate 
density of small to medium size perennial streams 
and very low density of associated rivers; most have a 
moderate volume of water at very low velocity. Water 
table is high in many areas, resulting in poor natural 
drainage and abundance of wetlands. Poorly denned 
drainage pattern has developed on this very young, weakly 
dissected plain. Abundance of palustrine systems having 
seasonally high water level. This Section adjoins the 
Louisianian Marine and Estuarine Province delineated 
by the USDI Fish and Wildlife Service. 

Disturbance Regimes. Fire and ocean tides have 
likely been the principal historical disturbance. Climatic 
influences include occasional hurricanes. 

Land Use. Natural vegetation has been cleared for 
agricultural crops on about 40 percent of the area. 

Cultural Ecology. Reserved. 

Compiled by Southeastern Forest Experiment Station 
and Southern Region. 



r— C: 



Geoworphology. This Section is in the Ouachita 
geomomhic province. The area consists of a folded, 
faulted, a^l uplifted belt of parallel valleys and ridges, 
moderatelj^lissected by differential erosion, mass wasting, 
fluvial erosioirand transport and deposition. About 80 
percent of this T^d consists of plains with hills and 20 
percent includes oWn low mountains. Elevation ranges 
from 330 to 3,000 TmlOO to 900 m). Local relief ranges 
from 300 to 500 ft (9rWp 150 m) in areas with hills. 
Relief is 500 to 1,000 1^150 to 300 m) in areas with 
low mountains. 

Lithology and Stratigraphy^Rocks units formed 
during the Paleozoic Era. Strata^onsist of Pennsylvanian 
marine deposits (sandstone, shale, cfegl, and limestone). 

Soil Taxa. Soils are predominately UdlSSts. Hapludults 
and Paleudults are on ridgetops and uppeifedopes, and 
are also on mid to lower slopes in concave pwdtions. 
Fragiudults are in valleys. Soils along the Arkl^as River 
include Udifluvents, Udipsamments, Haplaquolls,%nd 
Hapludalfs. Soils have a thermic temperature regimW a 
udic moisture regime, and siliceous or mixed mineralc 
Soils are variable in characteristics, ranging from shallot 



Ponntial Natural Vegetation. Kuchler mapped 
vegemtion as oak-hickory forest, oak-hickory-pine forest, 
cross timbers (Quercus-Andropogon), and southern 
floodpfwns forest. The predominant vegetation form is 
about eoual areas of cold-deciduous, broad-leaved forest 
and neecra-leaved evergreen trees. Principal forest cover 
types are ^lc-hickory and loblolly-shortleaf pine. Species 
include whme, black, bur, post, and blackjack oaks; pignut 
and mockerrmt hickories; and loblolly and shortleaf pines. 
Oak-gum-cyp»ess forest type is dominant along major 
river bottoms and includes cottonwood, sugarberry, river 
birch, and gree^ ash. 

Fauna. Historicafty, the elk, Florida panther, bison, 
passenger pigeon, rapry -billed woodpecker, Carolina 
parakeet, and Bachmw's warbler inhabited this Section. 
Presently the fauna rclude white-tailed deer, black bear, 
bobcat, gray fox, raccSpn, cottontail rabbit, gray squirrel, 
fox squirrel, striped skaak, swamp rabbit, and many small 
rodents and shrews. In Wooded areas, beavers, ibises, 
cormorants, herons, egreA and kingfishers are common. 
Endemics include the Magrodne Mountain shagreen, 
longnose darter, and Arkanms darter. Songbirds include 
the red-eyed vireo, cardinal, wif ted titmouse, wood thrush, 
summer tanager, blue-gray gnmcatcher, hooded warbler 
and Carolina wren. The herpewfauna include the box 
turtle, common garter snake anJ^timber rattlesnake. 

Climate. Annual average precipitation is 44 to 50 in 
(1,120 to 1,270 mm). Average temfcrature is61 to 63 °F 
(16 to 17 °C). The growing season l\ts 200 to 240 days. 

Surface Water Characteristics. THfc Section has a 
high density of small to medium size perennial streams 
and associated rivers; those in intermounmin basins have 
moderate rates of flow and some on mountain sides are 
characterized by high rates of flow and velocity. A trellis 
drainage pattern has developed. One of the^arge rivers 
draining this Section is the Arkansas. 

Disturbance Regimes. Reserved. 

Land Use. Reserved. 



Cultural Ecology. Reserved. 



Compiled by Southern Region and Southeastern Fora 



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nuBir™™™— "— ^——— "■ — I 



Section 232E- ; Louisiana Coast Prairies and 
Marshes 

Geomorphology. This Section is in the Coastal Plains 
geomorphic Province. The predominant landform is a 
flat, weakly dissected alluvial plain formed by deposition 
of continental sediments onto submerged, shallow 
continental shelf, which was later exposed by sea level 
subsidence. Along the coast, fluvial deposition and shore- 
zone processes are active in developing and maintaining 
beaches, swamps, and mud flats. Elevation ranges from 
to 160 ft (0 to 50 m). Local relief ranges from to 50 ft 
(0 to 15 m). 

Lithology and Stratigraphy. Rock units formed during 
the Cenozoic Era. Strata consist of Quaternary marine 
deposits of terrestrial origin, non glacial sand, silt, and 
clay. 

Soil Taxa. Aquolls, Saprists, Aquents, and Hemists are 
the principal soils along the coast. Also along the coast 
are Aquolls, Haplaquolls, Medisaprists, Hydraquents, 
and Medihemists, all of which are poorly drained and 
subject to flooding and high water tables. These soils 
have a thermic temperature regime and an aquic moisture 
regime. 

Potential Natural Vegetation. Kuchler classified 
vegetation as bluestem-sacahuista prairie and southern 
cordgrass prairie. Much of the existing vegetation is 
nonforested grasslands. Prairie grasslands dominate areas 
inland from the coast and consist of little bluestem, 
indiangrass, switchgrass, and big bluestem. Occasional 
areas of live oak are present. Poorly drained areas 
along the coast support freshwater and saltwater marsh 
vegetation of sedges, rushes, saltgrass, and cordgrass. 

Fauna. Large herbivores and carnivores include manatee, 
coyote, red wolf, ringtail, and river otter. Ocelots were 
once common, but are now rare. Smaller herbivores 
include swamp rabbit, fulvous harvest mouse, eastern 
wood rat, and nutria. Birds of fresh water marshes, lakes, 
ponds, and rivers include reddish egret, white-faced ibis, 
white-fronted goose, and olivaceous cormorant. Birds of 
grasslands include Attwater's prairie chicken. Reptiles and 
amphibians include the Gulf coast salt marsh snake, Gulf 
coast toad, pig frog, American Alligator, diamondback 
terrapin, Mediterranean gecko, and Texas horned lizard. 

Climate. Annual precipitation averages 25 to 55 in (620 
to 1,400 mm). Temperature averages68 to 70 °F (20 to 21 
°C). The growing season lasts 280 to 320 days. 

Surface Water Characteristics. There is a moderate 
density of small to medium size perennial streams and 
very low density of associated rivers, most with moderate 
volume of water at very low velocity. Water table is high 
in many areas, resulting in poor natural drainage and 
an abundance of wetlands. The Mississippi River flows 



through this Section into the Gulf of Mexico. Palustrine 
systems are abundant and have seasonally high water 
levels. This Section adjoins the Louisianian Marine and 
Estuarine Province delineated by the USDI Fish and 
Wildlife Service. 

Disturbance Regimes. Fire and ocean tides have 
probably been the principal historical disturbance. 
Climatic influences include occasional hurricanes. 

Land Use. Natural vegetation has been converted to 
agricultural crops on about 40 percent of the area. 

Cultural Ecology. Reserved. 

Compiled by Southeastern Forest Experiment Station 
and Southern Region. 

Section 232F-Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, 
Western Gulf 

Geomorphology. This Section is in the Coastal Plains 
geomorphic province. The predominant landform consists 
of weakly to moderately dissected irregular plains of 
alluvial origin formed by deposition of continental 
sediments onto a submerged, shallow continental shelf, 
which was later exposed by sea level subsidence. Along 
the coast, fluvial deposition and shore zone processes are 
active in developing and maintaining beaches, swamps, 
and mud flats. About 80 percent of this Section consists 
of irregular plains. Other landforms include flat plains 
and plains with hills. Elevation ranges from 80 to 660 ft 
(25 to 200 m). Local relief mostly ranges from 100 to 300 
ft (30 to 90 m) on irregular plains; however, relief ranges 
from to 100 ft (0 to 30 m) on flat plains and 300 to 500 
ft (90 to 150 m) where plains with hills are present. 

Lithology and Stratigraphy. Rocks in this Section 
formed during the Cenozoic Era. About 80 percent of 
the geologic strata consist of Tertiary marine deposits, 
including glauconitic, calcareous, fossiliferous strata with 
lignitic sandy and argillaceous contents. Quaternary 
marine deposits are present along the Red River. 

Soil Taxa. Soils are mostly Udults. Paleudults, 
Hapludults, Hapludalfs, Paleudalfs, and Albaqualfs are 
on uplands. Fluvaquents, Udifluvents, Eutrochrepts, and 
Glossaqualfs are along major streams. Soils are mostly 
derived from weathered sandstone and shale. Soils have a 
thermic temperature regime, a udic moisture regime, and 
siliceous or mixed mineralogy. Soils are deep, coarsely 
textured, mostly well drained, and have an adequate 
supply of moisture for use by vegetation during the 
growing season. 

Potential Natural Vegetation. Kuchler mapped 
vegetation as southern mixed forest, oak-hickory-pine 
forest, and southern flood plain forest. The predominant 
vegetation form is evergreen needle-leaved forest with a 
small area of cold-deciduous alluvial forest. The slash 
pine and longleaf pine cover type dominates most of 



Al-10 



the Section. The loblolly pine-shortleaf pine cover type 
is common in the northern parts of the Section. A 
bottomland type is prevalent along most major rivers and 
consists of cottonwood, sycamore, sugarberry, hackberry, 
silver maple, and red maple. 

Fauna. The elk, mountain lion, wolf, Carolina parakeet, 
and ivory-billed woodpecker once inhabited this Section. 
The endangered Florida panther may be encountered 
rarely. Presently, the fauna include white-tailed deer, 
black bear, bobcat, gray fox, raccoon, cottontail rabbit, 
gray squirrel, fox squirrel, striped skunk, swamp rabbit, 
and many small rodents and shrews. The presence of 
turkey, bobwhite, and mourning dove is widespread. 
Resident and migratory nongame bird species are 
numerous, as are species of migratory waterfowl. In 
flooded areas, ibises, cormorants, herons, egrets, and 
kingfishers are common. Songbirds include the red-eyed 














vireo, cardinal, tufted titmouse, wood thrush, summer 
tanager, blue-gray gnatcatcher, hooded warbler, and 
Carolina wren. The endangered red-cockaded woodpecker 
and bald eagle inhabit this Section. The herpetofauna 
include the box turtle, common garter snake, eastern 
diamondback rattlesnake, timber rattlesnake, and 
American alligator. 

Climate. Precipitation averages 40 to 54 in (1,020 to 
1,350 mm) annually. Annual temperature averages 61 to 
68 °F (16 to 20 °C). The growing season lasts 200 to 270 
days. 

Surface Water Characteristics. This Section has 
a moderate density of small to medium size perennial 
streams and associated rivers. Dendritic drainage pattern 
has developed without bedrock structural control. Major 
rivers include the Sabine, Red, and Mississippi. 

Disturbance Regimes. Fire has probably been the 
principal historical disturbance. Climatic influences 
include occasional summer droughts and winter ice storms 
and infrequent hurricanes. Insect disturbances are often 
caused by southern pine beetles. 

Land Use. Natural vegetation has been cleared for 
agriculture on about 60 percent of the area. 

Cultural Ecology. Reserved. 

Compiled by Southern Region and Southeastern Forest 
Experiment Station. 



Jlam&ta£aeaeteUL«*ileH»dfei 



istem) 



Characteristic upland longleaf pine landscape in the 
Coastal Plains and Flat-woods, Western Gulf Section 
on the Kisatckie National Forest. 



Geomotephology. This Section is in the Coastal Plains 
geomorpnTC Province. The predominant landform is a 
fiat, weakly^iissected alluvial plain formed by deposition 
of comtinental^ediments onto submerged, shallow 
continental shelt^which was later exposed by sea level 
subsidence. Along^Uie coast, fluvial deposition and shore 
zone processes are acTWe in developing and maintaining 
beaches, swamps, and ntod flats. Elevation averages 52 to 
64 in (1,300 to 1,600 mmV There is little local relief. 

Lithology and Stratigraphy^Rock units formed during 
the Cenozoic Era. About 50 percWt of the strata consist 
of Tertiary marine deposits, limestone interbedded with 
marl, sand, and clay. Quaternary rnarme deposits make 
up the other strata and include sand, sii^and clay. 

Soil Taxa. Dominant soils are Aquults, Aqu%Bts, 
Aquods, and Aquents. A complex of Paleaquull 
Haplaquods, Quartzipsamments, and Sulfaquents Ofeurs 
throughout the Section. Many locations near the col 
are very poorly drained Sulfaquents, Sulfihemists, and 
Hydraquents. Other coastal areas consist of excessively 



Al-11 



Chapter 29 

Province 255— Prairie Parkland (Subtropical) 



Four Sections have been delineated in this Province: 
255A-Cross Timbers and Prairie; 255B-Blackland Prairies; 
255C-Oak Woods and Prairies; and 255D-Central Gulf 
Prairies and Marshes. These Sections are located in 
Oklahoma and Texas. The area of these Sections is about 
80,100 mi 2 (207,500 km 2 ). 



Lithology and Stratigraphy. Rock units were formed 
during the Paleozoic (30 percent) and Mesozoic (70 
percent) Eras. Paleozoic strata consist of Pennsylvanian 
marine deposits (sandstone, shale, coal, and limestone). 
Mesozoic strata consist of Lower Cretaceous marine 
deposits (limestone). 



Section 255A— Cross Timbers and Prairies 

Geomorphology. This Section is in the Central 
Lowlands geomorphic province. The predominant 
landform on about 70 percent of the Section consists of 
irregular plains that originated from uplift of level bedded 
continental sediments, that had been deposited into a 
shallow inland sea, followed by a long period of erosion. 
Other landforms include plains with hills and open high 
hills. Elevation ranges from 330 to 1,300 ft (100 to 400 
m). Local relief ranges from 100 to 300 ft (30 to 90 m). 



Soil Taxa. Soils in the Cross Timbers region are mainly 
Ustalfs. Paleustalfs and Haplustalfs are on uplands. 
Ustifluvents and Haplustolls are on narrow flood plains. 
Soils have a thermic temperature regime, a ustic moisture 
regime, and mixed or siliceous mineralogy. Soils are 
deep, well drained, and moderate textured; moisture is 
limited for use by vegetation during part of the growing 
season. Soils in the Prairie region are Ustolls, Userts, and 
Ochrepts. Pellusterts and Chromusterts are on upland 
valleys. Calciustolls are on smooth uplands. Haplustolls, 
Calciustolls, and Argiustolls are on areas of limestone 



• 



-. ■ 



- 












:»• 




Viewed from a cuesta in central Texas, east of Abilene, predominant vegetation consists of midgrasses, juniper, mesguite, and 
blackjack, and post oaks. Other cuestas are visible on the horizon. Reduced precipitation causes trees to be short and shrubby. 



Al-12 



parent material. Ustochrepts and Calciustolls occur on 
steep plateau sideslopes. Haplustolls are on flood plains. 
Argiustolls and Haplustalfs are on smooth uplands in 
northern areas of the Section. Soil temperature regime 
is thermic, moisture regime is ustic, and mineralogy is 
montmorillonitic, mixed, or carbonatic. Generally, soils 
are deep, fine textured, and well drained; moisture is 
limited for use by vegetation during parts of the growing 
season. 

Potential Natural Vegetation. Kuchler classified 
vegetation as cross timbers (Quercus-Andropogon), 
oak-hickory forest, and oak-hickory-pine forest. The 
predominant vegetation form is cold-deciduous broad- 
leaved forest and extensive areas of tall grassland with 
a tree layer. Forest cover consists of post, live, and 
blackjack oaks, and pignut and mockernut hickories. 
Grasses consist of big and little bluestems, indiangrass, 
and sunflower. 

Fauna. Among the fauna in this Section are white-tailed 
deer, black bear, bobcat, gray fox, raccoon, cottontail 
rabbit, gray squirrel, fox squirrel, eastern chipmunk, 
white-footed mouse, pine vole, short-tailed shrew, and 
cotton mouse. The turkey, bobwhite, and mourning dove 
are game birds in various parts of this Section. Songbirds 
include the red-eyed vireo, cardinal, tufted titmouse, wood 
thrush, summer tanager, blue-gray gnatcatcher, hooded 
warbler, and Carolina wren. The herpetofauna include the 
box turtle, common garter snake and timber rattlesnake. 

Climate. Precipitation averages 35 to 40 in (900 to 1,050 
mm). About 5 to 18 in (120 to 450 mm) of snow falls 
annually. Temperature averages 55 to 63 "F (13 to 17 
°C). The growing season lasts 190 to 235 days. 

Surface Water Characteristics. This Section has a low 
to moderate density of perennial streams and associated 
rivers, mostly with low to moderate rates of flow and 
moderate velocity. Dendritic drainage patterns have 
developed. One of the major rivers draining this Section 
is the Red. A relatively large number of water reservoirs 
have been constructed. 

Disturbance Regimes. Fire and drought have probably 
been the principal historical sources of disturbance. 

Land Use. Natural vegetation has been cleared for 
agricultural crops on about 75 percent of the area. 

Cultural Ecology. Reserved. 

Compiled by Southern Region. 



Section 255B-Blackland Prairies 

Geomorphology. This Section is in the Coastal Plains 
geomorphic province. The predominant landform is 
irregular plains. This Section is an elevated sea bottom 
that has been shaped by marine and shore-zone processes 
resulting from repeated episodes of submergence and 



emergence of the land from the ocean. Some geomorphic 
processes currently active throughout the area are gentle 
gradient valley stream erosion, transport and deposition. 
Elevation ranges from 330 to 660 ft (100 to 200m). Local 
relief ranges from 100 to 300 ft. 

Lithology and Stratigraphy. Rock units in this 
Section formed during the Mesozoic (10 percent) and 
Cenozoic (90 percent) Eras. Mesozoic strata consist of 
Upper Cretaceous marine deposits (shales, marls, and 
chalks). Cenozoic strata consists of Tertiary marine 
deposits. 

Soil Taxa. Soils are Usterts, Ustolls, Aqualfs, and 
Ustalfs. Pellusterts are in upland valleys. Chromusterts 
are on eroded uplands. Haplustrolls and Ustorthents 
are along an Austin chalk escarpment. Calciustolls 
and Haplustolls are along stream terraces. Albaqualfs, 
Ochraqualfs, and Paleustalfs are on uplands. Pelluderts, 
Haplaquolls, and Chromusterts are on flood plains. These 
soils have a thermic temperature regime, a ustic or 
aquic moisture regime, and montmorillonitic or mixed 
mineralogy. Generally, soils are deep, mostly well drained, 
medium to fine textured, and have limited soil moisture 
supplies for use by vegetation during parts of the growing 
season. 

Potential Natural Vegetation. Kuchler mapped 
vegetation as blackland prairie (Andropogon-Stipa) and 
juniper-oak savanna. The predominant vegetation form is 
tall grassland consisting mainly of bunch grasses, such 
as indiangrass, big bluestem, switchgrass, and eastern 
gamagrass. A savanna community occurs along many 
major rivers, consisting of elm, pecan, cottonwood, and 
hackberry, with grasses between the trees. 

Fauna. Faunal communities are characterized by species 
associated with a prairie climate and vegetation. Typical 
large herbivores and carnivores include coyote, ringtail, 
and collared peccary. Smaller herbivores include plains 
pocket gopher, fulvous harvest mouse, and northern 
pygmy mouse. Ocelots were once common, but are 
now rare. The bison is historically associated with the 
Section. Birds are typical of grass and shrublands; 
residents include many common species, such as turkey 
vulture, hairy woodpecker, cardinal, and yellow warbler. 
Smith's longspur, a bird of the Arctic tundra, winters 
here. Amphibians and reptiles typical of this area include 
eastern spadefoot toad, Great Plains narrow-mouthed 
frog, green toad, Texas toad, Gulf Coast toad, yellow mud 
turtle, Texas horned lizard, Texas spiny lizard, and Texas 
blind snake. 

Climate. Precipitation ranges from 30 to 45 in (750 to 
1,150 mm), occurring mainly in spring from April through 
May. Temperature averages 63 to 70 °F (17 to 21 °C). 
The growing season lasts 230 to 280 days. 

Surface Water Characteristics. Reserved. 

Disturbance Regimes. Fire and drought have probably 
been the principal historical sources of disturbance. 



Al-13 



Land Use. Natural vegetation has been changed to 
agricultural crops on about 75 percent of the area. 

Cultural Ecology. Reserved. 

Compiled by Southern Region. 

Section 255C— Oak Woods and Prairies 

Geomorphology. This Section is in the Coastal Plains 
geomorphic province. The predominant landform on about 
80 percent of the Section consists of irregular plains. 
Other landforms include plains with hills and smooth 
plains. This Section is an elevated sea bottom that has 
been shaped by marine and shore-zone processes resulting 
from repeated episodes of submergence and emergence 
of the land from the ocean. Some geomorphic processes 
currently active throughout the area are gentle gradient 
valley stream erosion, transport and deposition. Elevation 
ranges from 650 to 1,310 ft (200 to 400 m). Local relief 
ranges from 100 to 300 ft. 

Lithology and Stratigraphy. Rocks units formed 
during the Cenozoic Era. Strata are Tertiary marine 
sediments consisting of glauconitic, calcarious, fossiliferous 
strata with lignitic sandy and argillaceous deposits. 

Soil Taxa. Soils are mostly Ustalfs. Paleustalfs and 
Albaqualfs are on uplands and other areas with thick 
sandy surface. Pelluderts, Pellusterts, and Hapludolls are 
on flood plains and clayey terraces along major rivers. 
These soils have a thermic temperature regime, an ustic 
moisture regime, and montmorillonitic mineralogy. Soils 
are deep, medium textured, and generally have a slowly 
permeable, clayey subsoil. Moisture may be limiting for 
plant growth during parts of the year. 

Potential Natural Vegetation. Kuchler classified 
vegetation as oak-hickory forest, cross timbers (Quercus- 
Andropogon), and juniper-oak savanna. The predominant 
vegetation type is cold-deciduous, broad-leaved forest. 
The oak-hickory cover type consists of scarlet, post, and 
blackjack oaks, and pignut and mockernut hickories. 
Forests of elm, pecan, and walnut are in bottomlands. 
Little bluestem is the dominant grass. 

Fauna. Faunal communities are characterized by 
species associated with a temperate, subhumid, forested 
environment. Common large herbivores and carnivores 
include coyote, ringtail, ocelot, and collared peccary. 
Smaller herbivores include plains pocket gopher, fulvous 
harvest mouse, northern pygmy mouse, southern short- 
tailed shrew, and least shrew. Jaguar and bison are 
historically associated with this Section. Birds typical 
of this Section include many wide-spread species, such 
as eastern bluebird, eastern meadowlark, grasshopper 
sparrow, mourning dove, Cooper's hawk, and mockingbird. 
Amphibians and reptiles include eastern spadefoot toad, 
Great Plains narrow-mouthed frog, green toad, yellow 
mud turtle, Texas horned lizard, Texas spiny lizard, and 
Texas blind snake. 



Climate. Annual precipitation ranges from 27 to 40 in 
(700 to 1,000 mm). Temperature ranges from 63 to 70 °F 
(17 to 21 °C). The growing season lasts 200 to 260 days. 

Surface Water Characteristics. There is a low density 
of small to medium size perennial streams and associated 
rivers, most with moderate volume of water flowing at 
low velocity. A major river draining this Section is the 
Trinity. 

Disturbance Regimes. Fire and drought have probably 
been the principal historical disturbances. 

Land Use. Natural vegetation has been converted to 
agricultural crops on about 75 percent of the area. 

Cultural Ecology. Reserved. 

Compiled by Southern Region. 



Section 255D-Central Gulf Prairies and 
Marshes 

Geomorphology. This Section is in the Coastal Plains 
geomorphic province. The predominant landform consists 
of a flat, weakly dissected alluvial plain formed by 
deposition of continental sediments onto a submerged, 
shallow continental shelf, which was later exposed by 
sea level subsidence. Along the coast, fluvial deposition 
and shore-zone processes are active in developing and 
maintaining beaches, swamps, and mud flats. Elevation 
ranges from sea level to 160 ft (0 to 50 m). Local relief 
ranges from to 100 ft. 

Lithology and Stratigraphy. Rock units formed during 
the Cenozoic Era. Strata consist of Quaternary marine 
deposits (non-glacial sand, silt, and clay deposits) of 
continental origin. 

Soil Taxa. Soils are Aquents, Aqualfs, Aquolls, and 
Aquepts. Psammaquents, Udipsamments, Fluvaquents, 
and Salorthids are on barrier islands and long bays. 
Haplaquolls, Natraqualfs, Pelluderts, and Pellusterts are 
on low coastal terraces. Ochraqualfs, Albaqualfs, and 
Paleudalfs are found on plains. Haplaquolls, Haplaquents, 
and Fluvaquents are on coastal flats and flood plains. 
These soils have a hyperthermic and thermic temperature 
regime, an aquic moisture regime, and montmorillonitic, 
mixed, or siliceous mineralogy. Soils are fine to coarse 
textured, saline, and mostly poorly drained with high 
water tables. 

Potential Natural Vegetation. Kuchler classified 
vegetation as bluestem-sacahuista prairie and southern 
cordgrass prairie. The predominant vegetation form is 
tall grassland consisting mainly of bunch grasses. Prairie 
grasslands dominate areas inland from the coast and 
consist of little bluestem, indiangrass, switchgrass, and big 
bluestem. Occasional areas of live oak are present. Poorly 
drained areas along the coast support freshwater and 



Al-14 



saltwater marsh vegetation of sedges, rushes, saltgrass, 
and cordgrass. 

Fauna. Large to medium size herbivores and carnivores 
include coyote, ringtail, hog-nosed skunk, river otter, 
ocelot, and collared peccary. Smaller herbivores include 
swamp rabbit, plains pocket gopher, fulvous harvest 
mouse, northern pygmy mouse, and nutria. Bison and 
jaguar are historically associated with this Section. Birds 
of fresh water marshes, lakes, ponds, and rivers include 
reddish egret, white-faced egret, white-fronted goose, and 
olivaceous cormorant. Birds of these grassland include 
white-tailed hawk, bronzed cowbird, and Attwater's 
prairie chicken. The rare whooping crane winters in 
this Section at the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge. 
Reptiles include American alligator, Gulf coast salt marsh 
snake, Mediterranean gecko, keeled earless lizard, Texas 
horned lizard, Texas spiny lizard, and Texas blind snake. 
Amphibians common to this Section include Gulf coast 
toad and diamondback terrapin. 

Climate. Annual precipitation ranges from 25 to 55 in 
(620 to 1,400 mm). Temperature averages 68 to 70 "F (20 
to 21 °C). The growing season lasts 280 to 320 days. 



Surface Water Characteristics. There is a moderate 
density of small to medium size perennial streams and 
a low density of associated rivers, most with moderate 
volume of water flowing at very low velocity. The 
water table is high in many areas, resulting in poor 
natural drainage and abundance of wetlands. A poorly 
defined drainage pattern has developed on very young 
plains. An abundance of palustrine systems are present, 
having seasonally high water level. This Section adjoins 
the Carolinian and Louisianian Marine and Estuarine 
Provinces. 

Disturbance Regimes. Ocean tides have probably been 
the principal historical disturbance. Climatic influences 
include occasional hurricanes. 

Land Use. Natural vegetation has been converted to 
agricultural crops on about 40 percent of the area. 

Cultural Ecology. Reserved. 

Compiled by Southern Region. 



Al-15 



Chapter 35 

Province 311-Great Plains Steppe and Shrub 



One Section has been delineated in this Province: 31 1A- 
Redbed Plains, most of which is located in Oklahoma. 
The area of this Section is about 17,600 mi 2 (45,600 km 2 ). 



vegetation form is medium-tall grasslands with sparse 
tree cover. Grasses consist mainly of sand bluestem, little 
bluestem, and sand saltbrush. 



Section 311A-Redbed Plains 

Geomorphology. This Section is in the Central 
Lowlands geomorphic province. Platform uplift of 
continental sediments deposited previously into a shallow 
inland sea, followed by a long period of erosion; these 
processes resulted in a moderately to strongly dissected 
region. About 70 percent of this Section consists of 
irregular plains. Other landforms include about equal 
areas of plains with low mountains, smooth plains, 
and tablelands. Elevation ranges from 1,600 to 3,000 
ft (500 to 900 m). Local relief in much of the Section 
ranges from 100 to 300 ft (30 to 90 m). Smaller areas 
are present where relief ranges from 30 to 60 ft (10 to 
20 m) in tablelands and up to 1,000 ft (300 m) in low 
mountains. 

Lithology and Stratigraphy. Rocks formed during the 
Paleozoic Era. About 80 percent of the geologic strata 
consist of Permian marine deposits (sandstone, shale, 
and limestone). Other strata include Quaternary marine 
deposits and small isolated areas of Lower Cretaceous 
marine deposits (limestone). 

Soil Taxa. Soils are Ustolls, Ustalfs, and Ochrepts. Most 
soils are on uplands and include Argiustolls, Paleustolls, 
Natrustolls, Haplustalfs, Paleustalfs, and Ustochrepts. 
Localized areas of Ustifluvents are on flood plains. These 
soils have a thermic temperature regime, a ustic moisture 
regime, and mixed mineralogy. Most soils are deep, well 
drained, variable in texture, and have limited moisture 
supplies for use by vegetation during part of the growing 
season. 

Potential Natural Vegetation. Kuchler classified 
vegetation as bluestem-grama prairie, and cross timbers 
(Quercus-Andropogon); shinnery (Quercus-Andropogon); 
and sandsage- bluestem prairie. The predominant 



Fauna. Representative large to medium size herbivores 
and carnivores include coyote, ringtail, and ocelot. Small 
herbivores include eastern cottontail, desert shrew, plains 
pocket mouse, Texas kangaroo rat, and prairie vole. Bison 
and black-footed ferret are historically associated with 
this Section. Common birds of thickets and grasslands 
include the roadrunner, bobwhite, barn owl, scissor- 
tailed flycatcher, and common crow. The golden-fronted 
woodpecker has a more restricted range. Amphibians 
common to this environment include Plains spadefoot 
toad, Great Plains narrow-mouthed frog, green toad, 
spotted chorus frog, and yellow-mud turtle. Typical 
reptiles include lesser earless lizard, Texas horned lizard, 
Prairie skink, and Texas blind snake. 

Climate. Precipitation averages 20 to 30 in (500 to 
750 mm); snow averages 20 to 30 in (500 to 750 mm) 
annually. Temperature averages 57 to 64 °F (14 to 18 
°C). The growing season lasts 185 to 230 days. 

Surface Water Characteristics. The area has a low 
density of small to medium intermittent streams and 
associated rivers, most with a low volume of water flowing 
at low velocity. Dendritic drainage pattern has developed 
without bedrock structural control. Major rivers include 
the Washita, Canadian, and Red. 

Disturbance Regimes. Fire and drought have probably 
been the principal historical disturbances. 

Land Use. Natural vegetation has been converted to 
agricultural crops or pasture on about 90 percent of the 
area. 

Cultural Ecology. Reserved. 

Compiled by Southern Region and Southeastern Forest 
Experiment Station. 



Al-16 



Chapter 37 



Province 315-Southwest Plateau and Plains Dry Steppe and Shrub 



Six Sections have been delineated in this Province: 315A- 
Pecos Valley; 315B-Texas High Plains; 315C-Rolling 
Plains; 315D-Edwards Plateau; 315E-Rio Grande Plain; 
and 315F-Southern Gulf Prairies and Marshes. These 
Sections are located in the New Mexico and Texas. The 
area of these Sections is a"bout 160,900 mi 2 (416,700 km 2 ). 



If 11 |l 



tomorphology. This section is in the Great Plains 
ph%iographic province. It is located in west-central New 
Meaco. Major landforms are plains, hills, basins, and 
fans.lMajor landform features include the Pecos Plains 
and tnV Canadian Valley. Elevation range from 4,000 to 
6,900 f\l,200 to 2,100 m) 

Litholog%and Stratigraphy. There are Paleozoic, 
Mesozoic, »d Cenozoic aged sedimentary and volcanic 
rocks and aJ^jvial deposits. 

Soil Taxa. Sells include Haplustalfs, Ustochrepts, 
Argiustolls, Hapmistolls, and a few Haplargids, Calciothids, 
and Ustorthents. 

Potential NaturamVegetation. Vegetation consists 
of grama and galletjekgrass, pinyon-juniper in mesic soil 
temperature regimes, \nd ustic soil moisture regimes, and 
mesquite bush in aridi^soil moisture regimes. 

Fauna. Reserved. 

Climate. Precipitation rarres from 8 to 16 in (200 to 
400 mm) annually, with less%ian half of the precipitation 
falling in the winter. TemperMire ranges from 45 to 70 
°F (7 to 21 °C) and winters ar\cold. The growing season 
last 160 to 200 days. 

Surface Water Characteristics.^Water is scarce 
throughout this Section because of Iv annual accumu- 
lation and erratic precipitation. Onlyaa. lew perennial 
streams exist. Ground water in deep srad and gravel de- 
posits or where limestone residuum exis|g provides for 
domestic and livestock use. 



nfchldes the Pecos Valley Section, for at least 12,000 
yems. There is inconclusive evidence of substantial 
earl»r occupation. A dependency on hunting of large 
herbj%pres which, in turn, were dependent on the vast 
grasslands of this Province, characterized man-ecosystem 
relationships for the first 11,000 years of this 12,000 year 
period. Tfce earliest well-dated sites are those of mobile 
peoples wV early in this period, hunted mammoth but 
later hunted** now extinct species of bison. In time 
the big game%unters were followed by peoples with a 
more diversifie\subsistence based on hunting a variety of 
animals, but, wR5, no doubt, were heavily dependent on 
hunting modern\ison and gathering a variety of plant 
resources. The adaption of farming about 1,000 years ago, 
in combination withlbunting and wild plant gathering, 
eventually led to the^Bppearance of settled villages located 
sporadically along peremnial water courses. 

About the beginning of tit historic period, the settled 
village life of plains agricurWiralists was supplanted 
by a re-appearance of grourmmore heavily dependent 
on hunting, supplemented wirV some farming. These 
relatively mobile groups includnd Apache and Comanche, 
with a later appearance of KiowW One practice which 
allowed mobile, hunting plains peViles to exist with 
diminished emphasis on farming was considerable trade. 
In the late 1700's and early 1800's,Vade begin with 
Puebloan peoples to the west in the r^>thills of the 
Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Historic t^ils, including the 
Santa Fe Trail, passed through the Peco\Valley Section. 
These trails were important in the moveimnt west of 
Anglo settlers and in the movement of catre and other 
commodities- The advent of transcontinenta^ailroads 
in the late 1800's contributed greatly to slaughter of 
the buffalo, after which time hunting was neve^^gain 
an important subsistence pursuit in the area. Mwtary 
subjugation of Native American peoples, in combM^tion 
with the railroads, led to relatively rapid settlemerrVof the 
western plains by Anglos, who established a rural lirfctyle 
based largely on farming and ranching, which persistsfeo 
the present. 



Disturbance Regimes. Fires vary in fre«iency and 
intensity, depending on fuel load and moistu 

Land Use. The land in most of this Section rmin farms, 
ranches, or private holdings. More than 75 perewt of 
the area is managed as rangeland with cattle ano^sheep 
grazing. 

Cultural Ecology. Although there are periods of 
population expansion and periods of decline, sometim^ 

mm 



Section 315BTexas High Plains 

Geomorphology. This Section is in the Great Plains 
geomorphic province. The predominant landform 
consists of a broad, extensive fiat plain formed by fluvial 
sedimentation of continental erosional products from 
adjacent mountain ranges, followed by sheet erosion 
and transport. These processes resulted in a region of 
moderate dissection. Elevation ranges from 2,600 to 6,500 
ft (800 to 2,000 m). Local relief in most of the Section 



Al-17 



■ubhmb^^^^^bs: :: . smmmma 



ranges from 100 to 300 ft, however, relief in the tablelands 
ranges from 300 to 500 ft. 

Lithology and Stratigraphy. Rocks were formed 
during the Paleozoic (10 percent), Mesozoic (10 percent), 
and Cenozoic (80 percent) Eras. Paleozoic strata consist 
o^Permian marine deposits (sandstone, shale, and 
limestone). Mesozoic strata consist of Triassic continental' 
deposits (sandstone). Cenozoic strata consist of Tertiary 
Period deposits (poorly consolidated silt, sand, and gravel 
in varying proportions). 

Soil Taxa. Soils are Ustolls and Ustalfs. Paleustolls, 
Argiustolls, Paleustalfs, and Haplustalfs are on uplands. 
Calciustolls, Haplustolls, and Paleustolls are on ridges and 
steeper slopes. Haplustolls occur on young vaftey floors. 
Pellusterts are in clayey playa-lake basins. Calciorthids, 
Paleorthids, and Torriorthents are on steep slopes in 
breaks. These soils have a mesic or thermic temperature 
regime, a ustic moisture regime, and mixed or carbonatic 
mineralogy. Soils are deep, fine to coarse textured, 
well drained, and have limited soil moisture for use by 
vegetation during parts of the growing season. 



and ocelot. Typical smaller herbivores include desert 
shrew, desert cottontail, black-tailed prairie dog, yellow- 
faced pocket gopher, plains pocket mouse, silky pocket 
mouse, hispid pocket mouse, and white-throated woodrat. 
Bison are historically associated with this Section. Birds 
of grasslands include many species that typically occur 
over a wide area, such as roadrunner, house finch, yellow 
warbler, willow flycatcher, cedar waxwing, western 
kingbird, and golden eagle. The lesser prairie chicken, 
found here, is restricted to the more arid grasslands. 
Amphibians found in this Section include plains spadefoot 
toad, Couche's spadefoot toad, western spadefoot toad, 
plains leopard frog, Great Plains toad, green toad, red 
spotted toad, spotted chorus frog, and yellow-mud turtle. 
Q^ptiles include species such as Texas horned lizard, 
round-tailed horned lizard, Great Plains skink, Texas 
blind snake, and plains black-headed snake. 



Climate. Precipitation averages 15 to 22 in (370 
to 550 mm), occurring mainly in the spring and fall. 
Temperature averages 55 to 63 °F (13 to 17 °C). The 
growing season lasts 130 to 220 days. 



Potential Natural Vegetation. Kiichler classified 
vegetation as grama-buffalo grass and shinnery (Quercus- 
Andropogon). The predominant vegetation form is short 
grass communities composed of bunch grasses with a 
sparse shrub layer. Species include short grasses (blue 
gramma, and buffalograss), sagebrush, mesquite, and 
yucca. 

Fauna. Typical large to medium size herbivores and 
carnivores include pronghorn, coyote, swift fox, ringtail, 



Surface Water Characteristics. There is a low density 
of small intermittent streams and few associated rivers, 
all with low volume of water flowing at low velocity. A 
shallow dendritic drainage pattern has developed. Major 
rivers include the Canadian and Red. The Canadian 
River, in north Texas, is deeply incised into the Great 
Plains plateau and has developed a broad area (up to 50 
mi wide) of complex topography locally known as "The 
Breaks." Playa lakes are common in the western part of 
this Section. 




predominant landfo 
only a sparse herba 



The 



Al-18 



indform oj the Texas High Plains Section is a flat plain having dry soils, 
iceous layer of short bunch grasses and scattered low, 4J&h r ny shrubs. 



Precipitation is sufficient to support 



Disturbance Regimes. Fire and drought have probably 
been the principal historical disturbances. 

Land Use. Natural vegetation has been converted to 
agricultural crops or pasture on about 90 percent of the 

area. 

Cultural Ecology. Reserved. 
Compiled by Southern Region. 

Section 315C-Rolling Plains 

Geomorphology. This Section is in the Central 
Lowlands geomorphic province. Landforms originated 
from platform uplift of continental sediments deposited 
previously into a shallow inland sea, followed by a 
long period of erosion. These processes resulted in a 
moderately dissected landscape. About 80 percent of 
this Section is equally divided between irregular plains 
and tablelands. Smaller areas of smooth plains and plains 
with hills are also present. Elevation ranges from 1,640 
to 2,950 ft (500 to 900 m). Local relief in most of the 
Section ranges from 100 to 300 ft. Smaller areas are 
present where local relief ranges from 300 to 500 ft. 




! M^M^i^'^-^^^^'i^ 



Flat terrain near Odessa, Texas, dominated by sparse cover 
of low grasses. Rocks beneath this landscape formed in a 
"Permian Basin" from which crude oil is now extracted. 



Lithology and Stratigraphy. Rocks were formed 
during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic Eras. Geologic strata 
consist of about equal amounts of Permian marine 
deposits and Triassic continental deposits (sandstone). 
A small area of Permian continental deposits (sandstone, 
shale, and limestone) is also present. 

Soil Taxa. Soils are Ustolls, Ustalfs, and Ochrepts. Most 
soils are on uplands and include Argiustolls, Paleustolls, 
and Natrustolls, Haplustalfs, Paleustalfs, and Ustochrepts. 
Localized areas of Ustiftuvents are on flood plains. These 
soils have a thermic temperature regime, a ustic moisture 
regime, and mixed mineralogy. Most soils are deep, well 
drained, variable in texture, and have limited moisture for 
use by vegetation during part of the growing season. 

Potential Natural Vegetation. Kuchler classified 
vegeataion as mesquite-buffalo grass. The predominant 
vegetation form is medium-tall grassland with a sparse 
shrub cover. The vegetative community consists of sand 
and little bluestems and sagebrush. 

Fauna. The faunal community consists of species suited 
to a semi-arid environment. Large to medium-size 
mammals include coyote, ringtail, ocelot, and collared 
peccary. Typical smaller herbivores include desert 
cottontail, hispid pocket mouse, Texas kangaroo rat, 
Texas mouse, desert shrew, and rock squirrel. Bison 
and black-footed ferret are historically associated with 
this Section. Domesticated cattle are the most common 
large herbivore. Birds of thickets and grasslands include 
black-capped vireo, Harris' sparrow, scaled quail, golden- 
fronted woopecker, and pyrrhuloxia. Amphibians include 
Couche's spadefoot toad, Great Plains narrow-mouthed 
frog, green toad, red-spotted toad, and Texas toad. The 
spotted chorus frog, yellow-mud turtle, and Texas map 
turtle are in wetter areas. Common reptiles include lesser 
earless lizard, crevice spiny lizard, Texas spotted whiptail, 
Great Plains skink, prairie skink, four-lined skink, western 
hook-nosed snake, and plains black-headed snake. 

Climate. Precipitation averages 20 to 30 in (500 to 750 
mm). Temperature averages 57 to 64 °F (14 to 18 °C). 
The growing season lasts 185 to 230 days. 

Surface Water Characteristics. There is a low density 
of small intermittent streams and few associated rivers, 
all with low volume of water flowing at low velocity. A 
dendritic drainage pattern has developed. Major rivers 
include the Colorado and Brazos. 

Disturbance Regimes. Fire and drought have probably 
been the principal historical disturbances. 

Land Use. Natural vegetation has been converted to 
agricultural crops or pasture on much of the area. 

Cultural Ecology. Reserved. 



Compiled by Southern Region. 



Al-19 



Section 315D-Edwards Plateau 

Geomorphology. This Section is in the Great Plains 
geornorphic province. The predominant landform 
consists of a broad, extensive flat plain formed by fluvial 
sedimentation of continental erosional products from 
adjacent mountain ranges, followed by sheet erosion and 
transport; these processes resulted in a region of moderate 
dissection. About 90 percent of this Section consists of 
landforms equally divided between smooth plains and 
tablelands having moderate relief. Also included are 
smaller areas of open high hills, high hills, and plains with 
hills. Elevation ranges from 650 to 4,000 ft (200 to 1,200 
m). Local relief in most of the Section ranges from 100 to 
300 ft (30 to 90 m). In a small area of hills, relief ranges 
from 300 to 500 ft (90 to 150 m). 

Lithology and Stratigraphy. Rock units in this 
Section were formed during the Precambrian (10 percent), 
Paleozoic (30 percent), and Mesozoic (60 percent) Eras. 
Precambrian strata consist of metamorphic rocks of 
paragneiss and schist structures and plutonic and intrusive 
rocks of granitic composition. Paleozoic strata consist of 
a mixture of Cambrian (carbonates) and lower Ordovician 
marine deposits (carbonates). Mesozoic strata consist of 
Cretaceous marine deposits (limestone and sandstone). 

Soil Taxa. Soils are mostly Ustolls. Calciustolls are on 
limestone hills and plateaus. Chromusterts are on outwash 
plains and broad plateaus. Ustochrepts are on marl and 
chalk hills. Haplustolls are on stream deposits of valley 
floors. These soils have a thermic temperature regime, a 
ustic moisture regime, and carbonatic or montmorillonitic 
mineralogy. Soils are generally shallow, fine textured, and 
have limited soil moisture for use by vegetation during 
parts of the growing season. 

Potential Natural Vegetation. Kiichler classified 
vegetation as juniper-oak savanna and mesquite-acacia- 
savanna. The predominant vegetation form is mid to 
short grasslands and evergreen scale-leaved woodlands 
with a sparse cover of drought-deciduous shrubs. A 
mixture of species may occur, including blackjack oak, red 
cedar, mesquite, live oak, and species of mid and short 
grass grasslands. 

Fauna. Common large to medium size herbivores and 
carnivores include coyote, ringtail, coati, hog-nosed 
skunk, ocelot, and collared peccary. Smaller herbivores 
include Mexican ground squirrel, white-ankled mouse, 
and prairie vole. Bison are historically associated with 
this Section. Domesticated cattle are the most common 
large herbivores. Birds of thickets typically found here 
include scaled quail, golden-fronted woodpecker, golden- 
cheeked warbler, pyrrhuloxia, and long-billed thrasher. 
Amphibians include Couche's spadefoot toad, Rio Grande 
leopard frog, Great Plains narrow-mouthed frog, green 
toad, Texas toad, spotted chorus frog, barking frog, 
cliff chirping frog, and Texas map turtle. A number of 
salamanders in this Section have a very restricted range: 
San Marcas, Texas, Cormal blind, Valdina Farms, and 
Texas blind. Typical reptiles include Mediterranean gecko, 

Al-20 



spot-tailed earless lizard, keeled earless lizard, Texas spiny 
lizard, Great Plains skink, and four-lined skink. 

Climate. Annual precipitation ranges from 15 to 30 in 
(375 to 750 mm). Average temperature is 64 to 68 °F (18 
to 20 °C). The growing season lasts 230 to 270 days. 

Surface Water Characteristics. A low density of small 
intermittent and occasional perennial streams occurs here. 
All generally have a low volume of water flowing at low 
velocity, except along the plateau escarpment, where 
flow rates can be high. A dendritic drainage pattern has 
developed. Major rivers include the Brazos and Colorado. 

Disturbance Regimes. Fire and drought have probably 
been the principal historical disturbances. 

Land Use. Natural vegetation has been changed to 
agricultural crops or pasture on about 90 percent of the 
area. 

Cultural Ecology. Reserved. 

Compiled by Southern Region. 



Section 315E-Rio Grande Plain 

Geomorphology. This Section is in the Coastal Plains 
geornorphic province. The predominant landform in this 
Section is a flat, weakly dissected alluvial plain formed 
by deposition of continental sediments onto submerged, 
shallow continental shelf, which was later exposed by sea 
level subsidence. Elevation ranges from 80 to 1,000 ft (25 
to 300 m). Local relief in most of the Section ranges from 
100 to 300 ft (30 to 90 m). 

Lithology and Stratigraphy. Rocks formed during the 
Cenozoic Era. These strata consist of Tertiary marine 
deposits (glauconitic, calcareous, fossiliferous layers with 
lignitic sandy and argillaceous deposits). 

Soil Taxa. Soils are Usterts, Torrerts, and Ustalfs. 
Pellusterts are on plains over clayey marine sediments. 
Paleustalfs are on eolian plains. Torrerts, Haplustolls, 
Calciustolls, Paleustalfs, and Haplustalfs are on plains. 
Calciustolls and Calciorthids are on plains over marine 
sediments. Soils have a hyperthermic temperature 
regime, a ustic or aridic moisture regime, and mixed 
mineralogy. Soils are mostly deep, fine to coarse textured, 
well drained, and have limited soil moisture for use by 
vegetation during the growing season. 

Potential Natural Vegetation. Kiichler classified 
vegetation as mesquite-acacia-savanna and ceniza shrub. 
The predominant vegetation form is short grassland 
with a sparse cover of drought deciduous shrubs. Species 
include mesquite, cactus, and tall and mid grasses. Live 
oaks and cottonwoods may be present along stream banks. 

Fauna. Typical large to medium size herbivores and 
carnivores include coyote, ringtail, hog-nosed skunk, 



and ocelot. Smaller herbivores include Mexican ground 
squirrel, Texas pocket gopher, and southern plains 
woodrat. Bats typical of this Section include the ghost- 
faced and Sanborn's long-nosed. Bison, jaguar, and 
jaguarundi are historically associated with this Section. 
This Section and adjacent 315E form the northern 
range of a number of birds common to Mexico and 
South America. Typical birds include chachalaca, green 
kingfisher, pauraque, elf owl, white-winged dove, red- 
billed pigeon, black-headed oriole, kiskadee flycatcher, 
yellow-green vireo, Lichtenstein's oriole, tropical kingbird, 
beardless flycatcher, buff-bellied hummingbird, green 
jay, long-billed thrasher, and white-collared seedeater. 
Amphibians include Mexican burrowing toad, Rio Grande 
leopard frog, sheep frog, giant toad, spotted chorus 
frog, Mexican tree frog, Rio Grande chirping frog, and 
Berlandier's tortoise. Reptiles include Texas banded 
gecko, reticulate collared lizard, spot-tailed earless lizard, 
keeled earless lizard, blue spring lizard, mesquite lizard, 
rose-bellied lizard, Laredo striped whiptail, black-striped 
snake, indigo snake, speckled racer, and cat-eyed snake. 

Climate. Precipitation ranges from 17 to 30 in (420 to 
750 mm), decreasing from east to west and occurring 
mostly during May and June. Temperature averages 70 
to 72 °F (21 to 22 °C). The growing season lasts 260 to 
310 days. 

Surface Water Characteristics. A sparse density of 
small to medium intermittent streams is present in a 
dendritic drainage pattern. Major rivers include the Rio 
Grande and Nueces. 

Disturbance Regimes. Drought has probably been the 
principal historical disturbance. 



Soil Taxa. Soils are Aquents, Aqualfs, Aquolls, and 
Aquepts. Psammaquents, Udipsamments, Fluvaquents, 
and Salorthids are on barrier islands and long bays. 
Haplaquolls, Natraqualfs, Pelluderts, and Pellusterts are 
on low coastal terraces. Ochraqualfs, Albaqualfs, and 
Paleudalfs are found on plains. Haplaquolls, . Haplaquents, 
and Fluvaquents are on coastal flats and flood plains. 
These soils have a hyperthermic and thermic temperature 
regime, an aquic moisture regime, and montmorillonitic, 
mixed, or siliceous mineralogy. Soils are fine to coarse 
textured, saline, and mostly poorly drained with high 
water tables. 

Potential Natural Vegetation. Kuchler classified 
vegetation as bluestem-sacahuista prairie and southern 
cordgrass prairie. The predominant vegetation form is 
tall grassland with little tree cover. Grasslands dominate 
areas inland from the coast and consist of little bluestem, 
indiangrass, switchgrass, and big bluestem. Occasional 
areas of live oak are present. Poorly drained areas 
along the coast support freshwater and saltwater marsh 
vegetation of sedges, rushes, saltgrass, and cordgrass. 

Fauna. The fauna! communities typically include coyote, 
ringtail, hog-nosed skunk, ocelot, and collared peccary. 
Smaller mammals include Mexican ground squirrel, Texas 
pocket mouse, northern pygmy mouse, and southern 
Plains woodrat. Birds of freshwater marshes, lakes, ponds, 
and rivers include reddish egret, white-faced ibis, black- 
billed whistling duck, white-fronted goose, and olivaceous 
cormorant. Reptiles and amphibians include eastern 
spadefoot toad, Gulf coast toad, American alligator, 
diamondback terrapin, spiny-tailed iguana, Texas horned 
lizard, Texas spotted whiptail, and indigo snake. 



Land Use. Natural vegetation has been converted to 
dry-land pasture for cattle grazing on about 90 percent of 
the area. 

Cultural Ecology. Reserved. 

Compiled by Southern Region. 

Section 315F-Southern Gulf Prairies and 
Marshes 

Geomorphology. This Section is in the Coastal Plains 
geomorphic province. The predominant landform consists 
of a flat, weakly dissected alluvial plain formed by 
deposition of continental sediments onto a submerged, 
shallow continental shelf, which was later exposed by 
sea level subsidence. Along the coast, fluvial deposition 
and shore-zone processes are active in developing and 
maintaining beaches, swamps, and mud flats. Elevation 
ranges from sea level to 160 ft (0 to 50 m). Local relief 
ranges from to 50 ft (0 to 18 m). 

Lithology and Stratigraphy. Rock units formed during 
the Cenozoic Era. These strata consist of Quaternary 
marine deposits of non-glacial sand, silt, and clay. 



Climate. Precipitation ranges from 25 to 55 in (620 to 
•1,400 mm). Temperature averages 68 to 70 °F (20 to 21 
°C). The growing season lasts 280 to 320 days. 

Surface Water Characteristics. A low density of small 
to medium perennial streams is present in this Section. 
The water table is high in many areas, resulting in poor 
natural drainage and abundance of wetlands. A poorly 
defined drainage pattern has developed on very young 
alluvial plains. There is an abundance of palustrine 
systems with seasonally high water levels. This Section 
adjoins the West Indian Marine and Estuarine Provinces. 

Disturbance Regimes. Ocean tides and grazing have 
probably been the principal historical disturbance. 
Climatic influences include occasional hurricanes. 

Land Use. Natural vegetation has been changed for 
agricultural crops on about 40 percent of the area. 

Cultural Ecology. Reserved. 

Compiled by Southern Region. 



Al-21 



*b 



■ttl 



jjimary watershed for much of Arizona and western New 
exico. Several large streams are perennial. Much of the 
wj^er is stored in reservoirs, and small artificial lakes are 
conWnon. Ground water is limited and usually occurs at 
grea%depths. 




Disturbance Regimes. Natural fires occurred in 
ponderlsa pine about every 3 to 10 years, but have 
been pr^ented recently. This has led to a higher canopy 
cover anckincreased fuel loads, resulting in a less resilient 
ecosystemwmd increased hazard of wildfire. Much of this 
area is covwed with timber, with rangeland and recreation 
being secon«ry uses. 



Land Use. 



leserved. 



Cultural Ecolmgy. This diverse Section encompasses 
primarily the m«mtainous ponderosa pine and transition 
zones of central Aizona and western New Mexico. 
Human groups ha* utilized this Section's well- watered 
upland valleys andwieadows, high mesas, and more 
sparsely forested bakis and ranges for the full extent of 
human prehistory in wie Southwest. Paleo-Indian and 
Archaic peoples utilizM the mountains seasonally for 
hunting and gathering.ms did later populations. Early 
agriculturalists made us% of a wide variety of settings, 
including upland valleys.Wor their pithouse villages and 
planting areas. In later tSries, settlements concentrated 
more in the bottomlands o* major drainages, but shifts to 
higher elevations occurred A various times and in various 
places in response to climatm fluctuations, population 
growth, and defensive concerm. The uplands include 
manifestations of a wide rangeapf cultural traditions, 
including the Sinagua, Mogollo% Mimbres, and eastern 
and western Anasazi. By the nvM-1300's, however, most 
of the area was abandoned as pemnanent or seasonal 
settlements. Sometime around or%efore the Spanish 
entrada into the Southwest, Athab^can speakers made 
their appearance; Apache and Nava% continued to use the 
mountains for sustenance and for rei%ge well into the 19th 
century. 

Spanish and Mexican use of most mourtfcun areas was 
limited due to the presence of Apache am Navajo. In 
New Mexico, the Jemez Mountains were wed by both 
Pueblos and Hispanic villagers for hunting»grazing, and 
fuel wood gathering in Colonial times. Thewdiscovery 
of mineral resources in the mid-1800's greatm increased 
American interest in the mountains, and milrmry 
campaigns eventually removed the Apache anANavajo 
to reservations. The coming of the railroads in%he 1880's 
made large-scale logging possible, especially eviomnt in the 
White Mountains and Zuni Mountains. Ranching 
and logging were important pursuits in the early ' 
the 20th century, and continue today. Recreation 
wilderness values are equally important on public lJ 
The mountains, particularly peaks like the San Fran^co 
Peaks and Mt. Taylor, hold special cultural and relig»us 
significance for many contemporary Pueblos and tribe^ 
who continue to use the mountains for economic and 



Section M313B-Sacramento-Manzano Mountain 

Geomorphology. This Section is in the Basin and 
Range physiographic province; it is located in central 
and south-central New Mexico. Major landforms are 
mountains, hills, plains, and scarps. Major landform 
features are the Sacramento, Manzano and Sandia 
Mountains and the Canadian Escarpment. Elevation 
ranges from 6,000 to 11,000 ft (2,130 to 3,690 m). 

Lithology and Stratigraphy. There are Paleozoic 
sedimentary and Cenozoic aged igneous rocks and a few 
metamorphic rocks. 

Soil Taxa. Soils include Eutroboralfs, Glossoboralfs, 
Dystrochrepts, Ustochrepts, Argiustolls, Calciustolls, 
Haplustolls, and Ustorthents with mesic and frigid 
temperature regimes and ustic and udic soil moisture 
regimes. A few Cryoboralfs and Cryochrepts occur with 
cryic soil temperature regimes and udic soil moisture 
regimes. 

Potential Natural Vegetation. Vegetation consists 
of ponderosa pine in frigid soil temperature regimes and 
ustic and udic soil moisture regimes, Douglas-Fir in frigid- 
udic regimes, pinyon-juniper in mesic-ustic regimes, and 
Engelmann spruce, and subalpine fir in cryic-udic regimes. 
A few areas support grey oak at the lowest elevations. 

Fauna. Reserved. 

Climate. Precipitation ranges from 12 to 35 in (305 to 
900 mm), with less than half of the precipitation falling 
during the winter. Temperature averages 40 to 57 °F 
(4 to 8 °C); winter temperatures vary throughout this 
Section. The growing season lasts less than 70 to 170 
days. 

Surface Water Characteristics. This Section supplies 
much of the water to the Rio Grande and Pecos Valley 
basins. Several streams are perennial. 

Disturbance Regimes. Natural fire regime averages 3 
to 10 years of frequency in ponderosa pine forests. Much 
of this area is covered with timber, with some areas of 
commercial quality. Another use of land is as range. 

Land Use. Reserved. 

Cultural Ecology. The earliest human occupation 
of the SaLcramento-Manzano Mountain Section was 
characterized by an emphasis on big game hunting 
supplemented with gathering wild plant foods. Evidence 
for these activities is primarily restricted to the lower 
elevations and the base of the mountains. Around 6000 



B.C., a gradual climate change from cooler and wetter 
to drier conditions resulted in a change of subsistence 
patterns. Highly mobile populations hunted and gathered 
a variety of resources throughout the region. The pinon- 
juniper zone was intensely exploited for both hunting and 
gathering. The mixed conifer forests were utilized to some 
extent for hunting and religious purposes, but the climate 
and scarcity of resources resulted in only sporadic use. 
As agriculture became important during the past 2000 
years, most of the inhabitants became more sedentary 
and populations increased. Villages tended to be located 
close to water in the pinon-juniper woodland and lower 
alluvial fans at the base of the mountains. Athabascan 
groups entered the area sometime before the 1600's, 
utilizing many of the same resources; by the mid 1700's, 
Comanches occupied the plains immediately to the east. 
Today, Native Americans continue to use the mountains 
for gathering and ceremonial purposes. 

The earliest historic settlement began in the late 1500's 
with the Spaniards. A few villages were established 
in the foothills of the Manzanos, Sandias, and near 
the headwaters of the Canadian and Pecos Rivers, but 



the Apaches kept most European settlers out of the 
Sacramentos and mountain ranges to the south. These 
settlers concentrated on the pinon-juniper woodlands 
and grasslands for hunting, fuel wood gathering, post 
cutting, and small subsistence farming. Beginning in 
the late 1800's, discoveries of gold and an increase in 
European settlement throughout the mountains resulted 
in more intensive use of the higher elevations for mining, 
logging, and ranching activities. Most of the homesteads 
and villages were located in the larger valleys or on 
the eastern slopes of the mountains near permanent 
water sources. By the turn of the century, logging 
dominated the activities in the mixed conifer zone, with 
ranching still playing an important role throughout the 
mountains. Currently, the area continues to consist 
primarily of small rural communities, with logging, fuel 
wood gathering, ranching, hunting, and recreation as 
the primary subsistence base. Anglo, Hispanic, and 
Mescalero Apache cultures are present. Recreational use 
has increased dramatically over the past few decades, 
particularly near the larger cities. 

Compiled by Southwestern Region. 



Al-23 



Chapter 39 



Province 321-Chihuahuan Semi-Desert 



— — —-UK--- 



Two Sections have been delineated in this Province: 
321A-Basin and Range; and 321B-Stockton Plateau. 
These Sections are located in the southwestern conter- 
minous States, including parts of Arizona, New Mexico, 
and Texas. The area of these Sections is about 85,200 mi 2 
(220,700 km 2 ). 



Section 321A-Basin and Range 

Geomorphology. This area, which is in the Basin and 
Range physiographic province, is located in southeast 
Arizona and southwest and central New Mexico. 
Relatively recent episodes of continental rifting, volcanism, 
erosion, and sedimentation have dominated this Section. 
Oligocene faulting created the Rio Grande rift in 
New Mexico and west Texas and initiated volcanism. 
Subsequent Miocene composite volcanoes emitted silicic 
lava and ash. Along with Pliocene and Pliestocene mass 
wasting and cyclic erosion events, and associated with 
glacial cycles farther north, this combination of processes 
gradually filled the basins with deep sediments from 
adjacent mountain ranges. Current erosion cycles dissect 
these deposits and continue to modify the rift valley 



through transport and deposition processes. Various 
landforms comprise about equal areas: (1) plains with 
low mountains consisting of 50 to 80 percent of gently 
sloping area and local relief of 1,000 to 3,000 ft (300 to 
900 m); (2) plains with high hills where relief is 1,000 to 
3,000 ft (300 to 900 m); (3) open high hills with relief of 
500 to 1,000 ft (150 to 300 m); and (4) tablelands with 
moderate relief averaging 100 to 300 ft (30 to 90 m). 
Elevation ranges from 2,600 to 5,500 ft (800 to 1676 m). 



Lithology and Stratigraphy. Geologic strata consist 
of an undifferentiated mixture of Quaternary marine 
deposits, Miocene volcanic rocks, lower Tertiary volcanic 
rocks, and Lower Cretaceous marine deposits; Permian 
marine deposits of Ochoan and Guadalupian series; 
Paleocene continental deposits; Upper Cretaceous marine 
deposits; Precambrian plutonic and intrusive granitic 
rocks; Quarternary volcanic rocks; Permian continental 
deposits of Wolcampian age, and Miocene felsic volcanic 
rocks; upper Paleozoic marine deposits; Precambrian 
sedimentary rocks of Pahrump and Unkar groups; 
Precambrian Mazatal quartzite, Yavapai series, pinal 
schist, and metavolcanic formations. 




Ca*ar* ■'■' V ""V 



;.-,-.;':,. :—■■-. **/.-;!■ Vyrfivv^^'-^* 1 - ..-•■-.•," ■">.,:-'-. 7™ r.Vj^Wr P*.:.£, : z*£l 



The Chihuahuan Desert in the Basin and Range Section of southeastern Arizona. 



Al-24 



Soil Taxa. Types are mostly Torriorthents with 
Calciorthids, Haplargids, and some Alfisols (10 percent) 
and Mollisols (10 percent) with a thermic temperature 
regime, an aridic moisture regime, and mixed or 
carbonatic mineralogy. 

Potential Natural Vegetation. Kuchler mapped 
vegtation as trans-Pecos shrub savanna (Flourensia- 
Larrea); grama-tobosa desert grasslands; oak-juniper 
woodland; and mesquite-tarbush desert 

scrub. 

Fauna. Reserved. 

Climate. Precipitation ranges from 8 to 13 in (200 
to 320 mm); it occurs mostly during July and August. 
Temperature ranges from 55 to 70 °F (13 to 20 °C) and 
winters are mild. The growing season lasts 200 to 240 
days. 



References to the Apache appear in 16th century Span- 
ish documents and later historic accounts. Spanish expe- 
ditions passed through the area, but major settlements 
were restricted to the Rio Grande and the area east of 
the Mogollon and Tularosa Mountains. Livestock ranch- 
ing and mining gained prominence in the 1800's. Gold, 
silver, copper, and turquoise were mined in the Mogol- 
lon, Burro, and Black Range Mountains of New Mexico. 
Introduction of the railroad in the 1800's witnessed an 
influx of European settlement along the Rio Grande, the 
southern Burro Mountains (Deming, Lordsburg, and Sil- 
ver City, New Mexico) and more northern reaches of the 
Mogollon Mountains. In more northern, remote mountain 
areas, small ranching, mining, and timber-related settle- 
ments were established along major rivers and ephemeral 
drainages. Ranching and tourism flourish in the area to- 
day, and both Anglo and Hispanic cultures influence con- 
temporary life. 

Compiled by Southwestern Region. 



Surface Water Characteristics. There is a low density 
of intermittent streams and very few associated rivers, 
most of which originate in distant mountainous areas. 
Flow rates are low to moderate, except during periods 
of heavy rain, when large amounts of surface runoff 
can occur. Dendritic drainage pattern has developed 
on dissected mountain slopes, largely without bedrock 
structural control. Playa lakes are common following 
periods of rains, but are ephemeral in the hot, dry climate 
prevalent in this Section. 

Disturbance Regimes. Drought has probably been the 
principal historical source of disturbance. 



Section 321B-Stockton Plateau 

Geomorphology. This Section is in the Great Plains 
geomorphic province. The predominant landform consists 
of open high hills with smaller areas of tablelands. 
These landform were formed by fluvial sedimentation of 
continental erosional products from adjacent mountain 
ranges, which was followed by sheet erosion and transport. 
These processes resulted in a region of shallow dissection. 
Elevation ranges from 2,600 to 4,500 ft (800 to 1,300 m). 
Local relief in most of the Section ranges from 500 to 
1,000 ft. Relief in a small area of tablelands ranges from 
300 to 500 ft. 



Land Use. Land use includes range for cattle grazing on 
about 90 percent of the area. 

Cultural Ecology. The Basin and Range Section is a 
physiographically diverse area characterized by expansive 
playas and open grassland basins cut by steep, rugged 
mountain, mesa, and canyon terrain. Humans have been 
utilizing the area for 8,000 to 10,000 years, although 
evidence of occupation prior to 7,000 B.C. remains scarce 
and scattered. Paleo-Indian materials are especially 
prevalent, however, from the foothills of the Tularosa 
Mountains. The area was widely utilized by Cochise 
and Oshara Tradition Archaic populations between 7,000 
B.C. and 200 A.D. Site distribution points to a highly 
mobile hunting and gathering nomadic subsistence pattern 
initially, followed by use of increasingly smaller areas 
and a seasonal cycle of upland and lowland exploitation. 
Puebloan use and occupation were most prevalent between 
200 and 1150 A.D. in the south and 200 and 1400 A.D. in 
the north. Southern basin, range, and mountain areas 
supported the Mogollon culture, while more northern 
mountain areas also included the southern fringe of the 
Anasazi tradition. Puebloan settlement reflected gradual 
movement toward major drainages and waterways over 
time. Basin and range deserts were widely used for wild 
plant procurement, agriculture, and settlement. 



Lithology and Stratigraphy. Rocks were formed 
during Paleozoic (35 percent), Mesozoic (40 percent), and 
Cenozoic (25 percent) Eras. Paleozoic strata consist of 
Pennsylvanian marine deposits. Mesozoic strata consist of 
nondifferentiated mixture of Lower and Upper Cretaceous 
marine deposits (limestone, and sandstone). Cenozoic 
strata consist of lower Tertiary volcanic rocks of high 
alkalic content. 

Soil Taxa. Soils are Argids and Orthids. Haplargids, 
Paleargids, and Calciorthids are on uplands, piedmont 
plains, and dissected terraces. Calciorthids, Ustolls, 
and Torriorthents are on uplands with shallow depths 
to bedrock. Paleorthids are on mesas and terraces. 
Gypsiorthids are in closed basins. Natragids and Torrerts 
are on basin floors. Torrifluvents are on flood plains and 
Torripsamments are on sandy uplands. These soils have a 
thermic temperature regime, aridic moisture regime, and 
mixed or carbonatic mineralogy. Soils are well drained, 
shallow to deep, and medium textured. Soil moisture is 
limited for use by vegetation during most of the growing 



Potential Natural Vegetation. Kuchler classified 
vegetation as trans-Pecos shrub savanna (Flourensia- 
Larrea); with juniper and redcedar woodlands. The 



Al-25 



predominant vegetation form is short to mid height 
grasslands with sparse cover of drought-deciduous and 
scale-leaved shrubs and small trees. Species include desert 
shrubs in association with short to mid height grasses and 
oak savannas. 



Fauna. Typical large to medium size herbivores and 
carnivores include pronghorn, coyote, swift fox, ringtail, 
hooded skunk, ocelot, and collared peccary. Smaller 
herbivores include desert shrew, desert cottontail, Mexican 
ground squirrel, yellow-faced pocket gopher, Nelson's 
pocket mouse, and Merriam's kangaroo rat. Several bats, 
western mastiff and yuma myotis, are present here. Birds 
of grasslands include bronzed cowbird, Baird's sparrow, 
and white-necked raven. Birds of thickets include black- 
capped vireo, scaled quail, Harris' hawk, Inca dove, cave 
swallow, golden-fronted woodpecker, and pyrrhuloxia. 
Amphibians include Couche's spadefoot toad, western 
spadefoot toad, Rio Grande leopard frog, Great Plains 
toad, red-spotted toad, spotted chirping frog, and Mexican 
mud turtle. Reptiles include Texas banded gecko, Big 
Bend gecko, desert spring lizard, canyon lizard, crevice 
spiny lizard, gray checkered whiptail, little striped 
whiptail, plateau spotted whiptail, checkered whiptail, 
Texas-Pecos rat snake, gray-banded kingsnake, Big Bend 
patch-nosed snake, Mexican black-nosed snake, Big Bend 



black-headed snake, rock rattlesnake, and black-tailed 
rattlesnake. 

Climate. Precipitation ranges from 8 to 13 in (200 to 
320 mm). Temperature ranges from 55 to 64 °F (13 to 18 
°C). The growing season lasts 200 to 240 days. 

Surface Water Characteristics.This Section has a low 
density of intermittent streams that originate in nearby 
mountainous areas and flow mainly following rains. Major 
river systems include the Rio Grande and Big Canyon. 
Flow rates are low except during periods of heavy rain, 
when large amounts of surface runoff can occur. Dendritic 
drainage pattern has developed. Playa-type lakes are 
present following rains but quickly dry up, leaving high 
salt concentrations. 

Disturbance Regimes. Drought and flash floods are the 
principal types of natural disturbance. 

Land Use. Reserved. 

Cultural Ecology. Reserved. 

Compiled by Southern Region. 



Al-26 



Chapter 41 



Province 331-Great Plains-Palouse Dry Steppe 



Ten Sections have been delineated in this Province: 
331A-Palouse Prairie; 33lB-Southern High Plains; 
331C-Central High Tablelands; 331D-Northwestern 
Glaciated Plains; 331E-Northern Glaciated Plains; 331F- 
Northwestern Great Plains; 331G-Powder River Basin; 
331H-Central High Plains; 3311-Arkansas Tablelands; 
and 331J-Northem Rio Grande Basin. These Sections 
are located in the north-central conterminous States, 
including parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, Nebraska, 
Wyoming, South and North Dakota, and Montana. The 
area of these Sections is about 290,700 mi 2 (752,900 km 2 ). 



GeVmorphology. This Section comprises moderately 
to srcmgly dissected loess-covered basalt plains, hills 
with %rge steptoes, undulating plateaus, and some river 
breaklamds. Mountains occur in the southeast part of 
the Secuftn. This Section is within the Columbia Plateau 
physiographic province. Elevation ranges from 1 ,200 to 
6,000 ft (3\to 1,830 m). 

Lithology arrV Stratigraphy. There is Tertiary basalt 
with some Pale«oic granitic and metasedimentary 
outcrops in brealaands. Granitoid rocks of the Blue 
Mountain uplift ark evident, as well as sedimentary 
rocks which occur a%the boundaries of the flood basalt 
deposits. 

Soil Taxa. Soils includ\ mesic Xerolls with some Xeralfs, 
Albolls, and Aquolls. Th«e soils are generally deep, 
loamy to silty, and have foKned in loess, alluvium, or 
glacial outwash. Soils in mountainous areas are shallower 
and contain rock fragments. 

Potential Natural Vegetatioim Grasslands and 
meadow-steppe vegetation dominated by grasses are the 
prototypical vegetation of the Palome. Woodlands and 
forests occur in the eastern portion at the Section on 
hills and low mountains. The relative^ arid western 
portion of the Section is dominated by iwrassland, where 
bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue ^te the most 
prominent. Meadow-steppe vegetation characterized by 
Idaho fescue and common snowberry dominmes areas 
with more precipitation, but still too dry to^upport forest 
vegetation on deep loamy soils. Most of this nleadow- 
steppe as well as the grassland to the west, haslbeen 
converted to crop lands. Ponderosa pine woodlarMs and 
forests form the lower timberline in the eastern postion of 
the Section on hills and low mountains. The transilaan 
zone between forest and meados-steppe consists of a 
complex interfingering between these two vegetation ty^£S. 
Douglas-fir series forests dominate at higher elevations r^ 
aillllAllWWWI.tiitlllMliliiailWtrtMMWBWMfa 



rth slopes in the mountains. 

Fauka. Birds are typical of grasslands with intermittent 
ripatmn systems and pine hills. Grassland species 
includ^American kestrel, ring-necked pheasant, upland 
sandpiper, western kingbird, horned lark, black-billed 
magpie, %estem meadowlark, and savanna sparrow. 
Riparian mstem species include Lewis' woodpecker, 
gray catbiim western bluebird, orange-crowned warbler, 
northern oriSe, black-headed grosbeak, and lazuli bunting. 
Birds which rmch or nearly reach the extent of their 
range include mountain quail, barn owl, white-headed 
woodpecker, easwrn kingbird, and American redstart. 
The bald eagle, a* endangered species, also occurs around 
larger water bodied Typical herbivores and carnivores 
include white-tail d«r, mule deer, and bobcat. Smaller 
common herbivores include the blacktail jackrabbit and 
Washingtion ground swirrel. Rare species include the 
whitetail jackrabbit, an^possibly the pygmy rabbit. 
Herpetofauna typical of ^is Section are the bullfrog, 
painted turtle, western fenge lizard, and the northern 
Pacific rattlesnake. 

Climate. Precipitation range^from 10 to 30 in (250 to 
760 mm), evenly distributed tfllpughout fall, winter, and 
spring. Winter precipitation is mostly snow; summers 
are relatively dry. Climate is warm temperate with a 
maritime influence. Temperature »erages 45 to 54 °F 
(7 to 12 °C). The growing season la^s 100 to 170 days. 

Surface Water Characteristics. T^re are scattered 
coulees and deeply-incised major drainages. Loess plains 
have low to medium density dendritic drainage patterns. 
Rapid changes in runoff volumes are possf«e on basalt 
due to gain or loss of water to gravel inter ^ds. The 
Snake River flows through this Section. 



Disturbance Regimes, 
natural disturbance. 



Wind is the principamsource of 



Land Use. Dry farming and livestock grazing oc^rs on 
about 90 percent of the area. 

Cultural Ecology. Reserved. 



Section 331B— Southern High Plains 

Geomorphology. This Section is in the Great Plains 
geomorphic province. The predominant landform is a 
broad, extensive flat plain formed by fluvial sedimentation 
of continental erosional products from adjacent mountain 
ranges, followed by sheet erosion and transport. These 



Al-27 




Southern High Plains Section. 

processes resulted in a region of moderate dissection. 
Landforms consist mostly of smooth plains with smaller 
areas of tablelands. Elevation ranges from 2,600 to 4,000 
ft (800 to 1,200 m). Local relief ranges mainly from 100 
to 300 ft (90 m). A small area of tablelands is present 
where relief ranges from 300 to 500 ft (90 to 150 m). 

Lithology and Stratigraphy. Rocks were formed 
during the Paleozoic (20 percent), Mesozoic (20 percent), 
and Cenozoic (60 percent) Eras. Paleozoic strata consist 
of Permian marine deposits (shale and limestone). 
Mesozoic strata consists of Upper Cretaceous marine 
deposits (limestone and sandstone). Cenozoic strata 
consists of Quaternary continental deposits (poorly 
consolidated silt, sand, and gravel in varying proportions) 
and other localized marine deposits. 

Soil Taxa. Soils are Ustolls and Ustalfs. Paleustolls, 
Argiustolls, Paleustalfs, and Hap! ustalfs are on uplands. 
Calciustolls, Haplustolls, and Paleustolls are on ridges and 
steeper slopes. Haplustolls occur on young valley floors. 
Pellusterts are in clayey playa lake basins. Calciorthids, 
Paleorthids, and Torriorthent.s are steep slopes in breaks. 
These soils have a mesic or thermic temperature regime, 
an ustic moisture regime, and mixed or carbonatic 
mineralogy. Soils are deep, fine to coarse textured, 
well drained, and have limited soil moisture for use by 
vegetation during parts of the growing season. 



Potential Natural Vegetation. Kiichler classified 
vegetation as sandsage-bluestem prairie and bluestem- 
grama prairie. The predominant vegetation form is short 
to mid-height grasslands. Species composition includes 
bluegrama, buffalograss, hairy grama, and little bluestem. 

Fauna. Large to medium size herbivores and carnivores 
typical of this Section include pronghorn, coyote, and 
ringtail. Smaller herbivores include desert shrew, 
black-tailed prairie dog, Plains pocket mouse, silky 
pocket mouse, and hispid pocket mouse. Bison and 
black-footed ferret are historically associated with this 
Section. Birds of grasslands include lesser prairie chicken, 
Swainson's hawk, and burrowing owl. Typical reptiles and 
amphibians include Great Plains toad, red spotted toad, 
lesser earless lizard, round-tailed horned lizard, Great 
Plains skink, and Plains black-headed snake. 

Climate. Annual precipitation averages 16 to 20 in (400 
to 520 mm). Between 16 to 35 in (400 to 900 mm) of 
snow occurs. Temperature ranges from 50 to 57 °F (10 to 
14 °C). The growing season lasts 140 to 185 days. 

Surface Water Characteristics. There is a low density 
of small intermittent streams with low volume of water 
flowing at low velocity. A dendritic drainage pattern 
has developed on a weakly dissected plateau, largely 
without bedrock structural control. Major rivers include 
the Cimarron and North Canadian. 

Disturbance Regimes. Reserved. 

Land Use. Natural vegetation has been converted to 
agricultural crops and range for cattle grazing on about 
90 percent of the area. 

Cultural Ecology. Reserved. 

Compiled by Southern Region and Southeastern Forest 
Experiment Station. 



Geonllu-phology. This Section includes broad intervalley 
remnants^rfsmooth fluviatile plains. Smooth loess- 
mantled tao^^nds with gently rolling slopes and major 
valleys are borc^ted by steep slopes. Broad, level flood 
plains and terrace^occur on major rivers and streams. 
This Section is in Fef^grnan and Johnson's Great Plains 
geomorphic physical div^jon. Elevation ranges from 2,625 
to 3,950 ft (800 to 1,200 m^ 

Lithology and Stratigraphy. ^Sbe Colorado part of the 
Section is Tertiary sandstones, siltsr«es, and conglom- 
erates and Quaternary windblown dunemands and loess, 
with Cretaceous marine shales and Quaternary alluvium 
in the major drainages. The Nebraska and l^nsas part of 
the Section is mostly Quaternary windblown du^^sands 
and loess, some Tertiary sandstones, shales, and coT^lpm- 
erates, and Cretaceous shales and limestones with 
— Hl ll rt i U llW W PUPBWWIW IIlliU , U l I — 



Al-28 



APPENDIX 2 

TEXAS 

OIL AND GAS LEASE 

OPERATIONS 

Acquiring a Federal Oil and Gas Lease A2-1 

Well Location A2-1 

APPLICATION FOR PERMIT TO DRILL A2-1 

Drilling Plan A2-1 

ENVmONMENTAL ASSESSMENT A2-1 

Bonding A2-2 

Drilling A2-2 

Producing A2-2 

Monthly Reports A2-2 

UNDESmABLE EVENTS A2-2 

Change of Operations A2-2 

Abandonment A2-3 



LEASE OPERATIONS 



ACQUIRING A FEDERAL OIL AND GAS LEASE 

A Federal lease may be acquired by either competitive 
leasing or over the counter leasing. The competitive 
leasing process is the offering of Federal oil and gas 
leases at an oral auction. These auctions are held 
quarterly. The noncompetitive leasing process is an 
over-the-counter leasing of Federal lands not leased at 
the competitive lease auctions. A competitive lease has 
a term of 5 years (unless held by production) and a 
noncompetitive lease has a term of 10 years (unless held 
by production). 

Application of lease stipulations that will mitigate the 
effect of oil and gas operations on other resources are 
applied by either the Bureau of Land Management 
(BLM) or other agencies. Stipulations on acreage with 
non-Federal surface over Federal minerals are also 
applied by the BLM. 

DECIDING ON LOCATION OF WELL 

A geologist for an exploration company examines well 
logs, seismic data and any other available information to 
determine an area for possible accumulation of 
hydrocarbons. Geologist, engineers and other 
exploration experts then determine the best location for 
a proposed well. 

The surface location for the well is based upon 
geological evidence and surface conditions. A normal 
drill pad covers one to several acres. The estimated 
average size of a drill pad for the purpose of the Texas 
RMP is 3.4 acres. Access and surface conditions 
(creeks, ponds, timber and structures) should be taken 
into consideration in selecting the location and the pad 
area should be as level as possible. Creating the least 
possible surface disturbances and safety procedures are 
other factors to be considered in location selection. 

Once the location of the proposed well has been 
determined the well location needs to be staked 
(surveyed). The BLM is notified of a proposed well 
location on Federal minerals by a notice of staking or an 
Application for Permit to Drill (APD). An approved 
APD must be issued and in hand prior to any surface 
disturbance or drilling activities. 



ACQUIRING AN APPROVED APPLICATION FOR 
PERMIT TO DRILL (APD) 

To acquire an approved APD the following three items 
are required: (1) drilling plan approved, (2) an 
environmental assessment conducted and (3) bonding 
requirements met. These are the minimum requirements 
and special stipulations may be added. 

1. Drilling Plan 

A drilling plan must be attached to the APD. This 
drilling plan must contain a description of the drilling 
program and surface use program. The drilling program 
shall include a description of the pressure control system 
and circulation mediums, the testing, logging and coring 
program, pertinent geologic data and information on 
expected problems and hazards. The surface use 
program shall contain a description of the road and drill 
pad location and construction methods for containment 
and disposal of waste materials, plans for reclamation of 
the surface and other pertinent data required. A drawing 
showing the proposed layout of the drilling location is 
also included within the APD. The drilling plan is the 
proposed action addressed in the Environmental 
Assessment (EA). 

2. Environmental Assessment 

To approve an APD an environmental assessment must 
be made of the proposed action. The EA process 
involves both site specific resource inventory and 
resource evaluations and analysis as well as an estimate 
of any cumulative resource impacts. 

The proposed action is reviewed and a checklist is sent 
to the operator requesting any absent information that is 
needed to complete the EA. A BLM environmental 
protection specialist will inspect the proposed drilling 
location with the operator's agent, dirt contractor and a 
representative of the affected Surface Management 
Agency (SMA) prior to completion of the EA. On 
split-estate lands the BLM is considered the Federal 
SMA. 

After the proposed drilling location inspection, the SMA 
will advise the BLM if any additional conditions of 
approval are required. These additional conditions could 
include surface restorations, reseeding or other 
reclamation work, requirements to avoid sensitive 
locations or restricted time periods. 



A2-1 



Included in the EA process are cultural evaluation and 
threatened and endangered (T/E) species evaluation of 
the proposed well location by both a BLM archeologist 
and a wildlife biologist. Wetlands (riparian areas), 
floodplains, soil permeability, water quality and any 
special circumstances are also evaluated. The cultural 
evaluation involves contacting the State Historic 
Preservation Office (SHPO) and any other agency 
involved in the preservation of historic or prehistoric 
sites. The T/E species evaluation involves contacting the 
state wildlife department, the state natural heritage 
program and/or the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 
Each agency receives a 30-day time period for review 
and comment. The BLM personnel or an authorized 
private contractor (hired by the oil & gas operator) will, 
upon request, conduct an on-foot location inventory of 
the proposed well location. 

If after completion of the EA, a Finding Of No 
Significant Impact (FONSI) is determined, the EA is 
attached to the APD. If the EA indicates the potential 
for significant impacts to the human environment, the 
APD is either rejected or an Environmental Impact 
Statement (EIS) will be prepared to further analyze the 
proposed action. 

3. Bonding 

The lessee or the operator must furnish a bond 
(minimum amount $10,000) before any surface 
disturbing activities related to drilling can begin. The 
bond requirement is to ensure compliance with all the 
lease terms and stipulations as well as the conditions of 
approval contained in the EA. If there is a change of 
operator, the new operator must state the bond under 
which they will operate. Bonds are not released until all 
the terms and conditions of the lease and APD have been 
met. 

An approved APD with copies of regulations, lease 
stipulations, the EA and conditions of approval is issued 
by the BLM to the lessee or the designated operator. 
The APD approval expires one year after the approval 
date. A time extension may be request if conditions 
warrant. Such an extension is subject to BLM approval. 

SPUDDING AND DRILLING THE WELL 

The operator must phone in a spud report to the BLM 
District Office within one working day of the spud date 
(date actual drilling of the well begins). At each well 
there shall be a well sign identifying the operator, lease 
number, location, and well name. The operator must 
submit daily drilling reports while drilling and 



completing the well. A copy of the approved APD must 
be at the well site during drilling. 

COMPLETING THE WELL 

Once the well is completed, a Well Completion or 
Recompletion Report and Log (Form 3160-4) must be 
submitted within 30 days to the BLM District Office. If 
the well is a dry hole, the operator may get oral 
permission to plug and abandon the well. Oral 
permission must be followed with written confirmation. 

PRODUCING THE WELL 

Once the well is completed as a producing well, the 
operator must submit within 5 working days, a 5-day 
start-up notice. If the report is submitted by telephone, 
it must be followed by written notice within the 5-day 
time period. After a well is completed and production 
equipment is in place the well location is normally an 
area of approximately 1/2 to 1 acre. 

MONTHLY REPORTS 

While producing, the operator must submit a Monthly 
Report of Operations (MRO). This report lists the 
production for the well. Each well location is inspected 
on a regular basis for compliance with Federal 
regulations and stipulations. If any violations are found 
a report of Incident of Noncompliance (INC) is written 
and this report is sent to the operator with instruction to 
correct the violation within a certain time frame. 

UNDESIRABLE EVENTS 

All undesirable events will be reported to the BLM 
immediately. Undesirable events include, but are not 
limited to, oil spills, salt water spills, theft, fires, leaks, 
accidents or other unusual occurrences. 

CHANGE OF OPERATIONS 

Once producing, any operation at the well location that 
creates additional surface disturbance or effects a change 
in the well bore status requires a notice of intent be 
submitted on the Sundry Notices and Reports on Wells 
(Form 3160-5). Before any work is commenced, the 
change must be approved with any necessary 
modifications and/or additions to conform to Federal 
regulations. For changes that create additional surface 
disturbance not analyzed or included in the original 
APD, an EA is required. 



A2-2 



Any change in lessee of record must be approved by 
BLM prior to the new lessee operating the well. Until 
the assignment of interest to the new (succeeding) lessee 
is approved the lessee of record remains responsible for 
all activities pertaining to the lease. 

ABANDONING/RECLAIMING THE WELL 
LOCATION 

No well may be abandoned without prior approval by the 
BLM. If a well is no longer profitable to produce, an 
operator may wish to plug and abandon the well. In 
order to plug a well, an operator must submit, on a 
Sundry Notice (Form 3160-5), his intent to plug the 
well. For old wells not having an approved 
abandonment plan, a sketch showing the disturbed area 
and roads to be abandoned, along with the proposed 
reclamation measures, shall be submitted with the 
Form 3160-5. A BLM oil and gas inspector must 
witness all pluggings and an environmental protection 
specialist will evaluate reclamation efforts. Final 
abandonment is not approved until the surface 
reclamation work required by the approved APD or 
approved abandonment notice has been completed 
satisfactorily. 



A2-3 



APPENDIX 3 

TEXAS 

OIL AND GAS LEASE 

STIPULATIONS 

Bureau of Reclamation Special Stipulations, GP-135 A3-1 

Bureau of Reclamation General Stipulations A3-3 

Corps of Engineers Special Stipulations, 1-A A3-9 

Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant Mineral 
Leasing Stipulations A3-11 

Lone Star army Ammunition Plant Installation 
Conditions for Site Approval A3-17 

United States International Boundary and Water 
Commission Special Std?ulations, Falcon RESERVom A3-21 

United States International Boundary and Water 
Commission Special Stipulations, Amistad Reservoir A3-22 

Department of the Am Force Lease Stipulations, 
Randolph Air Force Base A3-23 

Department of the Am Force Lease Std?ulations, 
Seguin Am Force Auxiliary Airfield A3-23 

Standard Bureau of Land Management Lease Form 3100-11 
with Terms and Conditions A3-24 

Standard Bureau of Land Management Form 3109-1 with 
Bureau of Reclamation Lease Stipulations A3-26 



GP-135 (2/91) 

SPECIAL STIPULATION - BUREAU OF RECLAMATION 

To avoid interference with recreation development and/or impacts to fish and wildlife habitat and to assist in 
preventing damage to any Bureau of Reclamation dams, reservoirs, canals, ditches, laterals, tunnels, and related 
facilities, and contamination of the water supply therein, the lessee agrees that the following conditions shall 
apply to all exploration and developmental activities and other operation of the works thereafter on lands 
covered by this lease: 

1 . Prior to commencement of any surface-disturbing work including drilling, access road work, 
and well location construction, a surface use and operations plan will be filed with the appropriate officials. 
A copy of this plan will be furnished to the Regional Director, Great Plains Region, Bureau of Reclamation, P.O. 
Box 36900, Billings, MT 59107-6900, for review and consent prior to approval of the plan. Such approval 
will be conditioned on reasonable requirements needed to prevent soil erosion, water pollution, and unnecessary 
damages to the surface vegetation and other resources, including cultural resources, of the United States, its 
lessees, permittees, or licensees, and to provide for the restoration of the land surface and vegetation. The 
plan shall contain provisions as the Bureau of Reclamation may deem necessary to maintain proper management 
of the water, recreation, lands, structures, and resources, including cultural resources, within the prospecting, 
drilling, or construction area. 

Drilling sites for all wells and associated investigations such as seismograph work shall be 
included in the above-mentioned surface use and operation plan. 

If later explorations require departure from or additions to the approved plan, these revisions 
or amendments, together with a justification statement for proposed revisions, will be submitted for approval 
to the Regional Director, Great Plains Region, Bureau of Reclamation, or his authorized representative. 

Any operations conducted in advance of approval of an original, revised, or amended 
prospecting plan, or which are not in accordance with an approved plan, constitute a violation of the terms of 
this lease. The Bureau of Reclamation reserves the right to close down operations until such corrective action, 
as is deemed necessary, is taken by the lessee. 

2. No occupancy of the surface of the following excluded areas is authorized by this lease. It 
is understood and agreed that the use of these areas for Bureau of Reclamation purposes is superior to any 
other use. The following restrictions apply only to mineral tracts located within the boundary of Bureau of 
Reclamation project where the United States owns 100 percent of the fee mineral interest. 

a. Within 500 feet on either side of the centerline of any and 
all roads or highways within the leased area. 

b. Within 200 feet on either side of the centerline of any and 
all trails within the leased area. 

c. Within 500 feet of the normal high-water line of any and all 
live streams in the leased area. 

d. Within 400 feet of any and all recreation developments 
within the leased area. 

e. Within 400 feet of any improvements either owned, 
permitted, leased, or otherwise authorized by the Bureau of 
Reclamation within the leased area. 

f. Within 200 feet of established crop fields, food plots, and 
tree/shrub plantings within the leased area. 

g. Within 200 feet of slopes steeper than a 2: 1 gradient within 
the leased area. 

h. Within established rights-of-way of canals, laterals, and 

drainage ditches within the leased area. 

i. Within a minimum of 500 feet horizontal from the centerline 

of the facility or 50 feet from the outside toe of the canal, 
lateral, or drain embankment, whichever distance is greater, 
for irrigation facilities without clearly marked rights-of-way 
within the leased area. 



A3-1 



j. Providing that appropriate environmental measures can be 

ensured, and providing further that Reclamation project 
works and other public interests can be protected. 
Reclamation may consider, on a case-by-case basis, waiving 
the requirements specified in Section 2 hereof. HOWEVER, 
LESSEES ARE ADVISED THAT OBTAINING SUCH A 
WAIVER CAN BE A DIFFICULT, TIME CONSUMING, AND 
COSTLY PROCESS WITH NO GUARANTEE THAT 
RECLAMATION WILL GRANT THE REQUESTED WAIVER. 

3. No occupancy of the surface or surface drilling will be allowed in the following areas. In 
addition, no directional drilling will be allowed that would intersect the subsurface zones delineated by a vertical 
plane in these areas. The following restrictions apply only to minerals tracts located within the boundary of 
a Bureau of Reclamation project where the United States owns 100% of the fee mineral interest. 

a. Within 1 ,000 feet of the maximum water surface, as 
defined in the Standard Operating Procedures (SOP), of any 
reservoirs and related facilities located within the leased 
area. 

b. Within 2,000 feet of dam embankments and appurtenance 
structures such as spillway structures, outlet works, etc. 

c. Within one-half (1/2) mile horizontal from the centerline of 
any tunnel within the leased area. 

d. Providing that appropriate environmental compliance 
measures can be ensured, and providing further that 
Reclamation project works and other public interests can be 
protected. Reclamation may consider, on a case-by-case 
basis, waiving the requirements specified in Section 3 
hereof. HOWEVER, LESSEES ARE ADVISED THAT 
OBTAINING SUCH A WAIVER CAN BE A DIFFICULT, TIME 
CONSUMING, AND COSTLY PROCESS WITH NO 
GUARANTEE THAT RECLAMATION WILL GRANT THE 
REQUESTED WAIVER. 

4. The distances stated in items 2 and 3 above are intended to be general indicators only. The 
Bureau of Reclamation reserves the right to revise these distances as needed to protect Bureau of Reclamation 
facilities. 

5. The use of explosives in any manner shall be so controlled that the works and facilities of the 
United States, its successors and assigns, will in no way be endangered or damaged. In this connection, an 
explosives use plan shall be submitted to, and approved by, the Regional Director, Great Plains Region, Bureau 
of Reclamation, or his authorized representative. 

6. The lessee shall be liable for all damage to the property of the Untied States, its successors 
and assigns, resulting from the exploration, development, or operation of the works contemplated by this lease, 
and shall further hold the United States, its successors and assigns, and its officers, agents, and employees, 
harmless from all claims of third parties for injury or damage sustained, or in any way resulting from, the 
exercise of the rights and privileges conferred by this lease. 

7. The lessee shall be liable for all damage to crops or improvements of any entryman, 
non-mineral applicant, or patentee, their successors and assigns, caused by or resulting from, the drilling or 
other operations of the lessee, including reimbursement of any entryman or patentee, their successors and 
assigns, for all construction, operation, and maintenance charges becoming due on any portion of their said 
lands damaged as a result of the drilling or other operations of the lessee. 

8. In addition to any other bond required under the provisions of this lease, the lessee shall 
provide such bond as the United States may at any time require for damages which may arise under the liability 
provisions of sections six (6) and seven (7) above. 



Date Signature of Lessee 



A3-2 



G:\GROUP\COM440\STIPS\GENSTIP.AGR 
OTAO(10/91) 

GENERAL STIPULATIONS 

1. All rights under this lease are subordinate to the right of the United States to flood and 
submerge the lands, permanently or intermittently, in connection with the construction and operation 
and maintenance of the Dam and Reservoir, Project, 



2. All surface work performed by the lessee on the lands shall be under the general supervision 
of the Area Manager, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) in direct charge of the project, and shall 
be subject to such conditions and regulations as he may prescribe. Detailed plans and location for 
all structures, appurtenances thereto, and surface disturbance work on the leased lands shall be 
submitted to the said Area Manager for approval in advance of commencement of any surface work 
on the said leased lands. At least 60 days or more lead time is preferred. All oil or gas drilling 
and producing operations shall be under the supervision of the District Manager, Bureau of Land 
Management (BLM), in accordance with 43 CFR 3160. The authorized representatives of 
Reclamation and BLM shall have the right to enter on the leased premises at any time to inspect 
both the installation and operational activities of the lessee. 

A. Predrilling Conditions: 

1. No exploratory drilling, pit construction, or site clearing will occur until approval is granted 
by the appropriate Reclamation representatives in consultation with the local managing agency(s). 

2. No well shall be drilled for oil or gas below the surface elevation of feet. (This 

elevation restriction does not apply to areas downstream of the dam.) No drilling will be allowed 
within feet of any developed recreation area. 

3. All storage tanks shall be constructed outside the flood plain above elevation feet 

(maximum water surface). This elevation restriction does not apply to areas downstream of the dam. 
Berms shall be constructed around storage batteries, tanks, and separators to contain their entire 
volume should an accidental spill or rupture occur. 

4. Drilling a well for oil and gas is prohibited within feet of any dam, dike, or other 

major structures, unless otherwise approved by the Area Manager in consultation with the local 
managing agency(s). 

5. No well shall be drilled within 1/8 mile (660 feet) of a river, channel, permanent stream, 
tributary, or marsh site unless otherwise approved by the Area Manager in consultation with the 
local managing agency(s). To protect watersheds, slopes in excess of 40 percent (2.5:1) should be 
avoided where possible. 

6. All drilling operations shall be conducted in accordance with the applicable State laws 
relative to municipal water supplies. 



A3 -3 



7. No surface disturbance shall occur until completion of an environmental analysis of the 
proposed drilling activity by Reclamation and all coordination matters are completed. This analysis 
will involve review of federally listed threatened and endangered plant and animal species, 
protection of wetlands, cultural resources, and water quality associated concerns. Certain data needs 
may be requested from the applicant proposing a surface disturbance action. 

8. Where surface operations and facilities could reasonably be expected to discharge petroleum 
products into navigable waters and should oil or petroleum products be stored onsite and facilities 
have an aggregate storage of 1,320 gallons or more or single containers with capacity of 660 gallons 
or more, a "Spill Prevention Control and Counter Measure Plan" shall be prepared and must be 
maintained and kept available for inspection onsite (if manned) or at the nearest field office if 
unmanned. In the event of a spill or leakage, the lessee assumes all responsibility for cleanup and 
damages. 

9. At lessee's expense, a cultural resource survey of lands that may be disturbed must be 
completed prior to any surface disturbance. If during operations the Lessee or any person working 
in his behalf discovers any historic or prehistoric ruin, monument or site, or any object of antiquity 
subject to the Archeological Resource Protection Act of 1979 or the National Historic Preservation 
Act of 1966, as amended, and Reclamation Instructions 376.11, then work shall be suspended and 
the discovery promptly reported to Reclamation. When directed by Reclamation's authorized 
representative, the Lessee shall obtain at his expense a qualified archeologist to examine and, if 
necessary, excavate or gather such ruins or objects. 

10. No "mud pits" shall be constructed below elevation feet. (This elevation restriction 

does not apply to areas downstream of the dam.) Pits shall be well constructed in such a manner 
to prevent leaching of chemicals into the water table and under no circumstances shall they be 
allowed to leak or be cut to drain. Lining mud pits with plastic may be required. They shall not be 
located on natural drainages. In some situations, such as drilling in a flood plain, a closed mud 
system may be required with containerization of drill cuttings. Waste or discharge of any kind shall 
not be allowed to enter any drainage. Any plastic material used to line pits and/or sumps shall be 
cut off below ground level, as far down as possible, and disposed of before the pits are covered. 
All unattended pits containing liquids shall be fenced, and the liquid portion shall be allowed to 
evaporate before the pits are broken. 

1 1 . The derrick shall not be located closer than one and one-half times its height from any 
electrical power transmission line unless prior approval is obtained from the owner of the power 
company. Signs shall be posted warning the public to prevent entry to the jobsite. Also, adequate 
blowout preventers shall be properly maintained. 

12. All aboveground structures, not subject to applicable safety requirements, shall be painted 
to blend with the natural surroundings. The paint used shall be luster less, nonreflective, flat, or 
semigloss color that blends with the area. 



A3-4 



B. Roads 
1. The Lessee shall observe the following restrictions during exploration: 

a. Wherever possible, existing roads and trails are to be used as access to the drilling site. 
New road construction will be kept to a minimum, and new construction will not begin until the 
location is approved by the local managing agency. 

b. Each existing fence to be crossed by the lessee shall be braced and tied off before cutting 
so as to prevent slacking of the wire. The opening shall be protected as necessary during 
construction and well operation to prevent the escape of livestock. Upon completion of 
construction, the fence shall be repaired to the original standard of the existing fence. 

c. Cleared trees and shrubs will be removed and/or piled as brush piles for wildlife shelter 
as designated by the local managing agency. Available topsoil will be removed from the road right- 
of-way and stored in a topsoil stockpile. 

d. New access roads shall normally be a maximum of 30 feet wide including drainage 
ditches and culverts. Road surface shall be graveled to a thickness identified as suitable for the safe 
operation of the vehicles and equipment at speeds proposed. The road shall be posted with curve 
signs and maximum speed limits. Speeds shall be limited on curves and posted to speeds that will 
permit a vehicle to be stopped within one-half the minimum sight distance. The road shall be 
maintained in safe condition. 

e. At the request of the local managing agency, on new access roads the Lessee shall 
construct cattle guards or install gates with locks which will be maintained by the Lessee during 
drilling operations and all such times thereafter as production continues. Fencing of roads may be 
required. 

f. Roads shall be maintained in suitable condition for vehicle passage during the duration 
of drilling activities with special consideration given to erosion control during wet and muddy 
periods. 

g. Existing roads shall be returned to original or equivalent condition after drilling 
equipment has been removed. 

h. All roads shall be adequately drained to control runoff and soil erosion. Drainage 
facilities may include ditches, water bars, culverts, and/or any other measures deemed necessary 
by Reclamation representatives. The following is a general guide for the spacing of water bars: 



Present Slop e 

less than 2 percent 200 feet 

2 to 4 percent . 100 feet 

4 to 5 percent 75 feet 

more than 5 percent 50 feet 



A3-5 



i. In the event of a "dry hole", any new road construction sites will be revegetated by the 
drilling company, with native and/or adapted grasses, forbs, and shrubs as requested by 
Reclamation, unless the local managing agency indicates in writing that the road is to remain. 
Revegetation is to be accomplished by seeding and fertilizing the area within 1 year of completion 
at recommended seeding rates and dates. 

2. The Lessee shall observe the following stipulations should oil or gas be found and production 
activities occur: 

a. Production company shall maintain road in suitable condition for vehicle passage. Public 
will be permitted to use road where existing road was originally open to such use. New road 
construction, if needed, can be exempt from public use. 

b. Should the local managing agency deem it necessary to control vehicle traffic into the 
area during any season of the year, the production company will provide a metal gate and lock. 

C. Drilling Pad and Reserve Pit : 

1 . Area cleared for the drilling pad site and reserve pit shall be the absolute minimum required 
for operations. 

2. All trees and shrubs removed from the pad site shall be piled near the site at places 
designated by the local managing agency for use as wildlife shelters. 

3. Available topsoil shall be removed from the drilling pad and pit site and stored in a topsoil 
stockpile. 

4. Diesel fuel tanks and other potential pollution sources will be surrounded by an earthen berm 
of sufficient height to contain their entire volume in the event of an accidental leak or rupture. 

5. The area will be kept well policed and free of trash and litter at all times, including access 
roads used solely by the Lessee. Litter blown out of the work area must be picked up. All waste 
associated with the drilling operations shall be removed and deposited in an approved sanitary 
landfill within 1 month after removal of the drilling rig. The Lessee shall comply with all State laws 
and regulations pertaining to the disposal of human waste. 

6. For the protection of livestock and wildlife, all pits containing toxic liquids shall be fenced 
and covered with a fine mesh netting (i.e., hardware cloth) with openings being of one-half inch 
or less. 

7. The Lessee will remove fluids and trash from all pits. The sludge pit will be pumped after 
drilling activities are completed and, following adequate drying, reshaped to original contours and 
covered with topsoil. This restoration must be accomplished within 90 days of completion of 
drilling. The area must then be revegetated as requested by Reclamation. 



A3-6 



D. Actions with a Producing Well : 

1. A minimum service area will be developed around the well head. No permanent material 
storage will be allowed on the lease. The remainder of the drilling pad will be covered with topsoil 
from the stockpile and restored to vegetation by tilling, fertilizing, and seeding. Specific seed types 
will be determined on a case-by-case basis by Reclamation in consultation with the local managing 
agency. 

2. The Lessee may be required to utilize electric or submersible pumps, where feasible, rather 
than fuel-powered pumps (or other machinery). All electric lines must be buried to a depth of 15-18 
inches. 

3. All transfer lines from well site to tank battery, saltwater disposal well, or the like, must 
be buried 3 feet below the surface and a minimum depth of 4 feet at stream, creek, and river 
channel crossings. 

4. When possible, a common point of collection shall be established to minimize the number 
of tank batteries. 

E. Actions with a Nonproducing Well : 

1. All disturbed areas will be recontoured, covered with topsoil, and revegetated. All trash 
will be removed from the lease site. 

2. Gates and cattle guards shall be removed where requested by the local managing agency. 
Any openings in fences will be restored to original condition. 

F. General : 

1. The Lessee shall limit access to well and storage locations on the leased property to 
authorized personnel. 

2. The Lessee agrees to cease all operations and make all necessary corrections to the 
satisfaction of the representative of Reclamation in consultation with the local managing agency 
before resuming any operations should any violations of the terms of this lease occur. 

3. The Lessee shall not permit any nuisance to be maintained on the premises and shall not use 
said premises for any purposes other than those authorized in me lease. Before abandoning any 
well, the Lessee shall securely plug the same so as to effectually shut off water from the oil-bearing 
stratum. 

4. The Lessee shall carry on the development and/or operation of the leased premises in a 
workmanlike manner and shall not commit or suffer to be committed waste upon the lands in his 
occupancy and use. In drilling operations, the Lessee shall only use so much of the land as is 



A3-7 



necessary; shall safeguard the lakes and streams from any pollution; and shall not permit oil, 
saltwater, drilling mud, or other deleterious substances to escape onto the land, but the same shall 
be retained in proper tanks, receptacles, or in pits prepared for such purpose; and after the 
termination of drilling operations, any such pits shall be filled and land properly restored to its 
original condition, and only so much thereof shall be used in the production of the leased premises 
as is reasonably necessary to operate any well or wells thereon. 

5. Lessee shall provide all subcontractors and assigns, especially the dirt contractor, with a 
copy of the above stipulations prior to construction of the road, pad, or associated developments. 



Area Manager 

Oklahoma-Texas Area Office 
Bureau of Reclamation 
420 West Main, Suite 630 
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73102 



A3-8 



U.S. ARMY COE 
SPECIAL STIPULATIONS 1-A 

1 . All oil and gas drilling and production operations shall be under the supervision of the District Manager, 
Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in accordance with 43 Code of Federal Regulations 3160. 

2. The Secretary of the Army or designee reserves the right to require cessation of operations if a national 
emergency arises or if the Army needs the leased property for a mission incompatible with lease operations. 
On approval from higher authority, the District Engineer will give notice of the required suspension. The lessee 
agrees to this condition and waives compensation for its exercise. 

3. If the District Engineer or his authorized representative discovers an imminent danger to safety or security 
which allows no time to consult BLM, that person may order such activities stopped immediately. The District 
Manger, BLM, will be notified immediately, will review the order, and will determine the need for further 
remedial action. 

4. Lessee liability for damage to improvements shall include improvements of the Department of Defense. 
Lessee shall be liable for pollution and other damages, as a result of their operations, to Government-owned 
land and property and to the property of the Government's authorized surface user. 

5. Before beginning to drill, the lessee must consult with third parties authorized to use real estate in the lease 
area and must consider programs for which third parties have contractual responsibility. 

6. A license to conduct geophysical test on the leased area must be obtained separately from the District 
Engineer. 

7. That all rights under this lease are subordinate to the rights of the United States to flood and submerge the 
lands, permanently or intermittently, in connection with the operation and maintenance of the above-named 
project. 

8. That the United States shall not be responsible for damages to property or injuries to persons which may 
arise from or be incident to the use and occupation of the said premises, or for damages to the property of the 
lessee, or for injuries to the person of the lessee's officers, agents, servants, or employees, or others who may 
be on said premises at their invitation or the invitation of any one of them arising from or incident to the 
flooding of the said premises by the Government or flooding from any other cause, or arising from or incident 
to any other governmental activities; and the lessee shall hold the United States harmless from any and all such 
claims. 

9. That the work performed by the lessee on the lands shall be under the general supervision of the District 
Engineer, Corps of Engineers in direct charge of the project and subject to such conditions and regulations as 
may be prescribed by him, and the plans and locations for all structures, appurtenances thereto, and work on 
said lands shall be submitted to the said District Engineer for approval in advance of commencement of any 
work on said lands. The District Engineer shall have the right to enter on the premises, at any time, to inspect 
both the installation and operational activities of the lessee. 

10. That no structure or appurtenance thereto shall be of a material or construction determined to create 
floatable debris. 

1 1 . That the construction and operation of said structures and appurtenances thereto shall be of such a nature 
as not to cause pollution of the soils and the waters of the project. 

1 2. That the United States reserves the right to use the land jointly with the lessee in connection with the 
construction, operation, and maintenance of the Government project and to place improvements thereon or to 
remove materials therefrom, including sand and gravel and other construction material, as may be necessary 
in connection with such work, and the lessee shall not interfere in any manner with such work, and the lessee 
shall not interfere in any manner with such work or do any act which may increase the cost of performing such 
work. If the cost of the work performed on land outside the property included in the lease is made more 
expensive by reason of improvements constructed on the leased property by the lessee, the lessee shall pay 
to the United States money in the amount, as estimated by the Chief of Engineers, sufficient to compensate 
for the additional expense involved. 

A3-9 



13. All areas within 2,000 feet of any major structure, including but not limited to the dam, spillway, or 
embankment, are restricted areas. The lessee, his operators, agents, or employees shall not utilize the surface 
of restricted areas for any purpose. Drilling operations in, on, or under the restricted areas, including drilling 
outside of the restricted areas which would cause a bore hole to be under the restricted area, will not be 
permitted. The restricted areas are included in the lease for the sole purpose of becoming part of a drilling unit 
so that the United States will share in the royalty of the unit. 

14. All existing or proposed public use areas, recreation areas, wildlife and waterfowl refuges, historical sites, 
and hiking and horseback trail areas may be leased for the sole purpose of becoming a part of a drilling unit. 
The lessee, his operators, agents, or employees will not use or enter upon the surface for any purpose. 
Directional drilling from non-public areas is permitted if not otherwise restricted. 

15. No drilling will be permitted from Government-owned surface where alternate surface use is available 
within the same drilling unit. 

1 6. All storage tanks and slush pits will be protected by dikes of sufficient capacity to protect the reservoir 
from pollution to flood pool elevation feet. National Geodetic Vertical Datum. 

1 7. It is the responsibility of the lessee to identify and be aware of areas where entry is prohibited. There will 
be no surface or subsurface entry within 2,000 feet of the dam structure. A portion of the lease includes the 

Public Use Area, therefore, stipulation _ is applicable. Stipulation _ also applies to portions of the lease 

area. 

18. The operator will immediately stop work and advise the District Engineer or his authorized representative 
if contamination is found in the operating area. 



A3-10 



LONE STAR ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT 

MINERAL LEASING STIPULATIONS 
Subject Lease No. 



It is understood by all parties that the following 
fifteen (15) mineral leasing stipulations are a part of 
subject lease and may be waived or modified only upon 
the written concurrence of the installation commander, 
Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant, Texas (LSAAP) , 
(hereinafter "Commander") and the written approval of 
the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land 
Management (hereinafter "BLM"), or authorized 
representatives. Compliance with these stipulations 
will be at no cost to the United States: 



1. The Lessee understands that its activity on LSAAP 
requires prior approval of the BLM, and that BLM 
approval requires the concurrence of the Commander, 
where necessary. Requirements which may be imposed 
include but are not limited to prohibitions or 
specifications on: 

a. access (e.g., time of year, gates, roads, 
construction, maintenance, pipelines, vegetation 
disposal) ; 

b. exploration activities; 

c. location, design, and timing of construction of 
drilling, collection, and storage facilities (e.g., 
burial of wellhead and equipment in underground 
bunkers, depth of burial of flow lines) ; 

d. use and protection of LSAAP water supply (e.g., 
water quality testing) ; 

e. protection of the environment (e.g., hazardous 
waste areas, endangered species, erosion control, 
pollution prevention) and protection of objects of 
historic and scientific significance; 

f. safety and fire protection measures (e.g., use 
of explosives, safe working distances from ammunition 
and explosives, construction and maintenance of 
firebreaks, development of contingency plans in the 
event of danger to persons or property, posting of 
signs) ; 



A3-11 



g. use of communication and transportation systems; 

h. LSAAP security (e.g., authorized operation 
hours, worker identification); 

i. management of production area (e.g., size, 
fencing, gates, cattle guards, interim revegetation) ; 

j . reclamation measures; or 

k. attendance at meetings (e.g., pre-operations 
conference, post-operations conference) . 

2 . The Lessee may only occupy the surface of the lands 
that are cross-hatched identified on the attached map, 
Exhibit "A" ; the remaining areas identified on Exhibit 
"A" are only available for directional drilling. 

3. The Lessee will make every effort to locate 
pipeline and access routes in existing utility and road 
corridors. The Lessee will furnish as-built drawings 
of completed pipelines at a scale and detail specified 
by the Commander. 

4. The Lessee in accepting this lease understands that 
the leased lands are part of LSAAP, a military 
installation. Mineral exploration and development in 
any restricted impact areas or areas involving 
ammunition or explosives is prohibited; however, these 
lands may be explored and produced by directional 
drilling at a safe distance from outside the areas as 
prescribed by Department of Defense ("DOD") or 
Department of the Army ("Army") regulations. 
Furthermore, the Lessee understands that future 
increased production, testing or storage of ammunition 
or explosives may further restrict the surface area 
available for lease operations. Safe distances from 
ammunition and explosive facilities are based on the 
quantity and type of explosive present or authorized 
and the proposed use (e.g., above or below ground, 
continuous or temporary presence of personnel) . The 
Lessee may obtain pertinent information on this subject 
from the LSAAP safety office. 

5. Before beginning any approved operations on LSAAP 
the Lessee must consult with third parties authorized 
to use real estate in the leased area and must document 
in any proposals for development the manner in which 
consideration is being given to programs for which 
third parties have contractual rights or 
responsibility. The Lessee may consult the records of 
the District Engineer, Forth Worth, Texas (hereinafter 



A3-12 



"District Engineer") to determine what real estate 
interests have been granted to third parties on LSAAP. 
On request of the BLM, the Commander may seek to 
resolve disputes between the Lessee and third parties 
if they cannot reach agreement. Resolutions will be 
coordinated with contracting officers or 
representatives of all parties involved. The Lessee 
shall hold the United States harmless for claims by 
such third parties arising from the Lessee's 
activities, including damage to pasture and cropland 
capabilities . 

6. Merchantable timber cleared from roads, pipeline 
rights of way, or drill sites will be disposed of in 
accordance with the Commander's instructions. 

7. The Lessee shall bear all costs of the following: 

a. Increased Army costs for its projects which are 
incurred by reason of the Lessee's activity on LSAAP. 
Such costs will be paid when demanded on a one time 
basis as a condition of approval of proposed 
operations . 

b. Any Army costs to administer and ensure lease 
compliance not otherwise funded by the Congress. 

c. The Lessee's share of road and bridge 
maintenance costs for use of LSAAP roads and bridges in 
accordance with a maintenance agreement. In 
calculating such costs, the drilling and production 
area, pipeline right-of-way, lengths of roads and 
bridges, and so forth will be considered. Payments 
shall be made in advance as a result of negotiations 
between LSAAP and the Lessee. 

d. Repair or restoration for damage or degradation 
of land or facilities, including that caused by 
subsidence and pollutant spills, resulting from the 
Lessee's activities. Where conditions of urgency exist 
as determined by the Commander and time is of the 
essence, the Lessee shall repair damages or degradation 
in a timely fashion in the manner specified by the 
Commander without awaiting confirmation from BLM. The 
Commander shall subsequently confirm oral orders to the 
Lessee in writing with copy furnished BLM and the 
District Engineer. If the Lessee cannot or will not 
immediately comply, the Commander may immediately act, 
and the Lessee shall be liable for reimbursement to the 
Army for all damages and costs of such action, 
including administrative costs and any surcharges that 
may be deemed appropriate. 



A3-13 



8. The Lessee shall not pollute the air, ground, or 
water (including ground water) or create a public 
nuisance: 

a. Before beginning operations, the Lessee shall 
retain a local agent who may be served notice on these 
matters and who shall notify the Commander immediately 
of spills, or other unexpected threats or hazards to 
the environment . 

b. The Lessee shall hold the United States harmless 
for any claim, including equitable claims, court or 
legal expenses incurred by the United States, and fines 
or penalties imposed upon the United States which are 
related to unlawful pollution arising from the Lessee's 
use of the property. 

9 . The United States reserves the option to purchase 
up to one-hundred percent (100%) of the natural gas or 
oil refined, at the price defined below, under a 
utility service contract to be negotiated prior to the 
exercise of this right in accordance with present or 
future DOD or Army regulations. Any product purchased 
by the Government shall be for the sole use of Army or 
DOD installation tenants located within a one-hundred 
fifty (150) mile radius of Headquarters, LSAAp and not 
for resale to the public. The Lessee shall include 
this paragraph in any contract or sale of natural gas 
or oil to other parties. 

a. The Lessee shall, in its sole discretion, 
determine whether oil or gas reserves are present on 
LSAAP in sufficient quantities to permit commercial 
development. After the Lessee has determined and 
declared that commercial production is possible, the 
Government and Lessee will have four (4) months in 
which to negotiate the specific terms of any sale and 
begin delivery of production. Except during 
mobilization or surge periods, the Commander shall have 
the right to change its election under this option, but 
in no case more often than once every twelve (12) 
months . 

b. The price paid to the Lessee by the United States 
shall be the average of the three lowest publicly- 
posted or "spot" prices for the delivered, refined 
product as announced monthly by the three largest 
purchasers in Texas Railroad Commission District-6. 
Specific details of the price and actual quantity of 
product shall be negotiated during sales contract 
procedures. The sale price may be adjusted to reflect 



A3-14 



any unusual (unanticipated) capital investment and 
transportation costs incurred by the Lessee. Such 
costs should be negotiated in paragraph 9a. In all 
cases, the Lessee shall bear all costs on a 
nonreimbursable basis associated with maintaining the 
well site (including meters) during the producing life 
of the well and salvaging such facilities when 
production is ended. 

c. The Lessee shall routinely inspect and calibrate 
equipment involved with the exercise of this option 
with (BLM) . BLM may require the Lessee at least 
annually to engage an independent party acceptable to 
BLM to test meters for accuracy and to furnish written 
findings to BLM. 

10. Notwithstanding any other stipulation, or 
condition of the lease, the United States and its 
officers, agents, servants and employees ("the released 
parties") shall not be responsible for damages to 
property, injury to persons, or any other cause of 
action ("released actions") which may arise from or be 
incident to this lease or the Lessee's use and 
occupation of the leased premises. Released actions 
include, without limitations, damages to the Lessee's 
property, injury to the Lessee's person, or other cause 
of action of the Lessee, or such damage, injury or 
other cause of action of the Lessee's officers, agents, 
servant employees, invitees of any of these, or anyone 
else otherwise on or off said premises incident to the 
lease. Released actions include any actions arising 
from flooding of the lease premises. The Lessee shall 
hold harmless and indemnify the released parties for 
released actions which may arise from or be incident to 
this lease or the Lessee's use or occupation of the 
leased premises . 

11. The Lessor's rights described in the printed BLM 
lease form include the rights of the Army. 

12 . The Secretary of the Army or designee reserves the 
right to require cessation of operation if a national 
emergency arises or if the Army needs the leased 
premises for a mission incompatible with lease 
operations. On approval from higher authority, the 
Commander will give the Lessee written notice or, if 
time permits, request the BLM to give notice of the 
required cessation. The Lessee understands the lease 
rights granted by this instrument do not include the 
period of any such cessation and the United States has 
no obligation to compensate the Lessee for damages 
(including contractual losses) resulting from the 



A3-15 



exercise of this stipulation. The Lessee shall include 
this stipulation in contracts with third parties to 
supply oil and gas. This stipulation shall not affect 
the Lessee's right to seek suspension of the lease term 
from the BLM. Whether or not a suspension is granted 
will have no effect on cessation of operations as 
stipulated herein. 

13. If the Commander or the authorized representative 
discovers an imminent danger to safety or security 
which allows no time to consult BLM, that person may 
order such activities stopped immediately. The 
authorized officer of BLM shall review the order and 
determine the need for further remedial action. 

14. If military or explosive contamination is found in 
the operating area, the operator shall immediately stop 
work, leave the area, notify the Commander and not 
return until the Commander advises that it is safe to 
return. 

15. It is in the best interest of LSAAP to determine 
if commercial deposits of oil or gas exist within LSAAP 
boundaries. The Authorized Officer (AO) of the BLM may 
specify rates of development and production pursuant to 
Section 4 of the Lease Terms and the Oil and Gas 
Operations Regulations at 43 CFR 3162.2(c). 
Accordingly, the operator will commence drilling within 
thirty-six (36) months of the effective date of this 
lease on acreage available for occupancy on this lease, 
or _ within an approved exploratory unit which includes 
this lease. Drilling operations shall be diligently 
prosecuted until a well capable of adequately testing, 
at a minimum, Paluxy, Moorings Port, and the Smackover 
Formations has been drilled. The operator shall not in 
any event be required to drill said well to a depth in 
excess of 8,500 feet. With the approval of the AO, a 
completion to a lesser depth than the Smackover may be 
made. However, not later than twelve (12) months after 
said completion to a lesser depth, the operator shall 
commence drilling a well to test, at a minimum, the 
Formations mentioned above. Additional wells may be 
drilled as deemed necessary by the AO, after 
consultation with the Lessee, based on test results and 
well spacing rules. 

Failure to comply with this stipulation will result in 
an assessment, civil penalty, or lease cancellation 
pursuant to 43 CFR 3162. The Lessee has the option to 
voluntarily cancel the lease in lieu of the assessment 
or civil penalty. 



Date Lessee's Signature 



A3-16 



LONE STAR ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT 

INSTALLATION CONDITIONS FOR SITE APPROVAL 

Subject Lease No. 



It is understood by all parties that the following 
sixteen (16) installation conditions for site approval 
(the "Conditions") are a part of subject lease and may- 
be waived or modified only upon the written concurrence 
of the installation commander, Lone Star Army 
Ammunition Plant, Texas (LSAAP) , (hereinafter 
"Commander") and the written approval of the Department 
of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management 
(hereinafter "BLM"), or authorized representatives. 
The Lessee's compliance with these Conditions will be 
at no cost to the United States: 

1. The routing of all supply pipelines, as well as 
material workmanship specifications shall be approved 
in advance by LSAAP. Pipeline access routes have yet 
to be determined by LSAAP. 

2. The Lessee's access to LSAAP shall be through 
existing gates and roads as approved in advance by the 
Commander. No temporary gates shall be installed in 
LSAAP 's perimeter fence. 

3. New road routes, if any, will be approved by LSAAP 
before the start of construction. Such roads shall be 
properly drained, terraced to prevent erosion, 
compacted and surfaced to provide for all weather 
access to wells and equipment. The Lessee will 
maintain these roads for the duration of the underlying 
lease. Roads to drilling sites of wells with no 
production capability shall be restored to original 
condition immediately after the site is abandoned 
unless LSAAP Commander accepts the road and the 
maintenance responsibility for it. 

4. Proposed activities have been reviewed and approved 
by the appropriate safety offices to include site 
approval by the Department of Defense Explosive Safety 
Board. Any and all changes to activities must have 
prior approval by the appropriate Safety Office. 

5. Producing wells shall be enclosed with a permanent 
fence which shall enclose an area not to exceed the 
minimum required for operation and maintenance of the 
well as mutually determined by LSAAP and the Lessee. 



A3-17 



The fencing shall be 72" chain link utilizing steel 
posts. Fence gates shall be kept locked and the Lessee 
shall furnish LSAAP Commander with keys to all locks. 

6. Lessee is required to comply with security 
regulations as stipulated in DARCOM-R 190-3 as well as 
any and all LSAAP security regulations and the LSAAP 
Protection Plan. 

7 . Lessee is required to comply with fire and safety 
regulations in accordance with AMC-R 385-100, Safety 
Manual, as well as any and all plant safety and fire 
regulations. Firebreaks (50' minimum clear zone) are 
required around drilling sites, fences, pipelines, and 
as required by the Commander. 

8. The LSAAP underground water table must not be 
contaminated nor disturbed or disrupted. The Lessee 
shall not contaminate any surface water, soil, air, or 
groundwater . 

9. Hazardous and non-hazardous waste material will be 
disposed of in accordance with LSAAP, State of Texas, 
and Federal regulations; disposal of hazardous 
materials will be off LSAAP. 

10. Charges for any administrative assistance, 
monitoring, or relocation of explosives will be 
assessed by LSAAP at a man-hour plant rate determined 
by the activity involved (guards, production, 
engineering, etc.). These charges will be reviewed 
annually and will be changed when necessary to reflect 
the Government's cost for providing these services. A 
separate negotiated agreement will be required for 
these services. Advance payment, at the discretion of 
the Commander, may be required as part of the contract. 

11. Drilling on or under any lease, license, permit or 
easement stated in the report of Availability is _ 
permitted so long as the use granted thereunder is not 
disturbed. Known easements on LSAAP consist of, but 
are not limited to: 

a. Access to families of individuals buried on the 
5.5 acres of cemeteries maintained by LSAAP. 

b. Approximately 13 SF in the telephone 
communications building (1-4) for General Telephone 
(GTE) to supply switch gear. 

c. Lake Texarkana Water Supply Corporation for a 30" 
line along the northern border. 



A3-18 



d. Southwestern Electric Power Company for a 
transmission line along the southwestern border. 

12. The Lessee shall provide completely installed, 
maintained, and operable supply systems from the 
wellhead to existing LSAAP distribution lines if and 
when the Government exercises its option to purchase up 
to One-Hundred Percent (100%) of the well's natural gas 
or oil production. The supply systems shall meet the 
following requirements, or current industry standards: 

a. Materials - All piping shall be schedule 40 steel. 
Welded joints are required for underground piping and 
for piping 2-1/2" diameter or more if above ground. 
Above ground piping of 2" diameter or less may be screw 
joints. All piping, valves and fittings shall meet 
existing E.P.A. requirements for high pressure gas 
distribution systems, as well as American National 
Standards Institute Specification B31.8 (latest 
edition) for Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping 
Systems . 

b. Coating - All underground piping shall be coated 
with coal tar enamel and glass fiber reinforced felt or 
suitable factory applied polyethylene or plastic 
coating (tape rapped at joints) to fully meet all 
E.P.A. recommendations /requirements for gas 
distribution lines. Cathodic protection shall be 
provided by magnesium anodes or rectifier /ground-bed 
systems. The Government shall review and approve 
proposed systems and shall perform quality control 
testing and inspection of piping, coating and cathodic 
protection systems. 

c. Welding and General Workmanship - Welding and 
general workmanship shall be in accordance with all 
E.P.A. and A. N.S.I, requirements for high pressure gas 
distribution systems. 

d. Size of Piping - Size of piping shall be 
sufficient to convey 50 percent of the well's 
production capacity, to the specified delivery point 
with a minimum delivery pressure of 50 PSIG and a 
maximum line pressure of 15 PSIG. Sizing shall be 
approved in advance by the Government. 

e. Meters - Meters shall be provided, installed, 
maintained, and calibrated by the Lessee, and shall be 
of type and quality equivalent to those used by the 
alternative non-Government gas purchaser. Meters shall 
be installed at the point of entry into the Government 



A3-19 



gas distribution system. 

f . Pressure Regulators and Accessories - Pressure 
regulators and accessories shall be provided and 
maintained by the Lessee to automatically pass gas into 
LSAAP distribution system as required to maintain a 
system pressure of 50 PSIG at the delivery point. 

13 . The Lessee is required to provide all necessary 
data to LSAAP to permit development of a Safety Site 
Plan which must be approved at all necessary Army 
command levels prior to the Army concurring with either 
a Notice of Staking or an Application for Permit to 
Drill. 

14. Herbicides may be used by the Lessee to maintain 
clear zones. Any herbicides proposed for use must be 
coordinated with LSAAP pest management coordinated 
through AMCCOM prior to use. Only those herbicides 
approved by the Environmental Protection Agency are 
acceptable. The Lessee will report to LSAAP pest 
management coordinator monthly herbicide usage not 
later than the third working day after the end of the 
month of use. Negative reports are not required. 

15. The Lessee shall not establish any drill site, 
pipeline, or any other facilities within 200 feet of 
any cemetery or other potential historical site (see 
Exhibit F) within LSAAP. Explosive or seismic methods 
will not be employed within 500 feet of any cemetery or 
other historic site unless otherwise approved by the 
Commander. The Lessee will be responsible for any 
damages to headstones, markers, fences, or other 
property in area of the historic site, or access roads 
to same, that result from its operations. Exploration 
or exploitation actions proposed in the vicinity of 
historic sites will require coordination with, and 
approval by, the State Historic Preservation Office. 

16. Leasing is permitted for oil and natural gas only. 



Date Lessee's Signature 



A3-20 



SPECIAL STIPULATIONS ATTACHED TO AND MADE A PART OF 

LEASE NM-A TEXAS 

The lessee understands and agrees that a negative easement is imposed in 
and upon said land to prohibit the drilling or deepening of any well for 
the purpose of producing oil and/or gas and other minerals provided, 
however, that exploration and development of oil and/or gas and other 
minerals under said land will be permitted by directional drilling from 
locations off the said land and above the 307-foot elevation traverse. 

No drilling operations are permitted which will cause contamination of 
the Falcon Reservoir, or the Rio Grande. Before drilling operations 
commence, works, including but not limited to, a reserve pit, 
satisfactory to and as required by the United States Commissioner, 
International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico, 
shall be constructed of sufficient size and maintained so as to hold all 
contaminants, well cuttings, trash debris, refuse, etc., and to prevent 
them from getting into Falcon Reservoir or into the Rio Grande; and 
further, the lessee shall be liable for all damages due to any 
contamination of the Falcon Reservoir, or the Rio Grande, resulting from 
his operations. 

The lessee agrees that all drilling, exploration, development and 
producing operations will be in conformance with the requirements of the 
Texas Railroad Commission and agencies of the State of Texas responsible 
for environmental concerns. 

The lessee agrees not to subdivide or assign this lease without the 
prior written approval of the said United States Commissioner, 4110 Rio 
Bravo, El Paso, Texas 79902, first had and obtained prior to submission 
for approval to the Department of the Interior. 



Lessee 



A3-21 



SPECIAL STIPULATIONS ATTACHED TO AND MADE A PART OF 

LEASE NM-A TEXAS 

The lessee understands and agrees that a negative easement is imposed in 
and upon said land to prohibit the drilling or deepening of any well for 
the purpose of producing oil and/or gas and other minerals provided, 
however, that exploration and development of oil and/or gas and other 
minerals under said land will be permitted by directional drilling from 
locations off the said land and above the 1144.3-foot elevation contour. 

No drilling operations are permitted which will cause contamination of 
the Amistad Reservoir, or the Rio Grande, Pecos or Devils Rivers. 
Before drilling operations commence, works, including but not limited 
to, a reserve pit, satisfactory to and as required by the United States 
Commissioner, International Boundary and Water Commission, United States 
and Mexico, shall be constructed of sufficient size and maintained so as 
to hold all contaminants, well cuttings, trash, debris, refuse, etc., 
and to prevent them from getting into Amistad Reservoir or into the Rio 
Grande, Devils or Pecos Rivers; and further, the lessee shall be liable 
for all damages due to any contamination of the Amistad Reservoir, or 
the Rio Grande, Pecos or Devils Rivers resulting from his operations. 

Upon completion of the well, all pits- -after settling or drying- -shall 
be filled and the location area shall be graded so as to resemble, as 
nearly as practicable, the land conditions prior to drilling. 

The lessee agrees not to subdivide or assign this lease without the 
prior written approval of the said United States Commissioner, first had 
and obtained prior to submission for approval to the Department of the 
Interior . 



Lessee 



A3-22 



LEASE STIPULATIONS 

OIL & GAS LEASING 

RANDOLPH AIR FORCE BASE, TEXAS 



No surface occupancy permitted . Pooling of minerals or extraction of minerals via slant drilling 
or other methods is permitted provided that such activity does not detrimentally impact the flying 
training mission at Randolph Air Force Base, Texas . The 12th Civil Engineer Squadron, 
Randolph AFB, TX 78150-4513 must approve all drilling locations prior to the BLM approving 
any applications for permits to drill. 



LEASE STIPULATIONS 

OIL & GAS LEASING 

SEGUIN AIR FORCE AUXILIARY AIRFIELD, TEXAS 



No surface occupancy permitted . Pooling of minerals or extraction of minerals via slant drilling 
or other methods is permitted provided mat such activity does not detrimentally impact the flying 
training mission at Seguin Air Force Auxiliary Field . The 12th Civil Engineer Squadron, 
Randolph AFB, TX 78150-4513 must approve all drilling locations prior to the BLM approving 
any applications for permits to drill. 



A3-23 



Form 3100-11 UNITED STATES 

(June 1988) DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT 

OFFER TO LEASE AND LEASE FOR OIL AND GAS 



Serial No. 



The undersigned (reverse) offers to lease all or any of the lands in Item 2 that are available for lease pursuant to the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended and supplemented (30 U.S.C. 181 
et seq.), the Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands of 1947, as amended (30 U.S.C. 351-359), the Attorney General's Opinion of April 2, 1941 (40 Op. Atty. Gen. 41), or the 



READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING 



Name 
Street 
City, State, Zip Code 



2 . This appUcation/offerAease is for: (Check only One) D PUBLIC DOMAIN LANDS 

Surface managing agency if other than BLM: , 

Legal description of land requested: 'Parcel No. : 



□ ACQUIRED LANDS (percent U.S. interest 
Unit/Project 



♦Sale Date (m/d/y): 



•SEE ITEM 1 IN INSTRUCTIONS BELOW PRIOR TO COMPLETING PARCEL NUMBER AND SALE DATE. 
T. R. Meridian State 



County 



Amount remitted: Filing fee $ . 



Rental fee $ . 



Total acres applied for . 
TotalS 



DO NOT WRITE BELOW THIS LINE 



3 . Land included in lease: 



Meridian 



State 



County 



Total acres in lease . 
Rental retained $ 



This lease is issued granting the exclusive right to drill for, mine, extract, remove and dispose of all the oil and gas (except helium) in the lands described in Item 3 together with the right to build 
and maintain necessary improvements thereupon for the term indicated below, subject to renewal or extension in accordance with the appropriate leasing authority. Rights granted are subject to 
applicable laws, the terms, conditions, and attached stipulations of this lease, the Secretary of the Interior's regulations and formal orders in effect as of lease issuance, and to regulations and formal 
orders hereafter promulgated when not inconsistent with lease rights granted or specific provisions of this lease. 

NOTE: This lease is issued to the high bidder pursuant to his/her duly executed bid or nomination form submitted under 43 CFR 3120 and is subject to the provisions of that bid or 
nomination and those specified on this form. 



Type and primary term of lease: 



THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



□ Noncompetitive lease (ten years) 

□ Competitive lease (five years) 

□ C 

"f A3-24 

(Cor 



by 



(Signing Officer) 



(Title) 
EFFECTIVE DATE OF LEASE . 



(Date» 



or a corporation organized under the laws of the United States or 



4 (a) Undersigned certifies that (1) offeror is a citizen of the United States; an association of such citizens; a municipality; . 



covers the land described in the withdrawal, has been signed on behalf of the United States. 

This offer will be rejected and will afford offeror no priority if it is not properly completed and executed in accordance with the regulations, or if it is notaccomp^iedby the requtad 
rjrnen SuUJLC HZnutJl it a crime for any ™k»»vi»gly and willfully to make to any Decent or agency of the United States any fab., fictions or fraudulent statements 
or representations as to any matter within its jurisdiction. 



Duly executed this 



. day of . 



(Signature of Lessee or Attorney-in-fact) 



LEASE TERMS 



Sec. 1. Rentals— Rentals shall be paid to proper office of lessor in advance of each lease year. 
Annual rental rates per acre or fraction thereof are; 

(a) Noncompetitive lease, $1.50 for the first 5 years; thereafter $2.00; 

(b) Competitive lease, $1.50; for primary term; thereafter $2.00; 

(c) Other, see attachment, or 

as specified in regulations at the time this lease is issued. 

If this lease or a portion thereof is committed to an approved cooperative or unit plan which 
includes a well capable of producing leased resources, and the plan contains a provision for 
allocation of production, royalties shall be paid on the production allocated to this lease. However, 
annual rentals shall continue to be due at the rate specified in (a), (b), or (c) for those lands 
not within a participating area. 

Failure to pay annual rental, if due, on or before the anniversary date of this lease (or next 
official working day if office is closed) shall automatically terminate this lease by operation of 
law. Rentals may be waived, reduced, or suspended by the Secretary upon a sufficient showing 
by lessee. 

Sec. 2. Royalties— Royalties shall be paid to proper office of lessor. Royalties shall be computed 
in accordance with regulations on production removed or sold. Royalty rates are: 

(a) Noncompetitive lease, \2'A%; 

(b) Competitive lease, 12V4%; 

(c) Other, see attachment; or 

as specified in regulations at the time this lease is issued. 

Lessor reserves the right to specify whether royalty is to be paid in value or in kind, and the 
right to establish reasonable minimum values on products after giving lessee notice and an 
opportunity to be heard. When paid in value, royalties shall be due and payable on the last day 
of the month following the month in which production occurred. When paid in kind, production 
shall be delivered, unless otherwise agreed to by lessor, in merchantable condition on the premises 
where- produced without cost to lessor. Lessee shall not.be required to hold such production 
in storage beyond the last day of the month following the month in which production occurred, 
nor shall lessee be held liable for loss or destruction of royalty oil or other products in storage 
from causes beyond the reasonable control of lessee. 

Minimum royalty in lieu of rental of not less than the rental which otherwise would be required 
for that lease year shall be payable at the end of each lease year beginning on or after a discovery 
in paying quantities. This minimum royalty may be waived, suspended, or reduced, and the 
above royalty rates may be reduced, for all or portions of this lease if the Secretary determines 
that such action is necessary to encourage the greatest ultimate recovery of the leased resources, 
or is otherwise justified. 

An interest charge shall be assessed on late royalty payments or underpayments in accordance 
with the Federal Oil and Gas Royalty Management Act of 1982 (FOGRMA) (30 U.S.C. 1701). 
Lessee shall be liable for royalty payments on oU and gas lost or wasted from a lease site when 
such loss or waste is due to negligence on the part of the operator, or due to the failure to comply 
with any rule, regulation, order, or citation issued under FOGRMA or the leasing authority. 
Sec. 3. Bonds— A bond shall be filed and maintained for lease operations as required under 
regulations. 

Sec. 4. Diligence, rate of development, unitization, and drainage— Lessee shall exercise reasonable 
diligence in developing and producing, and shall prevent unnecessary damage to, loss of, or 
waste of leased resources. Lessor reserves right to specify rates of development and production 
in the public interest and to require lessee to subscribe to a cooperative or unit plan, within 30 
days of notice, if deemed necessary for proper development and operation of area, field, or pool 
embracing these leased lands. Lessee shall drill and produce wells necessary to protect leased 
lands from drainage or pay compensatory royalty for drainage in amount determined by lessor. 
Sec. 5. Documents, evidence, and inspection— Lessee shall file with proper office of lessor, 
not later than 30 days after effective date thereof, any contract or evidence of other arrangement 
for sale or disposal of production. At such times and in such form as lessor may prescribe, lessee 
shall furnish detailed statements showing amounts and quality of all products removed and sold, 
proceeds therefrom, and amount used for production purposes or unavoidably lost. Lessee may 
be required to provide plats and schematic diagrams showing development work and 
improvements, and reports with respect to parties in interest, expenditures, and depreciation 
costs. In the form prescribed by lessor, lessee shall keep a daily drilling record, a log, information 
on well surveys and tests, and a record of subsurface investigations and furnish copies to lessor 
when required. Lessee shall keep open at all reasonable times for inspection by any authorized 
officer of lessor, the leased premises and all welis, improvements, machinery, and fixtures thereon, 
and all books, accounts, maps, and records relative to operations, surveys, or investigations 
on or in the leased lands. Lessee shall maintain copies of all cosiaacts, sales agreements, accounting 
records, and documentation such as billings, invoices, or similar documentation that supports 



costs claimed as manufacturing, preparation, and/or transportation costs. All such records shall 
be maintained in lessee's accounting offices for future audit by lessor. Lessee shall maintain 
required records for 6 years after they are generated or, if an audit or investigation is underway, 
until released of the obligation to maintain such records by lessor. 

During existence of this lease, information obtained under this section shall be closed to 
inspection by the public in accordance with the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552). 
Sec. 6. Conduct of operations— Lessee shall conduct operations in a manner that minimizes adverse 
impacts to the land, air, and water, to cultural, biological, visual, and other resources, and to 
other land uses or users. Lessee shall take reasonable measures deemed necessary by lessor to 
accomplish the intent of this section. To the extent consistent with lease rights granted, such 
measures may include, but are not limited to, modification to siting or design of facilities, timing 
of operations, and specification of interim and final reclamation measures. Lessor reserves the 
right to continue existing uses and to authorize future uses upon or in the leased lands, including 
the approval of easements or rights-of-way. Such uses shall be conditioned so as to prevent 
unnecessary or unreasonable interference with rights of lessee. 

Prior to disturbing the surface of the leased lands, lessee shall contact lessor to be apprised 
of procedures to be followed and modifications or reclamation measures that may be necessary. 
Areas to be disturbed may require inventories or special studies to determine the extent of impacts 
to other resources. Lessee may be required to complete minor inventories or short term special 
studies under guidelines provided by lessor. If in the conduct of operations, threatened or 
endangered species, objects of historic or scientific interest, or substantial unanticipated 
environmental effects are observed, lessee shall immediately contact lessor. Lessee shall cease 
any operations that would result in the destruction of such species or objects. 
Sec. 7. Mining operations— To the extent that impacts from mining operations would be 
substantially different or greater than those associated with normal drilling operations, lessor 
reserves the right to deny approval of such operations. 

Sec. 8. Extraction of helium— Lessor reserves the option of extracting or having extracted helium 
from gas production in a manner specified and by means provided by lessor at no expense or 
loss to lessee or owner of the gas . Lessee shall include in any contract of sale of gas the provisions 
of this section. 

Sec. 9. Damages to property-Lessee shall pay lessor for damage to lessor's improvements, 
and shall save and hold lessor harmless from all claims for damage or harm to persons or property 
as a result of lease operations. 

Sec. 10. Protection of diverse interests and equal opportunity— Lessee shall: pay when due all 
taxes legally assessed and levied under laws of the State or the United States; accord all employees 
complete freedom of purchase; pay all wages at least twice each month in lawful money of the 
United States; maintain a safe working environment in accordance with standard industry practices; 
and take measures necessary to protect the health and safety of the public. 

Lessor reserves the right to ensure that production is sold at reasonable prices and to prevent 
monopoly. If lessee operates a pipeline, or owns controlling interest in a pipeline or a company 
operating a pipeline, which may be operated accessible to oil derived from these leased lands, 
lessee shall comply with section 28 of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920. 

Lessee shall comply with Executive Order No. 1 1246 of September 24, 1965, as amended, 
and regulations and relevant orders of the Secretary of Labor issued pursuant thereto. Neither 
lessee nor lessee's subcontractors shall maintain segregated facilities. 
Sec. 1 1 . Transfer of lease interests and relinquishment of lease— As required by regulations, 
lessee shall file with lessor any assignment or other transfer of an interest in this lease. Lessee 
may relinquish this lease or any legal subdivision by filing in the proper office a written 
relinquishment, which shall be effective as of the date of filing, subject to the continued obligation 
of the lessee and surety to pay all accrued rentals and royalties. 

Sec. 12. Delivery of premises— At such time as ail or portions of this lease are returned to lessor, 
lessee shall place affected wells in condition for suspension or abandonment, reclaim the land 
as specified by lessor and, within a reasonable period of time, remove equipment and 
improvements not deemed necessary by lessor for preservation of producible wells. 
Sec. 13. Proceedings in case of default— If lessee fails to comply with any provisions of this 
lease, and the noncompliance continues for 30 days after written notice thereof, this lease shall 
be subject to cancellation unless or until the leasehold contains a well capable of production 
of oil or gas in paying quantities, or the lease is committed to an approved cooperative or unit 
plan or communitization agreement which contains a well capable of production of unitized 
substances in paying quantities. This provision shall not be construed to prevent the exercise 
by lessor of any other legal and equitable remedy, including waiver of the default. Any such 
remedy or waiver shall not prevent later cancellation for the same default occurring at any other 
time. Lessee shall be subject to applicable provisions and penalties of FOGRMA (30 U.S.C. 1701). 
Sec. 14. Heirs and successors-in-intercst— Each obligation of this lease shall extend to and be 
binding upon, and every benefit hereof shall inure to the hei" «*roMr. administrators, 
successors, beneficiaries, or assignees of the respective parti 

A3-25 



Form 3109-1 
(December 1972) 
(formerly 3103-1) 



UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT 



LEASE STIPULATIONS 

BUREAU OF RECLAMATION 



The lessee agrees to maintain, if required by the lessor during 
the period of this lease, including any extension thereof, an 
additional bond with qualified sureties in such sum as the 
lessor, if it considers that the bond required under Section 2(a) 
is insufficient, may at any time require: 

(a) to pay for damages sustained by any reclamation 
homestead entryman to his crops or improvements caused by 
drilling or other operations of the lessee, such damages to 
include the reimbursement of the entryman by the lessee, when 
he uses or occupies the land of any homestead entryman, for 
all construction and operation and maintenance charges be- 
coming due during such use or occupation upon any portion of 
the land so used and occupied; 

(b) to pay any damage caused to any reclamation project 
or water supply thereof by the lessee's failure to comply fully 
with the requirements of this lease; and 

(c) to recompense any nonmineral applicant, entryman, 
purchaser under the Act of May 16, 1930 (46 Stat. 367), or 
patentee for all damages to crops or to tangible improvements 
caused by drilling or other prospecting operations, where any 
of the lands covered by this lease are embraced in any non- 
mineral application, entry, or patent under rights initiated 
prior to the date of this lease, with a reservation of the oil 
deposits, to the United States pursuant to the Act of 
July 17, 1914 (38 Stat. 509). 



As to any lands covered by this lease within the area of any 
Government reclamation project, or in proximity thereto, the 
lessee shall take such precautions as required by the 
Secretary to prevent any injury to the lands susceptible to 
irrigation under such project or to the water supply thereof; 
provided that drilling is prohibited on any constructed works 
or right-of-way of the Bureau of Reclamation, and provided, 
further, that there is reserved to the lessor, its successors 
and assigns, the superior and prior right at all times to con- 
struct, operate, and maintain dams, dikes, reservoirs, canals, 
wasteways, laterals, ditches, telephone and telegraph lines, 
electric transmission lines, roadways, appurtenant irrigation 
structures, and reclamation works, in which construction, 
operation, and maintenance, the lessor, its successors and 
assigns, shall have the right to use any or all of the lands 
herein described without making compensation therefor, and 
shall not be responsible for any damage from the presence of 
water thereon or on account of ordinary, extraordinary, unex- 
pected, or unprecedented floods. That nothing shall be done 
under this lease to increase the cost of, or interfere in any 
manner with, the construction, operation, and maintenance of 
such works. It is agreed by the lessee that, if the construc- 
tion of any or all of said dams, dikes, reservoirs, canals, 
wasteways, laterals, ditches, telephone or telegraph lines, 
electric transmission lines, roadways, appurtenant irrigation 
structures or reclamation works across, over, or upon said 
lands should be made more expensive by reason of the 
existence of the improvements and workings of the lessee 
thereon, said additional expense is to be estimated by the 



Secretary of the Interior, whose estimate is to be final and 
binding upon the parties hereto, and that within thirty (30) 
days after demand is made upon the lessee for payment of any 
such sums, the lessee will make payment thereof to the 
United States, or its successors, constructing such dams, 
dikes, reservoirs, canals, wasteways, laterals, ditches, 
telephone and telegraph lines, electric transmission lines, 
roadways, appurtenant irrigation structures, or reclamation 
works, across, over, or upon said lands; provided, however, 
that subject to advance written approval by the United States, 
the location and course of any improvements or works and 
appurtenances may be changed by the lessee; provided, 
further, that the reservations, agreements, and conditions 
contained in the within lease shall be and remain applicable 
notwithstanding any change in the location or course of said 
improvements or works of lessee. The lessee further agrees 
that the United States, its officers, agents, and employees, 
and its successors and assigns shall not be held liable for 
any damage to the improvements or workings of the lessee 
resulting from the construction, operation, and maintenance of 
any of the works hereinabove enumerated. Nothing in this 
paragraph shall be construed as in any manner limiting other 
reservations in favor of the United States contained in 
this lease. 

The Lessee Further Agrees That there is reserved to 

the lessor, its successors and assigns, the prior right to use 
any of the lands herein leased, to construct, operate, and 
maintain dams, dikes, reservoirs, canals, wasteways, laterals; 
ditches, telephone and telegraph lines, electric transmission 
lines, roadways, or appurtenant irrigation structures, and also 
the right to remove construction materials therefrom, without 
any payment made by the lessor or its successors for such 
right, with the agreement on the part of the lessee that if the 
construction of any or all of such dams, dikes, reservoirs, 
canals, wasteways, laterals, ditches, telephone and telegraph 
lines, electric transmission lines, roadways, or appurtenant 
irrigation structures across, over, or upon said lands or the 
removal of construction materials therefrom, should be made 
more expensive by reason of the existence of improvements or 
workings of the lessee thereon, such additional expense is to 
be estimated by the Secretary of the Interior, whose estimate 
is to be final and binding upon the parties hereto, and that 
within thirty (30) days after demand is made upon the lessee 
for payment of any such sums, the lessee will make payment 
thereof to the United States or its successors constructing 
such dams, dikes, reservoirs, canals, wasteways, laterals, 
ditches, telephone and telegraph lines, electric transmission 
lines, roadways, or appurtenant irrigation structures across, 
over, or upon said lands or removing construction materials 
therefrom. The lessee further agrees that the lessor, its 
officers, agents, and employees and its successors and 
assigns shall not be held liable for any damage to the im- 
provements or workings of the lessee resulting from the 
construction, operation, and maintenance of any of the works 
herein above enumerated. Nothing contained in this paragraph 
shall be construed as in any manner limiting other reservations 
in favor of the lessor contained in this lease. 



A3-26 



(Signature of Lessee) 



(Continued on reverse) 



To insure against the contamination of the waters of the Reservoir, 

Project, State of , the lessee agrees that 

the following further conditions shall apply to all drilling and operations on lands covered by this lease, which lie 
within the flowage or drainage area of the Reservoir, as such area 

is defined by the Bureau of Reclamation: 

1. The drilling sites for any and all wells shall be approved by the Superintendent, Bureau of 
Reclamation, Project, before 
drilling begins. Sites for the construction of pipe-line rights-of-way or other authorized facilities shall 
also be approved by the Superintendent before construction begins. 

2. All drilling or operation methods or equipment shall, before their employment, be inspected 
and approved by the Superintendent of the Project, 

, and by the Supervisor of the U. S. Geological Survey having jurisdiction 
over the area. 



A3-27 



APPENDIX 4 

SPECIAL STATUS SPECIES 
OF TEXAS 



Federally Listed Specdis Protected A4-1 

State Listed Species Protected A4-3 

Texas Natural Heritage Program, 
Special Animal List - Specdxs of Concern A4-7 

Texas Natural Heritage Program, 
Special Plant List - Specdes of Concern A4-15 



FEDERALLY LISTED THREATENED & ENDANGERED SPECIES WHICH OCCUR IN TEXAS 
(INCLUDING PROPOSED LISTINGS) (75) Updated 19 June 1995 



Common Name 



Scientific Name 



Status 



PLANTS (27) 

ashy dogweed 

black lace cactus 

bunched cory cactus 

Chisos Mountain hedgehog cactus 

Davis' green pitaya 

Hinkley's oak 

Johnston's frankenia 

large-fruited sand verbena 

Little Aguja pondweed 

Lloyd's hedgehog cactus 

Lloyd's mariposa cactus 

Navasota ladies'-tresses 

Nellie cory cactus 

slender rush-pea 

Sneed pincushion cactus 

South Texas ambrosia 

star cactus 

Terlingua Creek cat's eye 

Texas ayenia 

Texas prairie dawn 

Texas poppy mallow 

Texas snowbells 

Texas trailing phlox 

Texas wild-rice 

Tobusch fishhook cactus 

Walker's manioc 

white bladderpod 

CRUSTACEANS, ARACHNIDS, 

Bee Creek Cave harvestman 
Bone Cave harvestman 
Coffin Cave mold beetle 
Comal Springs dryopid beetle 
Comal Springs riffle beetle 
Kretschmarr Cave mold beetle 
Peck's cave amphipod 
Tooth Cave ground beetle 
Tooth Cave pseudoscorpion 
Tooth Cave spider 

FISHES (8) 

Arkansas River shiner 
Big Bend gambusia 
Clear Creek gambusia 
Comanche Springs pupfish 
fountain darter 
Leon Springs pupfish 
Pecos gambusia 
San Marcos gambusia 



Thymophylla tephroleuca 

Echinocereus reichenbachii var. albertii 

Coryphantha ramillosa 

Echinocereus chisoensis var. chisoensis 

Echinocereus viridiflorus var. davisii 

Quercus hinkleyi 

Frankenia johnstonii 

Abronia macrocarpa 

Potamogeton clystocarpus 

Echinocereus lloydii 

Echinomastus mariposensis 

Spiranthes parksii 

Coryphantha minima 

Hoffmannseggia tenella 

Coryphantha sneedii var. sneedii 

Ambrosia cheiranthifolia 

Astrophytum asterias 

Cryptantha crassipes 

Ayenia limitaris 

Hymenoxys texana 

Callirhoe scabriuscula 

Sty rax texana 

Phlox nivalis var. texensis 

Zizania texana 

Ancistrocactus tobuschii 

Manihot walkerae 

Lesquerella pallida 

AND INSECTS (10) 
Texella reddelli 
Texella reyesi 
Batrisodes texanus 
Stygoparnus comalensis 
Heterelmis comalensis 
Texamaurops reddelli 
Stygobromus pecki 
Rnadine persephone 
Tartarocreagris texana 
Neoleptoneta myopica 



Notropis girardi 
Gambusia gaigei 
Gambusia heterochir 
Cyprinodon elegans 
Etheostoma fonticola 
Cyprinodon bovinus 
Gambusia nobilis 
Gambusia georgei 



E 

E 

T 

T 

E 

T 

E 

E 

E 

E 

T 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

E 

Ew/CH 

E 

E 

E 



E 

E 

E 

P/E 

P/E 

E 

P/E 

E 

E 

E 



P/E 

E 

E 

E 

Ew/CH 

Ew/CH 

E 

Ew/CH 



* see note at bottom of page 2 

E = Endangered T = Threatened 

CH = Critical Habitat (in Texas unless annotated %) 
t = CH designated (or proposed) but outside Texas 



P/ = Proposed ... 



A4-1 



Common Name 



>K 



Scientific Name 



Status 



AMPHIBIANS (4) 






Barton Springs salamander 


Eurycea sosorum 


P/E 


Houston toad 


Bufo houstonensis 


Ew/CH 


San Marcos salamander 


Eurycea nana 


T □ w/CH 


Texas blind salamander 


Typhlomolge rathbuni 


E 


REPTILES (7) 






American alligator 


Alligator mississippiensis 


TSA 


Concho water snake 


Nerodia paucimaculata 


Tw/CH 


green sea turtle 


Chelonia mydas 


E 


hawksbill sea turtle 


Eretmochelys imbricata 


E w/CH $ 


Kemp's Ridley sea turtle 


Lepidochelys kempii 


E 


leatherback sea turtle 


Dermochelys coriacea 


E 


loggerhead sea turtle 


Caretta caretta 


T 


BIRDS (15) 






American peregrine falcon 


Falco peregrinus anatum 


E 


Arctic peregrine falcon 


Falco peregrinus tundrius 


TSA 


aplomado falcon 


Falco femoralis septentrionalis 


E 


Attwater's prairie chicken 


Tympanuchus cupido attwateri 


E 


bald eagle 


Haliaeetus leucocephalus 


E 


black-capped vireo 


Vireo atricapillus 


E 


brown pelican 


Pelecanus occidentalis 


E 


cactus ferruginous pygmy owl 


Glaucidium brasiliarum cactorum 


P/T& □ 


golden-cheeked warbler 


Dendroica chrysoparia 


E 


least tern 


Sterna antillarum 


T 


Mexican spotted owl 


Strix occidentalis lucida 


T* 


piping plover 


Charadrius melodus 


E 


red-cockaded woodpecker 


Picoides borealis 


E 


Southwestern willow flycatcher 


Empidonax traillii extimus 


E & P/CHt 


whooping crane 


Grus americana 


Ew/CH 


MAMMALS (4) 






jaguarundi 


Felis yagouarundi 


E 


Louisiana black bear 


Ursus americanus luteolus 


T 


Mexican long-nosed bat 


Leptonycteris nivalis 


E 


ocelot 


Felis pardalis 


E 



E = Endangered T = Threatened P/ = Proposed ... □ = with special rule 

TSA = Threatened due to similarity of appearance CH = Critical Habitat (in Texas unless annotated $) 

$ = CH designated (or proposed) outside Texas 
= bald eagle status west of 100° is Endangered, east of 100° is Endangered & Proposed as Threatened 

* Note: This list does not include federally listed (nor proposed) threatened/endangered 
species which did occur in Texas historically but are thought to be extirpated (e.g., 
Mexican gray wolf, Rio Grande silvery minnow, & jaguar). Jaguar is listed for Mexico 
and proposed as endangered for Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Field Office 
10711 Burnet Road, Suite 200, Austin, Texas 78758 

Phone (512)490—0057 Updated 19 June 1995 



A4-2 



TEXAS THREATENED AND ENDANGERED SPECIES 

September, 1993 



ANIMALS 

In 1973 the Texas legislature authorized the Texas Parks 
and Wildlife Department to establish a list of endangered 
animals in the state. Endangered species are those 
species which the Executive Director of the Texas Parks 
and Wildlife Department has named as being "threatened 
with statewide extinction". Threatened species are those 
species which the TPW Commission has determined are 
likely to become endangered in the future. Laws and 
regulations pertaining to endangered or threatened animal 
species are contained in Chapters 67 and 68 of the Texas 
Parks and Wildlife (TPW) Code and Sections 65.171 - 
65.184 of Title 31 of the Texas Administrative Code 
(T.A.C.). 

PLANTS 

In 1988 the Texas legislature authorized the Department to 
establish a list of threatened and endangered plant species 
for the state. An endangered plant is one that is "in 
danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion 
of its range". A threatened plant is one which is likely 
to become endangered within the foreseeable future. Laws 
and regulations pertaining to endangered or threatened 
plant species are contained in Chapter 88 of the TPW 
Code and Sections 69.01 - 69.14 of the T.A.C. 



ROLLING PLAINS 

9a Mesquite Plans 
9b Escarpment Breaks 
9c Canadian Breaks 

HIGH PLAINS 

TRANS PECOS 

1 la Mountain Ranges 

lib Desert Grassland 

lie Desert Scrub 

I Id Salt Basin 

lie. Sand Hills 

IK. Stockton Plateau 



REGULATIONS 

TPWD regulations prohibit the taking, poscession, 
transportation, or sale of any of the animal species 
designated by state law as endangered or threatened 
without the issuance of a permit. State laws and 
regulations prohibit commerce in threatened and 
endangered plants and the collection of listed plant species 
from public land without a permit issued by TPWD. In 
addition, some species listed as threatened or endangered 
under state law are also listed under federal regulations. 
These animals are provided additional protection by the 
ILS. Fish and Wildlife Service. 



LISTING AND RECOVERY 

Listing and recovery of endangered species in Texas is 
coordinated by the Resource Protection Division. The 
Department's Legal Division is responsible for the issuance 
of permits for the handling of listed species. The 
following pages list those species which have been 
designated as threatened or endangered in Texas. The 
range of the species within the state can be referenced by 
the map of Texas natural regions below: 



I. PINEY WOOOS 
la LonqfcMt Pine farwt 
to. Mixed Pine-Harcr-ood rarest 

OAK WOOOS 8 PRAIRIES 

2a. Oak Vtoedlands 

2b Eastern Cross Timbers 

2c Western Cross "Smbars 

8LACKLAN0 PRAIRIES 

3d etocklcnd Prairn 
3b Grand Proins 




SOUTH TEXAS BRUSH COUNTRY 
6a. Brush Country 
6b. Bordas Eacorpmoni 
6c Subtroptcal Zona 

EDWARDS PLATEAU 

7a U"«Ooli-Me$quTW Savanna 
7b Bateonei Canyonlond"» 
7c LomoMas Cul Wow> 

LLANO UPUFT 

Ba Masautie Savanna 

8b Oak 8 Ook-Hiclnxy Woodland* 



GULF COAST PRAIRIES 
a MARSHES 

4o Durm/Bornw 

4a. EilwOO"" * or> * 

4c Upland f**n« 6 **>od« 

COASTAL SAND PLAINS 



MARINE ENVIRONMENT 3 



COMMON NAME 

••-MAMMAL 

MEXICAN LONG-NOSED BAT 
SOUTHERN YELLOW BAT 
SPOTTED BAT 
EASTERN BIG- EARED BAT 

TEXAS KANGAROO RAT 
COUES' RICE RAT 
PALO DURO MOUSE 



GERVAIS' BEAKED WHALE 

GOOSE- BEAKED WHALE 

PYGMY SPERM WHALE 

DWARF SPERM WHALE 

SPERM WHALE 

ATLANTIC SPOTTED DOLPHIN 

ROUGH-TOOTHED DOLPHIN 

KILLER WHALE 

FALSE KILLER WHALE 

SHORT- FINNED PILOT WHALE 

PYGMY KILLER WHALE 

FINBACK WHALE 

BLUE WHALE 

BLACK RIGHT WHALE 

MANATEE 

RED WOLF 

GRAY WOLF 

MEXICAN WOLF 

BLACK BEAR 

LOUISIANA BLACK BEAR 

COATI 

BLACK-FOOTED FERRET 

OCELOT 

MARGAY 

JAGUARUNDI 

JAGUAR 



Marin* Mwnl 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 

Bat* 

LEPTONYCTERIS NIVALIS 
LASIURUS EGA 
EUDERMA MACULATUM 
PLECOTUS RAFINESQUII 
Rodants 

DIPODOMYS ELATOR 
ORYZOMYS COUESI 
PEROMYSCUS TRUEI COMANCHE 
»Xm 

MESOPLODON EUROPAEUS 
ZIPHIUS CAVIROSTRIS 
KOGIA BREVICEPS 
KOGIA SIMUS 
PHYSETER CATODON 
STENELLA PLAGIODON 
STENO BREDANENSIS 
ORCINUS ORCA 
PSEUDORCA CRASSIDENS 
GLOBICEPHALA MACRORHYNCHUS 
FERESA ATTENUATA 
BALAENOPTERA PHYSALUS 
BALAENOPTERA MUSCULUS 
EUBALAENA GLACIALIS 
TRICHECHUS MANATUS 
Cftrnlvor«i 

CANIS RUFUS 

CANIS LUPUS 

CANIS LUPUS BAILEYI 

URSUS AMERICANUS 

URSUS AMERICANUS LUTEOLUS 

NASUA NASUA 

MUSTELA NIGRIPES 

FELIS PARDALIS 

FELIS WIEDII 

FELIS YAGOUAROUNDI 

PANTHERA ONCA 



STATE 


FEDERAL 


ECORECIONS 


STATUS 


STATUS 


OF OCCURRENCE 


E 


LE 


11 


T 




6 


T 


C2 


11 


T 


C2 


1 


T 


C2 


9 


T 


C2 


6 


T 


C2 


10 


T 




12 


T 




12 


T 




12 


T 




12 


E 


LE 


12 


T 




12 


T 




12 


T 




12 


T 




12 


T 




12 


T 




12 


E 


LE 


12 


E 


LE 


12 


E 


LE 


12 


E 


LE 


(4,12) 


E 


LE 


(1-4.7)** 


E 


LE 


(6-11) 


E 


LE 


(11) 


E 




(1,2,4,6-8) ,11 


E 


LT 


(1) 


E 




4,6,7,11 


E 


LE 


(9-11)** 


E 


LE 


(4) .6 


E 


LE 


(6) 


E 


LE 


(4) ,6 


E 




(6.11) 



•••BIRDS 



BROWN PELICAN 
REDDISH EGRET 
WHITE-FACED IBIS 
WOOD STORK 
WHOOPING CRANE 

AMERICAN SWALLOW-TAILED KITE 
BALD EAGLE 
COMMON BLACK-HAWK 
NORTHERN GRAY HAWK 
WHITE- TAILED HAWK 
ZONE-TAILED HAWK 
NORTHERN APLOMADO FALCON 
AMERICAN PEREGRINE FALCON 
ARCTIC PEREGRINE FALCON 
FERRUGINOUS PYGMY -OWL 
MEXICAN SPOTTED OWL 

PIPING PLOVER 
ESKIMO CURLEW 
ROSEATE TERN 
INTERIOR LEAST TERN 
SOOTY TERN 



Waterbirds 

PELECANUS OCCIDENTALIS 
EGRETTA RUFESCENS 
PLEGADI3 CHIHI 
MYCTERIA AMERICANA 
GRUS AMERICANA 
Raptors 

ELANOIDES FORFICATUS 
HALIAEETUS LEUCOCEPHALUS 
BUTEOGALLU3 ANTHRACINUS 
BUTEO NITIDUS MAXIMUS 
BUTEO ALBICAUDATUS 
BUTEO ALBONOTATUS 

FALCO FEMORALIS SEPTENTRIONALI S 
FALCO PEREGRINUS ANATUM 
FALCO PEREGRINUS TUNDRIUS 
GLAUCIDIUM BRASILIANUM 
STRIX OCCIDENTALIS LUCIDA 
ShorAblrds 

CHARADRIUS MELODUS 
NUMENIUS BOREALIS 
STERNA DOUGALLII 

STERNA ANTILLARUM ATHALASSOS 
STERNA FUSCATA 
Upland Birds 



ATTWATER'S PRAIRIE-CHICKEN TYMPANUCHUS CUPIDO ATTWATERI 

Woodpeckers 

RED-COCKADED WOODPECKER PICOIDES BOREALIS 

IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKER CAMPEPHILUS PRINCIPALIS 

Songbirds 

NORTHERN BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET CAMPTOSTOMA IMBERBE 

ROSE-THROATED BECARD PACHYRAMPHUS AGLAIAE 

BLACK-CAPPED VIREO VIREO ATRICAPILLUS 

BACHMAN'S WARBLER VERMIVORA BACHMANII 

TROPICAL PARULA PARULA PITIAYUMI NIGRILORA 

GOLDEN-CHEEKED WARBLER DENDROICA CHRYSOPARIA 

BACHMAN'S SPARROW AIMOPHILA AESTIVALIS 

TEXAS BOTTERI'S SPARROW AIMOPHILA BOTTERII TEXANA 



E 


LE 


4 


T 


C2 


4 


T 


C2 


2-11 


T 




1.2,4 


E 


LE 


4 


T 


3C 


1.4 


E 


LE 


1-4,7 


T 




6, 11 


T 


C2 


6 


T 




4-6 


T 




6,7 


E 


LE 


6 


E 


LE 


7-11 


T 


LT 


4 


T 


C2 


6 




LT 


11 


T 


LT 


4 


E 


LE 


4 




LT 


4 


E 


LE 


6. 9 


T 




4 



■ 11 



E 


LE 


1 


E 


LE 


( 1) 


T 




6 


T 




6 


E 


LE 


7, 11 




LE 


(1) 


T 


C2 


6 


E 


LE 


7 


T 


C2 


1 


T 


C2 


4 



A4-4 



COMMON NAME 



• ••RBPTIl-HS 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



STATE 
STATUE 



FEDERAL 
STATUS 



ECOREGIONS 
OF OCCURRENCE 



LOGGERHEAD SEA TURTLE 
GREEN TURTLE 
HAWKSBILL SEA TURTLE 
KEMP'S RIDLEY SEA TURTLE 
ALLIGATOR SNAPPING TURTLE 
LEATHERBACK SEA TURTLE 
CHIHUAHUAN MUD TURTLE 
TEXAS TORTOISE 

RETICULATED GECKO 
RETICULATE COLLARED LIZARD 
TEXAS HORNED LIZARD 
MOUNTAIN SHORT- HORNED LIZARD 

NORTHERN SCARLET SNAKE 
TEXAS SCARLET SNAKE 
BLACK-STRIPED SNAKE 
INDIGO SNAKE 
SPECKLED RACER 
NORTHERN CAT- EYED SNAKE 

BRAZOS WATER SNAKE 
CONCHO WATER SNAKE 
SMOOTH GREEN SNAKE 
LOUISIANA PINE SNAKE 
BIG BEND BLACKHEAD SNAKE 
TEXAS LYRE SNAKE 
TIMBER RATTLESNAKE 



Turtl«a 

CAR ETTA CAR ETTA 

CHELONIA MYDAS 

ERETMOCHELYS IMBRICATA 

LEPIDOCHELYS KEMPII 

MACROCLEMYS TEMMINCKII 

DERMOCHELYS CORIACEA 

KINOSTERNON HIRTIPES MURRAY I 

GOPHERUS BERLANDIERI 
Lizards 

COLEONYX RETICULATUS 

CROTAPHYTUS RETICULATUS 

PHRYNOSOMA CORNUTUM 

PHRYNOSOMA DOUGLASSII HERNANDESI 
Siuikas 

CEMOPHORA COCCINEA COPEI 

CEMOPHORA COCCINEA LINERI 

CONIOPHANES IMPERIALIS 

DRYMARCHON CORAIS 

DRYMOBIUS MARGARITIFERUS 

LEPTODEIRA SEPTENTRIONAL IS 
SEPTENTRIONALIS 

NERODIA HARTERI HARTERI 

NERODIA HARTERI PAUCIMACULATA 

OPHEODRYS VERNALIS 

PITUOPHIS MELANOLEUCUS RUTHVENI 

TANTILLA RUBRA 

TRIMORPHODON BISCUTATUS VILKINSONI 

CROTALUS HORRIDU3 



E 


LT 


12 


T 


LT 


12 


E 


LE 


12 


E 


LE 


12 


T 


C2 


1-4 


E 


LE 


12 


E 


C2 


11 


T 




4-6 


T 


3C 


11 


T 


C2 


6 


T 


C2 


2-11 


T 




11 


T 




1.4 


T 




4-6 


T 




6 


T 




4-7 


E 




6 


E 




4 


T 


C2 


2.9 


E 


LT 


8,9 


E 




4 


E 


C2 


1 


T 




7.11 


T 




11 


T 




1-4 



• » • AMPHIBIANS 



SAN MARCOS SALAMANDER 
COMAL BLIND SALAMANDER 
TEXAS BLIND SALAMANDER 
BLANCO BLIND SALAMANDER 
CASCADE CAVERNS SALAMANDER 
BLACK -SPOTTED NEWT 
RIO GRANDE LESSER SIREN 

Progi 
HOUSTON TOAD 
MEXICAN TREEFROG 
WHITE-LIPPED FROG 
SHEEP FROG 
MEXICAN BURROWING TOAD 



ilnm nn dwi 

EURYCEA NANA 
EURYCEA TRIDENTIFERA 
TYPHLOMOLGE RATHBUNI 
TYPHLOMOLGE ROBUSTA 
EURYCEA LATITANS 
NOTOPHTHALMUS MERIDIONALIS 
SIREN INTERMEDIA TEXANA 
and Toads 

BUFO HOUSTONEN5I3 
3MILISCA BAUDINII 
LEPTODACTYLUS LABIALIS 
HYPOPACHUS VARIOLOSUS 
RHINOPHRYNUS DORSAL 13 



T 


LT 


7 


T 


C2 


7 


E 


LE 


7 


E 


C2 


7 


T 




7 


E 


C2 


4,5.6 


E 


C2 


4,5,6 


E 


LE 


2.4 


T 




6 


E 




6 


T 




5,6 


T 




6 



•"FISHES 



Larg* 



SHOVELNOSE 
PADDLEFISH 



STURGEON 



MEXICAN STONEROLLER 
PROSERPINE SHINER 
DEVIL'S RIVER MINNOW 
RIO GRANDE CHUB 
RIO GRANDE SILVERY MINNOW 
CHIHUAHUA SHINER 
BLUEHEAD SHINER 
BLUNTNOSE SHINER 
PHANTOM SHINER 

BLUE SUCKER 
CREEK CHUBSUCKER 

WIDEMOUTH BLINDCAT 
TOOTHLESS BLINDCAT 

LEON SPRINGS PUPFISH 
COMANCHE SPRINGS PUPFISH 
CONCHOS PUPFISH 
PECOS PUPFISH 

BIG BEND GAMBUSIA 
SAN MARCOS GAMBUSIA 
CLEAR CREEK GAMBUSIA 
PECOS GAMBUSIA 
BLOTCHED GAMBUSIA 

FOUNTAIN DARTER 
RIO GRANDE DARTER 
BLACKS IDE DARTER 

C 
OPPOSUM PIPEFISH 
RIVER GOBY 
BLACKFIN GOBY 



Rlvar Plan 

SCAPHIRHYNCHUS PLATORYNCHUS 
POLYODON SPATHULA 

Mlnnowa 

CAMPOSTOMA ORNATUM 
CYPRINELLA PROSERPINA 
DIONDA DIABOLI 
GILA PANDORA 
HYBOCNATHUS AMARUS 
NOTROPIS CHIHUAHUA 
NOTROPIS HUBBSI 
NOTROPIS SIMUS 
NOTROPIS ORCA 

Suckari 

CYCLEPTUS ELONGATUS 
ERIMYZON OBLONGUS 

Catflah 

SATAN EURYSTOMUS 
TROGLOGLANIS PATTERSONI 
Kllllflahaa 

CYPRINOPON BOVINUS 
CYPRINODON ELEGANS 
CYPRINODON EXIMIUS 
CYPRINODON PECOSENSIS 
Livabaarara 

GAMBUSIA GAIGEI 
GAM BU S I A G EORG E I 
GAMBUSIA HETEROCHIR 
GAMBUSIA NOBILIS 
GAMBUSIA SENILIS 

Parchas 

ETHEOSTOMA FONTICOLA 
ETHEOSTOMA GRAHAMI 
PERCINA MACULATA 
afltal Fishes 

MICROPHIS BRACHYURU3 
AWAOUS TAJASICA 
GOBIONELLUS ATR I P I NN I 3 



E 




1 


E 


C2 


1 


T 


C2 


11 


T 


C2 


7, 11 


T 


CI 


7 


T 




11 




PE 


(11) 


T 


C2 


11 


T 




1 


E 




(11)* 


E 


3A 


(6.7.11) 


T 


C2 


1-4.6.7 


T 




1 


T 


C2 


7 


T 


C2 


7 


E 


LE 


11 


E 


LE 


11 


T 


C2 


11 


T 


CI 


11 


E 


LE 


11 


E 


LE 


(71* 


E 


LE 


8 


E 


LE 


11 


E 


C2 


(7.11) •• 


E 


LE 


7 


T 


C2 


7.11 


T 




1 


T 




12 


T 
E 




::4# 2 5 



COMMON NAME 

* • • XNVSHTKBRATSS 

TOOTH CAVE PSEUDOSCORPION 
TOOTH CAVE SPIDER 
BEE CREEK CAVE HARVESTMAN 
BONE CAVE HARVESTMAN 

TOOTH CAVE GROUND BEETLE 
KRETSCHMARR CAVE MOLD BEETLE 
COFFIN CAVE MOLD BEETLE 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



Spldar* 

TARTAROCREAGRIS TEXANA 
NEOLEPTONETA MYOPICA 
TEXELLA REDDELLI 
TEXELLA REYESI 
Iniaot* 

RHADINE PERSEPHONE 
TEXAMAUROPS REDDELLI 
BATRISODES TEXANUS 



STATE FEDERAL ECOREGIONS 
STATUS STATUS OF OCCURRENCE 



LE 


7 


LE 


7 


LE 


7 


LE 


7 


LE 


7 


LE 


7 


LE 


7 



TOBUSCH FISHHOOK CACTUS 
NELLIE CORY CACTUS 
BUNCHED CORY CACTUS 
SNEED PINCUSHION CACTUS 
LLOYD • S HEDGEHOG CACTUS 
BLACK LACE CACTUS 

DAVIS" GREEN PITAYA 

CHI SOS HEDGEHOG CACTUS 



LLOYD'S MARIPOSA CACTUS 
STAR CACTUS 

Traaa 
HINCKLEY'S OAK 



Cacti 

ANCISTROCACTUS TOBUSCHII 
CORYPHANTHA MINIMA 
CORYPHANTHA RAMILLOSA 
CORYPHANTHA 3NEEDII VAR SNEEDII 
ECHINOCEREUS LLOYDII 
ECHINOCEREUS REICHENBACHII 

VAR ALBERTII 
ECHINOCEREUS VIRIDIFLORUS 

VAR DAVISII 
ECHINOCEREUS CHISOENSIS 

VAR CHISOENSIS 
NEOLLOYDIA MARIPOSENSIS 
ASTROPHYTUM ASTERIAS 
SJxiruiaB, and Sub-ahnibfl 

QUERCUS HINCKLEYI 



-EYE 



JOHNSTON'S FRANKENIA 
TEXAS SNOWBELLS 

ASHY DOGWEED 

PRAIRIE DAWN 

TERLINGUA CREEK CAT'S 

WHITE BLADDERPOD 

WALKER ' S MANIOC 

SLENDER RUSH- PEA 

MCKITTRICK PENNYROYAL 

TEXAS POPPY-MALLOW 

LARGE-FRUITED SAND VERBENA 

TEXAS TRAILING PHLOX 

CHAFFSEED 

SOUTH TEXAS RAGWEED 

TEXAS AYENIA 

Or. 
TEXAS WILD-RICE 
LITTLE AGUJA PONDWEED 

NAVASOTA LADIES' 



FRANKENIA JOHNSTONII 
STY RAX TEXANA 
Wlldflowan 

THYMOPHYLLA TEPHROLEUCA 
HYMENOXYS TEXANA 
CRYPTANTHA CRASS I PES 
LESOUERELLA PALLIDA 
MANIHOT WALKERAE 
HOFFMANNSEGGIA TENELLA 
HEDEOMA APICULATUM 
CALLIRHOE SCABRIUSCULA 
ABRONIA MACROCARPA 
PHLOX NIVALIS SSP TEXENSIS 
SCHWALBEA AMERICANA 
AMBROSIA CHEIRANTHIFOLIA 
AYENIA LIMITARIS 
ud Or«««-lik« Plants 

ZIZANIA TEXANA 
POTAMOGETON CLYSTOCARPUS 
Orchid* 
TRESSES SPIRANTHES PARKSII 



E 


LE 


7 


E 


LE 


11 


T 


LT 


11 


E 


LE 


11 


E 


LE 


11 


E 


LE 


4-6 


E 


LE 


11 


T 


LT 


11 


T 


LT 


11 




PE 


6 


T 


LT 


11 


E 


LE 


6 


E 


LE 


7 


E 


LE 


6 


E 


LE 


4 


E 


LE 


11 


E 


LE 


1 


E 


LE 


6 


E 


LE 


4.6 


T 


LT 


11 


E 


LE 


9 


E 


LE 


2 


E 


LE 


1 




LE 


? 




PE 


4,6 




PE 


6 


E 


LE 


7 


E 


LE 


11 



LE 



1-2 



KEY: 



Stale Status - E=Endangered, T-Threalened 
Federal Status ■ LE=Listed Endangered, LT=Usted Threatened 
PE= Proposed Endangered, PT=Proposed Threatened 
Cl=Candidale Species (category 1 - awaiting listing) 
C2 = Candidale Species (category 2 • awaiting more information) 
3 A = Removed from list due to extinction 
3 fl = Removed from list due to taxonomic change 
3C=Removed from list because of abundance 
Ecoregion - ( )=Species extirpated from ecoregion within Texas 
7% a ^Species extinct 

**=Species extinct in the wild (except some experimental populations) 



In I9S3, the Texas Legislature created the 
Special Nongame and Endangered Species 
Conservation Fund. This fund may be used for 
nongame wildlife and endangered species research 
and conservation, habitat acquisition and 
development, and dissemination of information 
pertaining to these species. Money for the fund 
is obtained through private donations and sale 
of nongame wildlife art prints, decals and stamps. 
For more information on the fund or endangered 
species call I -800-792-1 1 12 or 512-448-431 1 . 



TEXAS PARKS AND WILDLIFE DEPARTMENT 

TEXAS NATURAL HERITAGE PROGRAM 

SPECIAL ANIMAL LIST 

19 OCT 1993 



PAGE 1 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



*** AMPHIBIANS 



BUFO HOUSTONENSIS 
EURYCEA NANA 
EURYCEA NEOTENES 
EURYCEA SOSORUM 
EURYCEA SP 1 
EURYCEA SP 2 
EURYCEA SP 4 
EURYCEA SP 5 
EURYCEA TRIDENT I FERA 
HYPOPACHUS VARIOLOSUS 
LEPTODACTYLUS LABIAL IS 
NOTOPHTHALMUS MERIDIONALIS 
PLETHODON SERRATUS 
RANA GRYLIO 
RANA PIPIENS 
RHINOPHRYNUS DORSAL IS 
SIREN INTERMEDIA TEXANA 
SMILISCA BAUDINII 
TYPHLOMOLGE RATHBUNI 
TYPHLOMOLGE ROBUSTA 



COMMON NAME 



HOUSTON TOAD 

SAN MARCOS SALAMANDER 

TEXAS SALAMANDER 

BARTON SPRINGS SALAMANDER 

JOLLYVILLE PLATEAU SALAMANDER 

SALADO SPRINGS SALAMANDER 

BUTTERCUP CREEK CAVES SALAMANDER 

GEORGETOUN SALAMANDER 

COMAL BLIND SALAMANDER 

SHEEP FROG 

WHITE-LIPPED FROG 

BLACK-SPOTTED NEWT 

SOUTHERN REDBACK SALAMANDER 

PIG FROG 

NORTHERN LEOPARD FROG 

MEXICAN BURROWING TOAD 

RIO GRANDE LESSER SIREN 

MEXICAN TREE FROG 

TEXAS BLIND SALAMANDER 

BLANCO BLIND SALAMANDER 



GLOBAL 


STATE 


FEDERAL 


STATE 


RANK 


RANK 


STATUS 


STATUS 


G1 


SI 


IE 


E 


G1 


SI 


IT 


T 


G3 


S3 


C2 




G1 


S1 


C2 




G1 


SI 


C2 




G1 


SI 


C2 




G1 


SI 


C2 




G1 


SI 


C2 




G1 


SI 


C2 


T 


G5 


S2 




T 


G5 


SI 




E 


G1 


SI 


C2 


E 


G5 


S1 






G5 


S2 






G5 


S1 






G5 


S2 




T 


G5T2Q 


S2 


C2 


E 


G5 


S3 




T 


G1 


SI 


LE 


E 


G1 


SI 


C2 


E 



*** ARACHNIDS 

ARCHEOLARCA GUADALUPENSIS 
NEOLEPTONETA MYOPICA 
TARTAROCREAGRIS TEXANA 
TEXELLA REDDELLI 
TEXELLA REYESI 



GUADALUPE CAVE PSEUDOSCORPION 
TOOTH CAVE SPIDER 
TOOTH CAVE PSEUDOSCORPION 
BEE CREEK CAVE HARVESTMAN 
BONE CAVE HARVESTMAN 



G1 


Si 


C2 


G1 


SI 


LE 


G1 


S1 


LE 


G1 


SI 


LE 


G1Q 


S1 


LE 



*** BIRDS 

ACCIPITER GENTILIS 

AIMOPHILA AESTIVALIS 

AIMOPHILA BOTTERII TEXANA 

AMMODRAMUS BAIRDII 

AMMODRAMUS HENSLOWI I 

ARREMONOPS RUFIVIRGATUS RUFIVIRGATUS 

BUTEO ALBICAUDATUS 

BUTEO ALBONOTATUS 

BUTEO NITIDUS MAXIMUS 

BUTEO REGAL IS 

BUTEOGALLUS ANTHRACINUS 

CAMPEPHILUS PRINCIPALIS 

CAMPTOSTOMA IMBERBE 

CHARADRIUS ALEXANDRINUS 

CHARADRIUS ALEXANDRINUS NIVOSUS 

CHARADRIUS ALEXANDRINUS TENUIROSTRIS 

CHARADRIUS MELODUS 

CHARADRIUS MONTANUS 

CHLIDONIAS NIGER 

CHONDROHIERAX UNCINATUS 

DENDROICA CERULEA 

DENDROICA CHRYSOPARIA 

EGRETTA RUFESCENS 

ELANOIDES FORFICATUS 

EMPIDONAX TRAILLII EXTIMUS 

FALCO FEMORAL IS SEPTENTRIONAL IS 

FALCO PEREGRINUS ANATUM 

FALCO PEREGRINUS TUNDRIUS 

GEOTHLYPIS TRICHAS INSPERATA 

GLAUCIDIUM BRASILIANUM 

GLAUCIDIUM BRASILIANUM CACTORUM 

GRUS AMERICANA 



NORTHERN GOSHAWK 

BACHMAN'S SPARROW 

TEXAS BOTTERI'S SPARROW 

BAIRD'S SPARROW 

HENSLOW'S SPARROW 

TEXAS (=SENNETT'S) OLIVE SPARROU 

WHITE-TAILED HAWK 

ZONE-TAILED HAWK 

NORTHERN GRAY HAWK 

FERRUGINOUS HAWK 

COMMON BLACK- HAWK 

IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKER 

NORTHERN BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET 

SNOWY PLOVER 

WESTERN SNOWY PLOVER 

SOUTHEASTERN SNOWY PLOVER 

PIPING PLOVER 

MOUNTAIN PLOVER 

BLACK TERN 

HOOK-BILLED KITE 

CERULEAN WARBLER 

GOLDEN-CHEEKED WARBLER 

REDDISH EGRET 

AMERICAN SWALLOW- TAILED KITE 

SOUTHWESTERN WILLOW FLYCATCHER 

NORTHERN APLOMADO FALCON 

AMERICAN PEREGRINE FALCON 

ARCTIC PEREGRINE FALCON 

BROWNSVILLE COMMON YELLOWTHROAT 

FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL 

CACTUS FERRUGINOUS PYGMY-OWL 

WHOOPING CRANE 



G4 


SA 


C2 




G3 


S2 


C2 


T 


G4TU 


S3 


C2 


T 


G3 


s? 


C2 




G4 


SI 


C2 




G5T3 


S3 


C2 




G5 


S2 




T 


G5 


S3 




T 


G5T5 


S2 


C2 


T 


G4 


S3 


C2 




G5 


S2 




T 


G1 


SX 


LE 


E 


G5 


S3 




T 


G4 


S2 


C2 




G4T3 


S2 


C2 




G4TU 


S2 


C2 




G3 


S2 


LT 


T 


G3 


S2 


C1 




G4 


S? 


C2 




G5 


S2 






G5 


S3 


C2 




G2 


S2 


LE 


E 


G4 


S2 


C2 


T 


G5 


S2 


3C 


T 


G5T? 


SI 


C1 




G4T2 


S1C 


LE 


E 


G3T2 


S2 


LE 


E 


G3T2 


S2 


LT 


T 


G5T2 


S2 


C2 




G5 


S3 




T 


G5TU 


S3 


CI 


T 


G1 


S1 


LE 


E 



A4-7 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



HALIAEETUS LEUCOCEPHALUS 
ICTERUS CUCULLATUS CUCULLATUS 
ICTERUS CUCULLATUS SENNETTI 
ICTERUS GRADUACAUDA AUDUBON 1 1 
LANIUS LUDOVICIANUS 
LANIUS LUDOVICIANUS MIGRANS 
LATERALLUS JAMAICENSIS 
MYCTERIA AMERICANA 
NUMENIUS BOREALIS 
PACHYRAMPHUS AGLAIAE 
PARULA PITIAYUMI NIGRILORA 
PELECANUS OCCIDENTALS 
PICOIDES BOREALIS 
PLEGADIS CHIHI 
STERNA ANTILLARUM 
STERNA ANTILLARUM ATHALASSOS 
STERNA DOUGALLII DOUGALLII 
STERNA FUSCATA 
STRIX OCCIDENTALIS LUCIDA 
TYMPANUCHUS CUPIDO ATTUATERI 
TYMPANUCHUS PALLIDICINCTUS 
VERMIVORA BACHMANII 
VERMIVORA CRISSALIS 
VIREO ATRICAPILLUS 



TEXAS PARKS AND UILDLIFE DEPARTMENT 

TEXAS NATURAL HERITAGE PROGRAM 

SPECIAL ANIMAL LIST 

06 OCT 1993 



COMMON NAME 



BALD EAGLE 

MEXICAN HOODED ORIOLE 
SENNETT'S HOODED ORIOLE 
AUDUBON'S ORIOLE 
LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE 
MIGRANT LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE 
BLACK RAIL 
WOOD STORK 
ESKIMO CURLEW 
ROSE-THROATED BECARD 
TROPICAL PARULA 
BROWN PELICAN 
RED-COCKADED WOODPECKER 
WHITE-FACED IBIS 
LEAST TERN 
INTERIOR LEAST TERN 
ROSEATE TERN 
SOOTY TERN 
MEXICAN SPOTTED OWL 
ATTWATER'S PRAIRIE-CHICKEN 
LESSER PRAIRIE-CHICKEN 
BACHMAN'S WARBLER 
COLIMA WARBLER 
BLACK-CAPPED VIREO 





PAGE 


2 




GLOBAL 


STATE 


FEDERAL 


STATE 


RANK 


RANK 


STATUS 


STATUS 


G3 


S2 


LE 


E 


G5TU 


S4 


C2 




G5TU 


S4 


C2 




G5T4 


S4 


C2 




G4 


S4 


C2 




G4T2 


S2 


C2 




G4? 


S2 


C2 




G5 


SN 




T 


G1 


S1 


LE 


E 


G4G5 


S2 




T 


G5TU 


S3 


C2 


T 


G5 


S2 


LE 


E 


G2 


S2 


LE 


E 


G5 


S2 


C2 


T 


G4 


S? 


LE 




G4T2 


S1 


LE 


E 


G3T? 


SN 


LT 




G5 


S2 




T 


G3T3 


SI 


LT 




G4T1 


S1 


LE 


E 


G3 


S3 






G1 


SX 


LE 




G3? 


S3 


3C 




G2G3 


S2 


LE 


E 



CRUSTACEANS 



ASELLUS SMITHII 
CAMBARELLUS TEXANUS 
FALLICAMBARUS DEVASTATOR 
GAMMARUS HYALLELOIDES 
GAMMARUS PECOS 
HYALELLA TEXANA 
MONODELLA TEXANA 
ORCONECTES MALETAE 
PALAEMONETES ANTRORUM 
PROCAMBARUS TEXANUS 
STYGOBROMUS BALCONIUS 
STYGOBROMUS BIFURCATUS 
STYGOBROMUS DEJECTUS 
STYGOBROMUS FLAGELLATUS 
STYGOBROMUS HADENOECUS 
STYGOBROMUS LONGIPES 
STYGOBROMUS PECKI 
STYGOBROMUS REDDELLI 
STYGOBROMUS RUSSELL I 



TEXAS TROGLOBITIC WATER SLATER 

A CRAYFISH 

TEXAS PRAIRIE CRAYFISH 

DIMINUTIVE AMPHIPOD 

PECOS AMPHIPOD 

CLEAR CREEK AMPHIPOD 

A CRAYFISH 
TEXAS CAVE SHRIMP 
A CRAYFISH 

BALCONES CAVE AMPHIPOD 
BIFURCATED CAVE AMPHIPOD 
CASCADE CAVE AMPHIPOD 
EZELL'S CAVE AMPHIPOD 
DEVIL'S SINKHOLE AMPHIPOD 
LONG-LEGGED CAVE AMPHIPOD 
PECK'S CAVE AMPHIPOD 
REDDELL'S CAVE AMPHIPOD 
AN AMPHIPOD 



G1 


S1 




G3? 


S3? 




G2? 


S2? 




G1 


S1 


C2 


G1 


SI 


C2 


G1 


S1 




G1 


S1 




G2 


S1? 




G1 


S1 


C2 


G1 


s? 




G1 


S1 


C2 


G1 


SI 


C2 


G1 


S1 


C2 


G1 


S1 


C2 


G1 


S1 


C2 


G1 


S1 


C2 


G1 


S1 


C2 


G1 


SI 


C2 


G3 


S3 





FISHES 



AWAOUS TAJASICA 
CAMPOSTOMA ORNATUM 
CYCLEPTUS ELONGATUS 
CYPRINELLA PROSERPINA 
CYPRINODON BOVINUS 
CYPRINODON ELEGANS 
CYPRINODON EXIMIUS 
CYPRINODON PECOSENSIS 
DIONDA DIABOLI 
ERIMYZON OBLONGUS 
ETHEOSTOMA FONTICOLA 
ETHEOSTOMA GRAHAMI 
GAMBUSIA GAIGEI 
GAMBUSIA GEORGE I 
GAMBUSIA HETEROCHIR 
GAMBUSIA NOBILIS 



RIVER GOBY 
MEXICAN STONEROLLER 
BLUE SUCKER 
PROSERPINE SHINER 
LEON SPRINGS PUPFISH 
COMANCHE SPRINGS PUPFISH 
CONCHOS PUPFISH 
PECOS PUPFISH 
DEVIL'S RIVER MINNOW 
CREEK CHUBSUCKER 
FOUNTAIN DARTER 
RIO GRANDE DARTER 
BIG BEND GAMBUSIA 
SAN MARCOS GAMBUSIA 
CLEAR CREEK GAMBUSIA 
PECOS GAMBUSIA 



G5 


S1 




T 


G3 


S1 


C2 


T 


G4 


S3 


C2 


T 


G3 


S2 


C2 


T 


G1 


Si 


LE 


E 


G1 


S1 


LE 


E 


G4 


S1 


C2 


T 


G1 


SI 


CI 


T 


G2 


S1 


CI 


T 


G5 


S2S3 




T 


G1 


SI 


LE 


E 


G3 


S2 


C2 


T 


G1 


S1 


LE 


E 


GX 


SX 


LE 


E 


Gl 


S1 


LE 


E 


G2 


S2 


LE 


E 



A4-8 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



GAHBUSIA SENILIS 

.GILA PANDORA 

GOBIONELLUS ATRIPINNIS 

HYBOGNATHUS AMARUS 

ICTALURUS LUPUS 

HACRHYBOPSIS AESTIVALIS TETRANEMUS 

MICROPHIS BRACHYURUS 

MICROPTERUS TRECULI 

MOXOSTOMA AUSTRINUM 

NOTROPIS BUCCULA 

NOTROPIS CHIHUAHUA 

NOTROPIS GIRAROI 

NOTROPIS HUBBSI 

NOTROPIS JEMEZANUS 

NOTROPIS ORCA 

NOTROPIS OXYRHYNCHUS 

NOTROPIS S1MUS 

PERCINA MACULATA 

POLYOOON SPATHULA 

SATAN EURYSTOHUS 

SCAPHIRHYNCHUS PLATORYNCHUS 

SYNGNATHUS AFFINIS 

TROGLOGLANIS PATTERSONI 



TEXAS PARKS AND WILDLIFE DEPARTMENT 

TEXAS NATURAL HERITAGE PROGRAM 

SPECIAL ANIMAL LIST 

06 OCT 1993 



COMMON NAME 



BLOTCHED GAMBUSIA 

RIO GRANDE CHUB 

BLACKFIN GOBY 

RIO GRANDE SILVERY MINNOU 

HEADWATER CATFISH 

ARKANSAS RIVER SPECKLED CHUB 

OPPOSUM PIPEFISH 

GUADALUPE BASS 

WEST MEXICAN REDHORSE 

SMALLEYE SHINER 

CHIHUAHUA SHINER 

ARKANSAS RIVER SHINER 

BLUEHEAD SHINER 

RIO GRANDE SHINER 

PHANTOM SHINER 

SHARPNOSE SHINER 

BLUNTNOSE SHINER 

BLACKSIDE DARTER 

PADDLEFISH 

WIDEMOUTH BLINDCAT 

SHOVELNOSE STURGEON 

TEXAS PIPEFISH 

TOOTHLESS BLINDCAT 





PAGE 


3 




GLOBAL 


STATE 


FEDERAL 


STATE 


RANK 


RANK 


STATUS 


STATUS 


G4 


SX 


C2 


E 


G3 


S1 




T 


G3 


SI 




E 


G1 


SX 


PE 




G3 


S2 


3C 




G5T5 


S5 


C2 




G5 


S1 




T 


G3 


S3 


C2 




G3 


SI 






G2 


S2 


C2 




G3 


S2 


C2 


T 


G2 


S2 


CI 




G3 


S1 




T 


G3 


S3 


C2 




GX 


SX 


3A 


E 


G3 


S3 


C2 




G2 


SX 




E 


GS 


SI 




T 


G4 


S3 


C2 


E 


G1 


SI 


C2 


T 


G4 


S2 




E 


G1 


S1 






G1 


S1 


C2 


T 



*** INSECTS 

ADHEMARIUS BLANCHARDORUM 

AESHNA DUGESI 

AMBLYCHILA PICOLOMINII 

ANOMALA TIBIALIS 

APODEMIA CHISOSENSIS 

ARGIA SP 1 

ASAPHOMYIA TEXANUS 

BATRISODES TEXANUS 

CALEPHELIS FREEMAN I 

CALEPHELIS RAWSONI 

CHEUMATOPSYCHE FLINT I 

CICINDELA CAZIERI 

CICINDELA CHLOROCEPHALA SHYTHI 

CICINDELA HORNII 

CICINDELA NEVADICA OLMOSA 

CICINDELA NIGROCOERULEA SUBTROPICA 

CICINDELA OBSOLETA NEOJUVENILIS 

CICINDELA POL I TULA BARBARANNAE 

CICINDELA POLITULA PETROPHILA 

CYLINDROPSIS SP 1 

DERONECTES NEOMEXICANA 

EXIMACRIS SUPERBUM 

FIXSENIA POLINGI 

GOMPHUS MODESTUS 

HAIDEOPORUS TEXANUS 

HALIPLUS NITENS 

HETERELMIS COMALENSIS 

LIBELLULA COMPOS I TA 

LIMNEBIUS TEXANUS 

LOROITHON NIGER 

MACROMIA WABASHENSIS 

MEGACEPHALA AFFINIS ANGUSTATA 

MINISTRYMON CLYTIE 

NEUROCORDULIA MOLESTA 

OXYETHIRA FLORIDA 

PROTOPTILA ARCA 

PROTOPTILA BALMORHEA 

RHADINE PERSEPHONE 

SCHINIA INDIANA 

SOMATOCHLORA MARGARITA 



BLANCHARDS' SPHINX MOTH 

ARROYO DARNER 

A TIGER BEETLE 

TIBIAL SCARAB BEETLE 

CHI SOS METALMARK 

BALMORHEA DAMSELFLY 

TEXAS ASAPHOMYIAN TABANID FLY 

COFFIN CAVE MOLD BEETLE 

FREEMAN'S METALMARK 

RAWSON'S METALMARK 

FLINT'S NET-SPINNING CADDISFLY 

CAZIER'S TIGER BEETLE 

SMYTH'S TIGER BEETLE 

A TIGER BEETLE 

LOS OLMOS TIGER BEETLE 

SUBTROPICAL BLUE-BLACK TIGER BEETLE 

NEOJUVENILE TIGER BEETLE 

BARBARA ANN'S TIGER BEETLE 

GUADALUPE MOUNTAINS TIGER BEETLE 

TOOTH CAVE BLIND ROVE BEETLE 

BONITA DIVING BEETLE 

SUPERB GRASSHOPPER 

POLING'S HAIRSTREAK 

GULF COAST CLUBTAIL 

EDWARDS AQUIFER WATER BEETLE 

DISJUNCT CRAWLING WATER BEETLE 

COMAL SPRINGS WATER BEETLE 

BLEACHED SKIMMER 

TEXAS MINUTE MOSS BEETLE 

BLACK LORDITHON ROVE BEETLE 

WABASH BELTED SKIMMER DRAGONFLY 

A TIGER BEETLE 

CLYTIE HAIRSTREAK 

SMOKY SHADOWFLY 

FLORIDA OXYETHIRAN MICRO CADDISFLY 

SAN MARCOS SADDLE -CASE CADDISFLY 

BALMORHEA SADDLE-CASE CADDISFLY 

TOOTH CAVE GROUND BEETLE 

PHLOX MOTH 

BIG THICKET EMERALD DRAGONFLY 



G? 


S? 


C2 


G3 


s? 




G3 


s? 




GH 


SK 


C2* 


G1G3 


s? 




G2G3 


S1S2 


C2 


GH 


SH 


C2* 


Gl 


S1 


LE 


GH 


SH 




G3? 


S? 




G1G3 


S1S3 


C2 


GU 


SH 


C2* 


GHTH 


SH 


C2* 


G3 


S? 




G5T3 


S1S3 


C2 


G5T2 


SH 


C2 


G5T1 


SK 


C2* 


G5T3 


S? 


C2 


G5T3 


S? 


C2 


G1 


SI 


3A 


G? 


S? 


C2 


GH 


SH 


C2* 


G1 


s? 




G3 


s? 




G1 


S1 


C2 


GH 


SH 


C2* 


G1 


S1 


C2 


G3 


s? 




GH 


SH 


C2 


G? 


SH 


C2 


G1G3Q 


S1S3 


C2* 


G5T3 


S? 




G3 


s? 




G3 


s? 




G? 


s-> 


C2 


G1G3 


S1S3 


C2 


G? 


s? 


C2 


Gl 


si 


LE 


GU 


SH 


C2 


G2 


S1S2 


C2 



A4-9 



TEXAS PARKS AND WILDLIFE DEPARTMENT 

TEXAS NATURAL HERITAGE PROGRAM 

SPECIAL ANIMAL LIST 

06 OCT 1993 



PAGE 4 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



STALLINGSIA MACULOSUS 
TAENIOPTERYX STARKI 
TEXAMAUROPS REDDELLI 
2IZULA CYNA 



COMMON NAME 



MACULATED MANFREDA SKIPPER BUTTERFLY 
LEON RIVER WINTER STONEFLY 
KRETSCHMARR CAVE MOLD BEETLE 
CYNA BLUE 



GLOBAL 


STATE 


FEDERAL 


STATE 


RANK 


RANK 


STATUS 


STATUS 


G1G2 


S1S2 


C2 




G1 


S1 


C2 




G1 


S1 


LE 




G3 


S? 







*** MAMMALS 

BALAENOPTERA MUSCULUS 
BALAENOPTERA PHYSALUS 
BLARINA HYLOPHAGA PLUMBEA 
CAN IS LUPUS 
CANIS LUPUS BAILEYI 
CAN IS RUFUS 

CHOERONYCTERIS MEXICANA 
CONEPATUS LEUCONOTUS TEXENSIS 
CONEPATUS MESOLEUCUS TELMALESTES 
'CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS ARIZONENSIS 
DIPHYLLA ECAUDATA 
DIPODOMYS ELATOR 
EUBALAENA GLACIALIS 
EUDERMA MACULATUM 
EUMOPS PEROT IS CAL1FORNICUS 
FELIS PARDALIS 
FELIS WIEDII 
FELIS YAGOUAROUNDI 
FELIS YAGOUAROUNDI CACOMITLI 
FERESA ATTENUATA 
GEOMYS PERSONATUS FUSCUS 
GEOMYS PERSONATUS MARITIMUS 
GEOMYS PERSONATUS STRECKERI 
GLOBICEPHALA MACRORHYNCHUS 
KOGIA BREVICEPS 
KOGIA SIMUS 
LASIURUS EGA 
LEPTONYCTERIS NIVALIS 
MESOPLODON DENSIROSTRIS 
MESOPLODON EUROPAEUS 
MUSTELA NIGRIPES 
MYOTIS AUSTRORIPARIUS 
MYOTIS LUCIFUGUS OCCULTUS 
NASUA NASUA 
ORCINUS ORCA 

ORYZOMYS COUESI AQUATICUS 
OVIS CANADENSIS MEXICANA 
PANTHERA ONCA 
PEROMYSCUS TRUE I COMANCHE 
PHYSETER CATODON (=MACROCEPHALUS) 
PLECOTUS RAFINESQUII 
PSEUDORCA CRASSIDENS 
SCALOPUS AQUATICUS TEXANUS 
SIGMODON OCHROGNATHUS 
SPILOGALE PUTORIUS INTERRUPTA 
STENELLA CLYMENE 
STENELLA LONGIROSTRIS 
STENELLA PLAGIODON 
STENO BREDANENSIS 
SYLVILAGUS FLORIDANUS ROBUSTUS 
THOMOMYS BOTTAE GUADALUPENSIS 
THOMOMYS BOTTAE LIMPIAE 
THOMOMYS BOTTAE TEXENSIS 
TRICHECHUS MANATUS 
TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS 
URSUS AMERICANUS 
URSUS AMERICANUS LUTEOLUS 
URSUS ARCTOS 



BLUE WHALE 


G2 


S1 


LE 


E 


FINBACK WHALE 


G2 


S1 


LE 


E 


ARANSAS SHORT-TAILED SHREW 


G5T3 


S3 


C2 




GRAY WOLF 


G4 


SX 


LE 


E 


MEXICAN WOLF 


G4T1 


sx 


LE 


E 


RED WOLF 


GXC 


SX 


LE 


E 


LONG-TONGUED BAT 


G2 


SI 


C2 




GULF COAST HOG-NOSED SKUNK 


G5T? 


S? 


CI 




BIG THICKET HOG-NOSED SKUNK 


G5T2 


S1 


C2 




ARIZONA BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOG 


G5T3 


S3 


C2 




HAIRY-LEGGED VAMPIRE 


G5 


SA 






TEXAS KANGAROO RAT 


G2 


S2 


C2 


T 


BLACK RIGHT WHALE 


G2 


S1 


LE 


E 


SPOTTED BAT 


G4 


S2 


C2 


T 


CALIFORNIA MASTIFF BAT 


G5T? 


S3 


C2 




OCELOT 


G2? 


S1 


LE 


E 


MARGAY 


G2? 


SX 




E 


JAGUARUNDI 


G4 


SI 


LE 


E 


JAGUARUNDI 


G4T? 


S1 


LE 




PYGMY KILLER WHALE 


G4 


S1 




T 


TEXAS POCKET GOPHER 


G4T2 


S2 






MARITIME POCKET GOPHER 


G4T2 


S2 


C2 




CARRIZO SPRINGS POCKET GOPHER 


G4T1 


S1 


C2 




SHORT-FINNED PILOT WHALE 


G5 


S1 




T 


PYGMY SPERM WHALE 


G5 


S1 




T 


DWARF SPERM WHALE 


G4 


S1 




T 


SOUTHERN YELLOW BAT 


G5 


S1 




T 


MEXICAN LONG-NOSED BAT 


G3 


S2 


LE 


E 


TROPICAL BEAKED WHALE 


G? 


S1 






GERVAIS 1 BEAKED WHALE 


G3 


S1 




T 


BLACK- FOOTED FERRET 


G1 


SH 


LE 


E 


SOUTHEASTERN MYOTIS 


G4 


S3 


C2 




OCCULT OR ARIZONA LITTLE BROWN MYOTIS 


G5T? 


S3 


C2 




COAT I 


G5 


S2? 




E 


KILLER WHALE 


G4G5 


S1 




T 


COUES' RICE RAT 


G5T? 


S2 


C2 


T 


DESERT BIGHORN SHEEP 


G4T3 


S2 






JAGUAR 


G3 


SH 




E 


PALO DURO MOUSE 


G5T3Q 


S2 


C2 


T 


SPERM UHALE 


G2 


S1 


LE 


E 


EASTERN BIG-EARED BAT 


G3 


S3 


C2 


T 


FALSE KILLER WHALE 


G4 


SI 




T 


PRESIDIO MOLE 


G5T1Q 


S1 


C2 




YELLOW-NOSED COTTON RAT 


G5 


S3 


C2 




PLAINS SPOTTED SKUNK 


G4T? 


S? 


C2 . 




SHORT-SNOUTED SPINNER DOLPHIN 


G4 


S1 






LONG-SNOUTED SPINNER DOLPHIN 


G4 


S1 






ATLANTIC SPOTTED DOLPHIN 


G5 


S1 




T 


ROUGH-TOOTHED DOLPHIN 


G? 


S1 




T 


DAVIS MOUNTAINS COTTONTAIL 


G5TU 


S3 


C2 




GUADALUPE SOUTHERN POCKET GOPHER 


G5T2 


S2 


C2 




LIMPIA SOUTHERN POCKET GOPHER 


G5T2 


S2 


C2 




LIMPIA CREEK POCKET GOPHER 


G5T2 


S2 


C2 




MANATEE 


G2? 


S1 


LE 


E 


BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN 


G? 


S2 






BLACK BEAR 


G5 


S3 


T/SA 


E 


LOUISIANA BLACK BEAR 


G5T3? 


SR 


LT 


E 


GRIZZLY BEAR 


G4 


SX 


LT 





A4-10 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



VULPES VELOX 
ZIPHIUS CAVIROSTRIS 



TEXAS PARKS AND WILDLIFE DEPARTMENT 

TEXAS NATURAL HERITAGE PROGRAM 

SPECIAL ANIMAL LIST 

06 OCT 1993 



COMMON NAME 



SWIFT FOX 

GOOSE -BEAKED WHALE 





PAGE 


5 




GLOBAL 


STATE 


FEDERAL 


STATE 


RANK 


RANK 


STATUS 


STATUS 


G4 


S3 


C2 




G? 


S1 




T 



*** MOLLUSKS 

AMBLEMA PLICATA PERPLICATA 

ARC I DENS CONFRAGOSUS 

ASHMUNELLA PASONIS 

ASSIMINEA PECOS 

COCHLIOPA TEXANA 

CYRTONAIAS TAMPICOENSIS 

DISCONAIAS SALINASENSIS 

EUCHEMOTREMA CHEATUMI 

FONTELICELLA DAVISI 

FONTELICELLA METCALFI 

FONTELICELLA ROSWELLENSIS 

FUSCONAIA ASKEW I 

FUSCONAIA EBENA 

FUSCONAIA LANANENSIS 

GLEBULA ROTUNDATA 

HUMBOLDT I ANA CHEATUMI 

HUMBOLDTIANA CHISOSENSIS 

HUMBOLDT1ANA FERRISSIANA 

HUMBOLDTIANA HOEGIANA PRAESIDII 

HUMBOLDTIANA PALMER I 

HUMBOLDTIANA TEXANA 

HUMBOLDTIANA ULTIMA 

LAMPSILIS BRACTEATA 

LAMPSILIS HYDIANA 

LAMPSILIS STRAMINEA CLAIBORNENSIS 

OBOVARIA JACKSON I ANA 

PHREATODROBIA IMITATA 

PLEUROBEMA RIDDELLI 

POLYGYRA HIPPOCREPIS 

POPENAIAS POPE I 

POTAMILUS AMPHICHAENUS 

QUADRULA AUREA 

QUADRULA COUCH I ANA 

QUADRULA HOUSTONENSIS 

QUADRULA NODIFERA 

QUADRULA NODULATA 

QUADRULA PETRINA 

QUADRULA PUSTULOSA MORTON I 

QUINCUNCINA MITCHELLI 

SONORELLA METCALFI 

STROPHITUS SUBVEXUS 

TOXOLASMA TEXASENSIS 

TRUNCILLA COGNATA 

TRUNCILLA MACRODON 

TRYONIA ADAMANTINA 

TRYONIA BRUNEI 

TRYONIA CHEATUMI 

TRYONIA STOCKTONENSIS 

VILLOSA LIENOSA 



ROUNDLAKE 

ROCK- POCKET BOOK 

FRANKLIN MOUNTAIN WOOD SNAIL 

PECOS ASSIMINEA SNAIL 

PHANTOM CAVE SNAIL 

TAMPICO PEARLYMUSSEL 

SALINA MUCKET 

PALMETTO PILL SNAIL 

DAVIS SPRING SNAIL 

METCALF SPRING SNAIL 

ROSWELL SPRING SNAIL 

TEXAS PIGTOE 

EBONYSHELL 

TRIANGLE PIGTOE 

ROUND PEARLSHELL 

DAVIS MOUNTAINS THREEBAND 

CHI SOS MOUNTAINS THREEBAND 

MITRE PEAK THREEBAND 

SAN CARLOS THREEBAND 

MOUNT LIVERMORE THREEBAND 

STOCKTON PLATEAU THREEBAND 

NORTHERN THREEBAND 

TEXAS FATMUCKET 

LOUISIANA FATMUCKET 

SOUTHERN FATMUCKET 

SOUTHERN HICKORYNUT 

MIMIC CAVESNAIL 

LOUISIANA PIGTOE 

HORSESHOE LIPTOOTH 

TEXAS HORNSHELL 

TEXAS HEELSPLITTER 

GOLDEN ORB 

RIO GRANDE MONKEY FACE 

SMOOTH PIMPLEBACK 

WARTYBACK 

TEXAS PIMPLEBACK 

WESTERN PIMPLEBACK 

FALSE SPIKE MUSSEL 

FRANKLIN MOUNTAIN TALUS SNAIL 

SOUTHERN CREEKMUSSEL 

TEXAS L ILL I PUT 

MEXICAN FAWNSFOOT MUSSEL 

TEXAS FAWNSFOOT 

DIAMOND Y SPRING SNAIL 

BRUNE SPRING SNAIL 

PHANTOM LAKE TRYONIA 

GONZALES SPRING SNAIL 

LITTLE SPECTACLECASE 



G5T3Q 


S? 




G3 


s? 




G1 


SI 


C2 


G2 


S1 


C1 


G1 


S1 


C2 


G1 


S? 




G1 


S1 


C2 


G1 


S1 


C2 


G1 


SI 


C2 


G1 


SI 


C2 


G? 


s? 


C1 


G3 


s? 




G3 


s? 




G2 


s? 




G3 


s? 




G2 


S2 




G1 


S1 




G2 


S2 




G3T3 


S3 




G2 


S2 




G2 


S2 




G2 


S2 




G2 


s? 




G2 


s? 




G2T2 


s? 




G1G2 


s? 




G? 


SI 


C2 


G2 


s? 




G2 


S2 


C2 


G2 


S2 


C2 


G1 


S1 


C2 


G2G3 


s? 




G1Q 


s? 




G2 


s? 




G1G2Q 


s? 




G3 


s? 




G2G3 


s? 




G5T2T3 


s? 




G2 


S2 


C2 


G1 


S1 


C2 


G1 


s? 




G3Q 


s? 




Gl 


s? 


C2 


G1G2 


s? 




G1 


S1 


C1 


G1 


SI 


C2 


Gl 


S1 


C2 


G1 


si 


C1 


G3 


s? 





*** REPTILES 

CARETTA CARETTA 
CEMOPHORA COCCINEA COPE I 
CEMOPHORA COCCINEA LINER I 
CHELONIA MYDAS 
.COLEONYX RETICULATUS 
CONIOPHANES IMPERIALIS 
CROTALUS HORRIDUS 
CROTAPHYTUS RETICULATUS 



LOGGERHEAD SEA TURTLE 
NORTHERN SCARLET SNAKE 
TEXAS SCARLET SNAKE 
GREEN TURTLE 
RETICULATED GECKO 
BLACK-STRIPED SNAKE 
TIMBER RATTLESNAKE 
RETICULATE COLLARED LIZARD 



G3 


S2 


LT 


E 


G5T5 


S3 






G5T2 


S2 






G3 


S1 


LT 




G3 


S3 


3C 




G3? 


S2 






G5 


S5 






G3 


S2 


C2 





A4-11 



SCIENTIFIC NAME 



OERMOCHELYS CORIACEA 
DRYMARCHON CORA IS 
DRYMOBIUS MARGARITIFERUS 
ERETHOCHELYS IMBRICATA 
ERETMOCHELYS IMBRICATA IMBRICATA 
GOPHERUS BERLANDIERI 
GRAPTEMYS CAGLEI 

GRAPTEMYS OUACHITENSIS SABINENSIS 
HOLBROOKIA LACERATA 
HOLBROOKIA PROPINQUA 
KINOSTERNON HIRTIPES MURRAYI 
LEPIDOCHELYS KEMPII 

LEPTODEIRA SEPTENTRIONALIS SEPTENTRIONALIS 
MACROCLEMYS TEMMINCKII 
. MALACLEMYS TERRAPIN LITTORALIS 
NERODIA CLARKII 
NERODIA HARTERI 
NERODIA HARTERI HARTERI 
NERODIA HARTERI PAUCIMACULATA 
OPHEODRYS VERNALIS 
PHRYNOSOMA CORNUTUM 
PHRYNOSOMA DOUGLASI HERNANDEZI 
PITUOPHIS MELANOLEUCUS RUTHVENI 
TANTILLA ATRICEPS 
TANTILLA RUBRA 

THAMNOPHIS SIRTALIS ANNECTENS 
THAMNOPHIS SIRTALIS DORSALIS 
TRACHEMYS GAIGEAE 
TRIMORPHODON BISCUTATUS VILKINSONI 



TEXAS PARKS AND WILDLIFE DEPARTMENT 

TEXAS NATURAL HERITAGE PROGRAM 

SPECIAL ANIMAL LIST 

06 OCT 1993 



COMMON NAME 



LEATHERBACK SEA TURTLE 
INDIGO SNAKE 
SPECKLED RACER 
HAWKSBILL SEA TURTLE 
ATLANTIC HAUKSBILL SEA TURTLE 
TEXAS TORTOISE 
CAGLE'S MAP TURTLE 
SABINE MAP TURTLE 
SPOT-TAILED EARLESS LIZARD 
KEELED EARLESS LIZARD 
CHIHUAHUAN MUD TURTLE 
KEMP'S RIDLEY SEA TURTLE 
NORTHERN CAT-EYED SNAKE 
ALLIGATOR SNAPPING TURTLE 
TEXAS DIAMONDBACK TERRAPIN 
GULF SALTMARSH SNAKE 
HARTER'S WATER SNAKE 
BRAZOS WATER SNAKE 
CONCHO WATER SNAKE 
SMOOTH GREEN SNAKE 
TEXAS HORNED LIZARD 
MOUNTAIN SHORT-HORNED LIZARD 
LOUISIANA PINE SNAKE 
MEXICAN BLACKHEAD SNAKE 
BIG BEND BLACKHEAD SNAKE 
TEXAS GARTER SNAKE 
NEW MEXICO GARTER SNAKE 
BIG BEND SLIDER 
TEXAS LYRE SNAKE 





PAGE 


6 




GLOBAL 


STATE 


FEDERAL 


STATE 


RANK 


RANK 


STATUS 


STATUS 


G3 


S1 


LE 


E 


G5 


S3 




T 


G5 


SI 




E 


G3 


SI 


LE 




G3T3 


SI 


LE 


E 


G4 


S3 




T 


G3 


S3 


CI 




G5T3 


S3 


3C 




G3? 


S3? 






G3? 


S3? 






G3T3 


Si 


C2 


E 


G1 


S1 


LE 


E 


G5T5 


S2 




E 


G3G4 


S3 


C2 


T 


G5T3 


S3 


C2 




G4Q 


S4 


C2 




G2 


S2 






G2T2 


S2 


C2 


T 


G2T2 


S2 


LT 


E 


G5 


SI 




E 


G5 


S4 


C2 


T 


G5T5 


S3 




T 


G5T3 


S2 


C2 


E 


G3 


SI 






G4 


S2 




T 


G5T3 


S3 


C2 




G5T3 


S1 






G3 


S2 


3C 




G5T4 


S3 




T 



329 Records Processed 



A4-12 



FEDERAL STATUS (USESA) 

LE - Listed Endangered 

LT - Listed Threatened 

LELT - Listed Endangered in part of range, Threatened in a 
different part 

PE - Proposed to be listed Endangered 

PT - Proposed to be listed Threatened 

E(S/A) or T(S/A) - Listed Endangered or Threatened on basis of 
Similarity of Appearance. 

CI - Candidate, Category 1. USFWS has substantial information on 
biological vulnerability and threats to support proposing to 
list as endangered or threatened. Data are being gathered on 
habitat needs and/or critical habitat designations. 

CI* - CI, but lacking known occurrences 

Ci** - ci, but lacking known occurrences, except in 
captivity/ cultivation 

C2 - Candidate, Category 2. Information indicates that proposing 
to list as endangered or threatened is possibly appropriate, 
but substantial data on biological vulnerability and threats 
are not currently known to support the immediate preparation 
of rules. Further biological research and field study will be 
necessary to ascertain the status and/or taxonomic validity of 
the taxa in Category 2. 

C2* - C2, but lacking known occurrences 

C2** - C2 , but lacking known occurrences, except in 
captivity /cultivation 

3 - Taxa no longer being considered for listing as threatened or 
endangered. Three subcategories indicate the reasons for 
removal from consideration. 

3A - Former Candidate, rejected because presumed extinct and/or 
habitats destroyed 

3B - Former Candidate, rejected because not a recognized taxon; 
i.e. synonym or hybrid 

3C - Former Candidate, rejected because more common, widespread, or 
adequately protected 

XE - Essential Experimental Population. 

XN - Non-essential Experimental Population. 

STATE STATUS 

E - Listed as Endangered in the State of Texas 
T - Listed as Threatened in the State of Texas 
blank - Not currently listed 



A4-13 



GLOBAL RANK (GRANK) 

Gl - Critically imperiled globally, extremely rare, 5 or fewer 

occurrences. [Critically endangered throughout range.] 
G2 - Imperiled globally, very rare, 6 to 20 occurrences. 

[Endangered throughout range.] 
G3 - Very rare and local throughout range or found locally in 

restricted range, 21 to 100 occurrences. [Threatened 

throughout range. ] 
G4 - Apparently secure globally. 
G5 - Demonstrably secure globally. 
GH - Of historical occurrence through its range. 
G#NA - Accidental in North America. 

G#NE - An exotic species established in North America. 
G#T# - "G"= species rank; "t" = rank of variety or subspecies taxa. 
GU - Possibly in peril range-wide, but status uncertain. 
G#G# - Ranked within a range as status uncertain. 
GX - Believed to be extinct throughout range. 
Q - Qualifier denoting questionable taxonomic assignment. 
? - Not ranked to date; or, Qualifier denoting uncertain rank. 
C - Captive population exists. 

STATE RANK (SRANK) 

51 - Critically imperiled in state, extremely rare, very vulnerable 

to extirpation, 5 or fewer occurrences. 

52 - Imperiled in state, very rare, vulnerable to extirpation, 6 to 

20 occurrences. 

53 - Rare or uncommon in state, 21 to 100 occurrences. 

54 - Apparently secure in state. 

55 - Demonstrably secure in state. 
SA - Accidental in state. 

SE - An exotic species established in state. 

SH - Of historical occurrence in state. May be rediscovered. 
SN - Regularly occurring, usually migratory and typically non- 
breeding status. 
SR - Reported, but without persuasive documentation. 
SRF - Reported in error, but error persists in literature. 
SU - Possibly in peril in state, but status uncertain. 
SX - Apparently extirpated from State. 

? - Not ranked to date; or, Qualifier denoting uncertain rank. 
C - Captive population exists. 



A4-14 



TEXAS PARKS AND WILDLIFE DEPARTMENT 

Texas Natural Heritage Program 

Special Plant List 

October 1993 



Scientific Name 
Common Name 

Abronia macrocarpa 

large-fruited sand verbena 

Acleisanthes crassifolia 

Texas trumpets 

Acleisanthes wrightii 
Wright's trumpets 

Adelia vasevi 

Vasey's adelia 

Agalinis auriculata 

auriculate false foxglove 



Aqalinis navasotensis 

Navasota false foxglove 



Rank 


* 


Status** 


Global 


Slate 


Federal State 


Gl 


SI 


LE E 


G2 


S2 


C2 


G2 


S2 




G2 


S2 




G2 


SX 


C2 



Gl 



SI 



Agave chisosensis (see Agave glome ruliflora ) 

Agave glomeruliflora G2Q S2 

Chisos agave 



C2 



Family 



NYCTAGINACEAE 
Four-o'clock Family 

NYCTAGINACEAE 
Four-o'clock Family 

NYCTAGINACEAE 
Four-o'clock Family 

EUPHORBIACEAE 
Spurge Family 

SCROPHULARIACEAE 
Snapdragon Family 



SCROPHULARIACEAE 
Snapdragon Family 



AGAVACEAE 
Agave Family 



Distribution*** 



Freestone, Leon, and Robertson 
Counties 

Kinney, Maverick, and Val Verde 
Counties; Coahuila, Mexico 

Pecos, Reeves (H), Terrell, and 
Val Verde Counties 

Cameron and Hidalgo Counties; 
Tamaulipas, Mexico 

Tarrant County (X); AL, AR, IA, 
IL, IN (H), KS, MD (H), MI, MN 
(H), MO, MS, NJ (H), OH, OK, 
PA, SC, TN, VA (H), WI (H) , and 
WV 

Grimes County 



Brewster, Culberson, and 
Hudspeth Counties; Coahuila, 
Mexico 



Agrimonia incisa 

incised groovebur 

Allium elmendorfii 

Elmendorf ' s onion 



Ambrosia cheiranthi folia 

South Texas ambrosia 



Amsonia tharpii 

> Tharp's blue-star 

'jAncistrocactus tobuschii 

Ui Tobusch fishhook cactus 



G3 



G2 



G2 



Gl 



G2 



SI 



S2 



S2 



SI 



S2 



C2 



PE 



C2 



LE 



ROSACEAE 
Rose Family 

LILIACEAE 
Lily Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

APOCYNACEAE 
Dogbane Family 

CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 



Jasper County; AL, FL, GA, MS, 
and SC 

Atascosa, Bee, Bexar, Kenedy, 
Llano, Nueces, Refugio, San 
Patricio, and Wilson Counties 

Cameron (H), Jim Wells, 
Kleberg, and Nueces Counties; 
Tamaulipas, Mexico 

Pecos County; NM 



Bandera, Edwards, Kerr, Kimble, 
Kinney, Real, Uvalde, and Val 
Verde Counties 



Scientific Name 
Common Name 

Andrachne arida 

Trans-Pecos maidenbush 

Anemone edwardsiana var. 
petraea 

Edge Falls anemone 

Anthericum chandleri (see Echeandia chandleri) 



Rank* 


Statu 


5** 


Family 


Global Slate 


Federal 


State 




G2 SI 


C2 




EUPHORBIACEAE 
Spurge Family 


G3T1 SI 


C2 




RANUNCULACEAE 



Anulocaulis leiosolenus var. 
lasianthus 

Chihuahua ringstem 

Aquilegia chrvsantha var. 
chaplinei 

Guadalupe Mountains 
columbine 

Aquilegia chrvsantha var. 
hinckleyana 

Hinckley' j columbine 

Aquilegia lonqissima 

long spur columbine 



Arenaria livermorensis 

Livermore sandwort 

Arqythamnia aphoroides 

Hill Country wild-mercury 



Arqythamnia arqyraea 

silvery wild-mercury 



G4T2 



G4T2 



G4T1 



G3 



Gl 



G2 



G2 



S2 



S2 



SI 



S2 



SI 



S2 



S2 



Armoracia aquatica (see Armoracia lacustris) 

Armoracia lacustris G4? SI 

lake cress 



Asclepias prostrata 

prostrate milkweed 



Gl 



SI 



3C 

C2 

C2 

C2 
C2 

3C 

C2 
C2 



Distribution*** 



Brewster and Presidio Counties; 
Chihuahua and Coahuila, Mexico 

Bandera and Kendall Counties 



Buttercup Family 



NYCTAGINACEAE Brewster, Culberson (H), and 
Four-o'clock Family Presidio Counties; Chihuahua, 

Mexico 



RANUNCULACEAE 
Buttercup Family 



RANUNCULACEAE 
Buttercup Family 

RANUNCULACEAE 
Buttercup Family 



CARYOPHYLLACEAE 
Pink Family 

EUPHORBIACEAE 
Spurge Family 



EUPHORBIACEAE 
Spurge Family 



BRASSICACEAE 
Mustard Family 

ASCLEPIADACEAE 
Milkweed Family 



Culberson and Presidio (?) 
Counties; NM 



Presidio County 



Brewster, Jeff Davis, and 
Presidio Counties; Chihuahua, 
Coahuila, and Nuevo Leon, 
Mexico 

Jeff Davis County 



Blanco, Gillespie, Hays (H) , 
Kendall (H) , Kerr, Menard, 
Mills (H), Tom Green, and 
Uvalde Counties 

Kinney, La Salle, and Maverick 
(H) Counties 



Tyler County; IL, IN, KY, MI, 
MO, NC, OK, SC, TN, WI , and 
Canada 

Starr and Zapata Counties; 
Tamaulipas, Mexico 



U3 






Scientific Name 
Common Name 

Aster laevis var. guadalupensis 

Guadalupe Mountains aster 

Aster puniceus ssp. elliottii 
var. scabricaulis 

rough-stem aster 

Astragalus gypsodes 

gyp locoweed 

Astragalus mollissimus var. 
mareidus 

withered woolly loco 

Astrophvtum asterias 

star cactus 



Atriplex klebergorum 

Kleberg saltbush 

Ayenia limitaris 
Texas ayenia 

Bartonia texana 

Texas screwstem 



Batesimalva violacea 

purple gay-mallow 

Boerhavia mathisiana 

Mathis spiderling 

Bonamia ovalifolia 

bigpod bonamia 



Bouteloua kayi 
Kay's grama 

JE Srickellia baccharidea 

resin-leaf brickellbush 
H , 

~-grickellia brachyphvlla var. 
hincklevi 

Hinckley's brickellbush 



Rank* 



Global 

G5 
T2Q 

G5T1 



G2 



G5T2 



Gl 



Gl 



State 
SI 

SI 

S2 
S2 

SI 



SI 



Gl 


SI 


G2 


SI 


G5T2 


S2 



Status** 

Federal State 

C2 

CI 

3C 
C2 



PE 



G2 


S2 


3C 


G2 


SI 


PE 


G2 


S2 


3C 


G2 


SI 


C2 


G2 


SI 


C2 



C2 



C2 



Family 



ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

FABACEAE 
Legume Family 

FABACEAE 
Legume Family 

CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 

CHENOPODIACEAE 
Goosefoot Family 

STERCULIACEAE 
Cacao Family 

GENTIANACEAE 
Gentian Family 

MALVACEAE 
Mallow Family 

NYCTAGINACEAE 
Four-o'clock Family 

CONVOLVULACEAE 

Morning-glory 

Family 

POACEAE 
Grass Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 



Distribution*** 



Culberson County; NM 

Anderson, Cherokee, Smith, Van 
Zandt, and Wood Counties 



Culberson, Hudspeth, and Reeves 
Counties; NM 

Dallam, Jeff Davis (H) , and 
Presidio Counties 



Cameron, Hidalgo (H), and Starr 
Counties; Nuevo Leon and 
Tamaulipas, Mexico 

Kleberg, La Salle, Starr, and 
Webb Counties 

Cameron and Hidalgo Counties; 
Coahuila, Mexico 

Hardin, Jasper, Nacogdoches, 
Newton, Polk, San Augustine, 
San Jacinto, and Tyler Counties 

Brewster County; Coahuila and 
Nuevo Leon, Mexico 

Live Oak and San Patricio 
Counties; San Luis Potosi and 
Tamaulipas, Mexico 

Brewster County; adjacent 
Mexico 



Brewster County 



El Paso County; AZ; Sonora, 
Mexico 

Brewster (H) and Jeff Davis 
Counties 



Scientific Name 
Common Name 

Brickellia brachyphylla var. 
terlinquensis 

Terlingua brickellbush 

Brickellia viejensis 

Sierra Vieja brickellbush 

Bronqniartia minutifolia 

little-leaf brongniartia 

Caesalpinia brachvcarpa 

broadpod rushpea 

Caesalpinia phvllanthoides 

South Texas rushpea 

Callirhoe scabriuscula 

Texas poppy-mallow 

Campanula reverchonii 

Basin bellflower 

Cardamine macrocarpa var. 
texana 

Texas largeseed bittercress 

Cardiospermum dissectum 

Chihuahua balloon-vine 

Carex hyalina 

tissue sedge 



Cassia orcuttii (see Senna orcuttii ) 
Cassia ripleyana (see Senna riplevana ) 

G1Q 



Rank* 


Status** 


Global 


State 


Federal State 


G5TH 


SH 


C2 


G1G2 


S1S2 


C2 


G2 


SI 


C2 


G2 


S2 


C2 


G2 


SI 




G2 


52 


LB E 


G2 


S2 


3C 


G2T2 


S2 




G2 


S2 




G2Q 


SI 


C2 



Castilleja ciliata 

fringed paintbrush 

Castilleja elonqata 

tall paintbrush 



G2Q 



SI 
S2 



C2 



CI 



Family 



ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

FABACEAE 
Legume Family 

FABACEAE 
Legume Family 

FABACEAE 
Legume Family 

MALVACEAE 
Mallow Family 

CAMPANULACEAE 
Bluebell Family 

BRASSICACEAE 
Mustard Family 

SAPINDACEAE 
Soapberry Family 

CYPERACEAE 
Sedge Family 



SCROPHULARIACEAE 
Snapdragon Family 

SCROPHULARIACEAE 
Snapdragon Family 



Distribution*** 



Brewster (H) and Hudspeth (H) 
Counties 



Presidio County 



Brewster County; Chihuahua, 
Mexico 

Crockett (H) , Edwards (H) , 
Kinney, Llano (H), and Sutton 
Counties 

Bexar, Jim Wells, and Live Oak 
Counties; Tamaulipas, Mexico 

Coke, Mitchell, and Runnels 
Counties 

Burnet, Llano, and Travis (H) 
Counties 

Brewster, Kinney, and Uvalde 
Counties; Coahuila and Nuevo 
Leon, Mexico 

Hidalgo (H) , Starr, and Zapata 
Counties; Chihuahua, Mexico 

Cass, Dallas (H) , Houston, 
Liberty, and Walker Counties; 
AR and OK 



Jeff Davis County 



Brewster County 



Scientific Name 
Common Name 



Rank* 

Global State 



Cereus greggii var. greggii G4T2 S2 
desert night-blooming cereus 



Chaetopappa hersheyi 

mat leastdaisy 

Chamaesyce astvla 

alkali spurge 

Chamaesyce chaetocalyx var. 
triligulata 

three-tongue spurge 

Chamaesyce geyeri var-. G5T2 SI 

wheeleriana 

Wheeler's spurge 

Chamaesyce golondrina 

swallow spurge 



G2 


S2 


G2 


SI 


G5T1 


SI 



Chamaesyce p^rennans 

perennial spurge 

Chloris texensis 

Texas windmill-grass 



Chrysothamnus nauseosus ssp. G5T2 Si 
texensis 

Guadalupe Mountains 
rabbitbrush 

Citharexylum spathulatum G2 S2 

Mission fiddlewood 

Cleome multicaulis G3 SI 

manystem spiderflower 
> 

l 

i Colubrina stricta G2 SI 

Comal snakewood 



Status** 

Federal State 

C2 



C2 



C2 



C2 



C2 



C2 



Family 



CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 



ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

EUPHORBIACEAE 
Spurge Family 

EUPHORBIACEAE 
Spurge Family 

EUPHORBIACEAE 
Spurge Family 



G2 


S2 


C2 


EUPHORBIACEAE 
Spurge Family 


G2 


S2 


3C 


EUPHORBIACEAE 
Spurge Family 


G2 


S2 


C2 


POACEAE 
Grass Family 



ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 



VERBENACEAE 
Vervain Family 

CAPPARIDACEAE 
Caper Family 



RHAMNACEAE 
Buckthorn Family 



Distribution*** 



Brewster, El Paso, Hudspeth 
(H), Jeff Davis, Pecos (H), 
Presidio, and Terrell (H) 
Counties; AZ and NM; Chihuahua, 
Coahuila, Durango, and 
Zacatecas, Mexico 

Culberson and Hudspeth 
Counties; NM 

Pecos County; Coahuila, 
Durango, and Nuevo Leon, Mexico 

Brewster and Randall (?) 
Counties; Coahuila, Mexico 



El Paso and Hudspeth Counties; 
NM; Chihuahua, Mexico 



Brewster, Hudspeth, and 
Presidio Counties; Chihuahua 
and Coahuila, Mexico 

Brewster and Presidio Counties; 
Chihuahua, Mexico 

Brazoria, Brazos (H), Chambers, 
Galveston, Harris, Hidalgo (?), 
Nueces, and Refugio Counties 

Culberson County; NM 



Hidalgo, Starr, and Zapata 
Counties 

Presidio County; AZ, CO, NM, 
and WY; Chihuahua, Durango, 
Jalisco, Mexico, and Michoacan, 
Mexico 

Comal (?), El Paso, and Uvalde 
(?) Counties; Coahuila and 
Nuevo Leon, Mexico 



Scientific Name 
Common Name 

Condalia hookeri var. 
edwardsiana 

Edwards Plateau capul negro 

Coreopsis intermedia 

golden wave tickseed 



Coryphantha albicolumnaria 

white column cactus 

Coryphantha chaf feyi 

Chaffey's cory cactus 

Coryphantha dasyacantha var. 
dasyacantha 

dense cory cactus 

Coryphantha duncanii 

Duncan's cory cactus 

Coryphantha hesteri 

Hester's cory cactus 

Coryphantha macromeris var. 
runyonii 

Runyon's cory cactus 

Coryphantha minima 

Nellie cory cactus 

Coryphantha ramillosa 

bunched cory cactus 

Coryphantha sneedii var. 
sneedii 

Sneed pincushion cactus 

Coryphantha strobiliformis var. 

Coryphantha sulcata var. 
nickelsiae 

Nickel's cory cactus 



Rank* 


Status** 


Family 


Global State 


Federal State 




G5 SI 


C2 


RHAMNACEAE 


T1Q 




Buckthorn Family 



Distribution*** 



G3 



G2 



G2 



G3T2 



G3 



G2 



Gl 



G2 



S3 



S2 



SI 



S2 



SI 



S2 



G3T2 S2 



SI 



S2 



G2T2 S2 



C2 



C2 



C2 



C2 



C2 



C2 



LE 



LT 



LE 



E 
T 
E 



ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 



CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 

CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 

CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 

CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 

CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 

CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 

CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 

CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 

CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 



durispina (see Coryphantha albicolumnaria ) 

G4T2 SH C2 CACTACEAE 

Cactus Family 



Edwards County 



Anderson, Cass, Cherokee, 
Franklin, Freestone, Harris, 
Harrison, Henderson, Houston, 
Leon, Nacogdoches (?), Trinity, 
Upshur, and Wood (H) Counties; 
LA 

Brewster, Pecos, and Presidio 
Counties; Chihuahua, Mexico 

Brewster County; Coahuila, San 
Luis Potosi, and Zacatecas, 
Mexico 

Brewster, El Paso (H) , 
Hudspeth, Jeff Davis, and Pecos 
Counties 

Brewster and Presidio Counties; 
NM 

Brewster, Pecos, and Terrell 
Counties 

Cameron (H), Hidalgo, and Starr 
Counties 



Brewster County 

Brewster and Terrell Counties; 
Coahuila, Mexico 

El Paso County; NM 



Webb County (H); Coahuila, 
Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas, 
Mexico 



o 

I 
< 



Scientific Name 
Common Name 



Crataegus warneri 

Warner's hawthorn 



Croton alabamensis var. 
texensis 

Texabama croton 

Croton pottsii var. 
thermophilus 

leatherweed croton 

Croton suaveolens 

scented croton 



Cryptantha crassipes 

Ter lingua Creek cat ' s-eye 

Cryptantha paysonii 

Payson's hiddenf lower 

Cuscuta attenuata 

marshelder dodder 



Cyperus cephalanthus 

giant sharpstem umbrella- 
sedge 

Cyperus qravioides 

Mohlenbrock' s umbrella- 
sedge 



Rank* 

Global Slate 

G2Q S2 



Status** 

Federal Slate 

C2 



G2T1 SI C2 



G5T2 SI 



G2 S2 



Gl SI LE 



G3 SI 



G2? S2 C2 



G2Q SH C2 



G3G4 S3 C2 



Family 



ROSACEAE 
Rose Family 

EUPHORBIACEAE 
Spurge Family 

EUPHORBIACEAE 
Spurge Family 

EUPHORBIACEAE 
Spurge Family 



BORAGINACEAE 
Borage Family 

BORAGINACEAE 
Borage Family 

CONVOLVULACEAE 

Morning-glory 

Family 

CYPERACEAE 
Sedge Family 

CYPERACEAE 
Sedge Family 



Cyperus onerosus 

Hj dune umbrella-sedge 



G2 



S2 



C2 



CYPERACEAE 
Sedge Family 



Distribution*** 



Anderson, Cherokee, Freestone, 
Houston, Morris, Panola, Smith 
(H), and Walker Counties 

Bell, Coryell, and Travis 
Counties 



Brewster County; Coahuila, 
Mexico 



Brewster, Culberson, and Jeff 
Davis Counties; Chihuahua, 
Coahuila, and Nuevo Leon, 
Mexico 

Brewster County 



Culberson and El Paso Counties; 
NM 

Cameron (H), Jackson (H), 
Liberty (H) , Rains, and Van 
Zandt Counties; KS and OK 

Texas (H; county unknown) ; LA 



Anderson, Angelina, Burleson, 
Colorado, Franklin, Freestone, 
Hardin, Henderson, Houston, 
Leon, Nacogdoches, Newton, 
Parker (?), Robertson, Rusk, 
San Augustine, Shelby, Smith, 
Tyler, Upshur, Van Zandt, and 
Wood Counties; IL, LA, and MO 

Andrews, Ward, and Winkler 
Counties 



to 



Scientific Name 
Common Name 

Cypripedium kentuckiense 

southern lady ' s-slipper 



Dalea bartonii 

Cox ' s dalea 

Dalea reverchonii 

Comanche Peak prairie-clover 

Dalea sabinalis 

Sabinal prairie-clover 

Desmodium lindheimeri 

Lindheimer's tickseed 



Draba standleyi 

Standley's draba 



Rank* 

Globa! State 

G3 SI 



Status** 

Federal State 

C2 



G2 


S2 


C2 


Gl 


SI 


C2 


Gl 


SH 


C2 



G3 



SI 



C2 



Dyssodia tephroleuca (see Thymophylla tephroleuca ) 
Echeandia chandleri G3 S3 C2 



Family 



ORCHIDACEAE 
Orchid Family 



FABACEAE 
Legume Family 

FABACEAE 
Legume Family 

FABACEAE 
Legume Family 

FABACEAE 
Legume Family 

BRASSICACEAE 
Mustard Family 



LILIACEAE 
Lily Family 



lila de los llanos 
Echinocactus asterias (see Astrophytum asterias ) 
Echinocereus berlandieri var. anqusticeps (see Echinocereus papillosus var. 



Distribution*** 



Cass (?), Harrison, 
Nacogdoches, Newton (X), 
Sabine, and San Augustine 
Counties; AL, AR, KY, LA, MS, 
OK, and TN 



Echinocereus chisoensis var. G2T1 SI LT 
chisoensis 

Chisos hedgehog cactus 

Echinocereus chloranthus var. G3T1 SI C2 
neocapillus 

golden-spine hedgehog cactus 

Echinocereus lloydii G2Q S2 LE 

Lloyd's hedgehog cactus 



Echinocereus papillosus var. G3T1 SI C2 
anqusticeps 

small papillosus cactus 



CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 

CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 

CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 

CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 



Brewster County 



Hood (X) , Parker, and Wise 
Counties 

Bandera (H) , Uvalde (H), and 
Val Verde Counties 

Comal (?) County; Nuevo Leon, 
San Luis Potosi, and 
Tamaulipas, Mexico 

Jeff Davis County; AZ and NM 



Cameron, Kleberg, and Nueces 
Counties 



anqusticeps ) 

Brewster County 

Brewster and Presidio Counties 



Brewster, Culberson, Pecos, and 
Presidio Counties; NM; 
Chihuahua, Mexico 

Hidalgo (H) and Jim Hogg (?) 
Counties 



I 



Scientific Name 
Common Name 

Echinocereus reichenbachii var. 

albertii 

black lace cactus 



Rank* 

Global State 

G4T1 SI 



Status** 

Federal State 

LE E 



Family 



CACTACEAE 
Cactus. Family 



Distribution* * * 



Duval (I), Jim Wells, Kleberg, 
and Refugio Counties 



Echinocereus reichenbachii var. chisoensis (see Echinocereus chisoensis var. chisoensis) 



Echinocereus viridif lorus var. 
correllii 

Correll's green pitaya 

Echinocereus viridif lorus var. 
davisii 

Davis' green pitaya 

Eleocharis brachvcarpa 

short-fruited spikesedge 

Eleocharis cylindrica 

cylinder spikesedge 

Eleocharis wolfii 
Wolf's spikesedge 



Eriqeron mimecrletes 

Sonora fleabane 



Eriocaulon koernickianum 

dwarf pipewort 

Erioqonum qreqqii 

Gregg's wild-buckwheat 

Erioqonum neallevi 

Irion County wild-buckwheat 



Erioqonum suf f ruticosum 

I bushy wild-buckwheat 
to 
Et&cobaria guadalupensis 

Guadalupe Mountains 
pincushion cactus 



G4T2 



S2 



Gl SI 



G2 S2 



G2 S2 



3C 



G4T1 SI LE 



Gl SH C2 



C2 



G4G5 S? C2 



C2 



G2G3 SI C2 



G2 SI 



G2 S2 3C 



C2 



Gl SI C2 



CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 

CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 

CYPERACEAE 
Sedge Family 

CYPERACEAE 
Sedge Family 

CYPERACEAE 
Sedge Family 



ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 



ERIOCAULACEAE 
Pipewort Family 

POLYGONACEAE 
Knotweed Family 

POLYGONACEAE 
Knotweed Family 

POLYGONACEAE 
Knotweed Family 

CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 



Brewster, Coke, and Pecos 
Counties 



Brewster County 



south coastal Texas (H; county 
unknown); Tamaulipas, Mexico 

Lubbock (H) and Presidio 
Counties 

Texas (county unknown); AL, CO, 
IA, IL, IN, KS, LA, MN, MO, ND, 
NE, OH, OK, TN, and WI; Alberta 
and Saskatchewan, Canada 

Brewster (H) , Crockett (H) , 
Edwards (H), Kerr, Real, 
Schleicher, Sutton, Uvalde, and 
Val Verde (H) Counties; 
Coahuila, Mexico 

Brazos, Freestone, Leon (?), 
and Tyler (H) Counties; AR, GA, 
and OK 

Hidalgo (H) and Starr Counties; 
Coahuila and Nuevo Leon, Mexico 

Coke, Howard, Irion, Pecos (H) , 
Reagan, Runnels, and Sterling 
Counties 

Brewster, Pecos, and Presidio 
Counties 

Culberson County 



10 



Scientific Name 
Common Name 

Esenbeckia runyonii 

jopoy 



Rank* 

Global State 

G2G3 SI 



Status** 

Federal State 



Family 



RUTACEAE 
Citrus Family 



Distribution* * * 



Cameron County; Hidalgo, Nuevo 
Leon, San Luis Potosi, and 
Tamaulipas, Mexico 



Euphorbia astvla (see Chamaesyce astyJLa) 

Euphorbia chaetocalyx var. triliqulata (see Chamaesyce chaetocalyx var. triliqulata ) 

Euphorbia qeveri var. wheeleriana (see Chamaesyce qeyeri var. wheeleriana ) 

Euphorbia qolondrina (see Chamaesyce qolondrina ) 

Euphorbia perennans (see Chamaesyce perennans ) 



Eysenhardtia spinosa 

spiny kidney-wood 

Festuca liqulata 

Guadalupe Mountains fescue 

Forsellesia texensis 

Texas grease bush 

Frankenia -johnstonii 

Johnston's frankenia 

Fryxellia pyqmaea 

small Fryxell-wort 

Gaillardia aestivalis var. 
winkleri 

white firewheel 



G2 


S2 




Gl 


SI 


CI 


Gl 


SI 


C2 


G2 


S2 


LE 


Gl 


SH 


C2 


G5T1 


SI 


C2 



Galium correllii 


G2 




SI 


C2 


cliff bedstraw 










Gaura boquillensis 


G2 




S2 




Boquillas lizardtail 










Genistidium dumosum 


Gl 




SI 


C2 


brush-pea 










Grindelia oolepis 


G2 




S2 


3C 


plains gumweed 










Gutierrezia triflora (see Thurovia 


tri 


fl 


ora ) 





FABACEAE 
Legume Family 

POACEAE 
Grass Family 

CROSSOSOMATACEAE 
Grease Bush Family 

FRANKENIACEAE 
Frankenia Family 

MALVACEAE 
Mallow Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

RUBIACEAE 
Madder Family 

ONAGRACEAE 
Evening Primrose 
Family 

FABACEAE 
Legume Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 



Presidio County; Chihuahua and 
Durango, Mexico 

Brewster and Culberson 
Counties; Coahuila, Mexico 

Uvalde and Val Verde (H) 
Counties 

Starr and Zapata Counties; 
Nuevo Leon, Mexico 

west Texas (H; county unknown) ; 
Coahuila, Mexico 

Hardin County 



Brewster and Val Verde 
Counties; Coahuila, Mexico 

Brewster and Presidio Counties; 
Chihuahua, Coahuila, and Nuevo 
Leon, Mexico 

Brewster County; Coahuila, 
Mexico 

Bee, Cameron, Nueces, Refugio, 
and San Patricio Counties 






11 



Scientific Name 
Common Name 

Hedeoma apiculatum 

McKittrick pennyroyal 

Hedeoma pilosum 

Old Blue pennyroyal 

Hedvotis butterwickiae 

Mary ' s bluet 

Hedvotis correllii 
Correll's bluet 

Hedvotis mullerae 

Katherine's bluet 

Helianthus neqlectus 

neglected sunflower 

Helianthus paradoxus 

puzzle sunflower 

Helianthus praecox ssp. hirtus 

Dimmit sunflower 

Hexalectris nitida 

Glass Mountains coral-root 



Hexalectris revoluta 

Chisos coral-root 



Hexalectris warnockii 

Warnock's coral-root 



Hibiscus dasycalyx 

Neches River rose-mallow 

Hof fmannseggia tenella 
slender rush-pea 



Rank* 

Global State 



G3 
GH 
Gl 
Gl 
G2 
G2Q 
G2 

G4 

T1Q 

G2 

Gl 

G2 



S2 
SH 
SI 
SI 
SI 
S2 
SI 
SI 
S2 

SI 

S2 



Status** 

Federal State 

LT T 

C2 

C2 



CI 
C2 
C2 

C2 
C2 



Family 



LAMIACEAE 
Mint Family 

LAMIACEAE 
Mint Family 

RUBIACEAE 
Madder Family 

RUBIACEAE 
Madder Family 

RUBIACEAE 
Madder Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

ORCHIDACEAE 
Orchid Family 



ORCHIDACEAE 
Orchid Family 

ORCHIDACEAE 
Orchid Family 



£» Houstonia Dutterwicxiae 

I 

[^ Hymenopappus biennis 

biennial woolywhite 



Ul 



Gl 


SI C2 




MALVACEAE 
Mallow Family 


Gl 


SI LE 


E 


FABACEAE 
Legume Family 


Hedvotis 


butterwickiae ) 






G2 


S2 




ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 



Distribution*** 



Culberson County; NM 



Brewster County (H) 



Brewster County 



Zapata County 



Brewster County; Coahuila, 
Mexico 

Ector, Loving, Ward, and 
Winkler Counties 

Pecos and Reeves Counties; NM 



Dimmit and Zapata Counties 

Bandera, Brewster, Coryell, 
Dallas, Hays, Kendall, Pecos 
<H) , Taylor, and Travis 
Counties; Coahuila, Mexico 

Brewster and Culberson 
Counties; Nuevo Leon and San 
Luis Potosi, Mexico 

Brewster, Dallas, Gillespie, 
Jeff Davis (H) , Taylor, and 
Terrell Counties; AZ and NM 

Cherokee, Harrison, Houston, 
and Trinity Counties 

Kleberg and Nueces Counties 



Culberson County; NM 



12 



Scientific Name 
Common Name 

Hymenopappus carrizoanus 

sandhill woolywhite 



Hymenoxys texana 

prairie dawn 

Isoetes lithophila 
rock, quillwort 

Justicia runyonii 

Runyon's water-willow 

Justicia wrightii 

Wright's water-willow 

Kallstroemia perennans 

perennial caltrop 

Lachnocaulon digynum 

tiny bog buttons 

Leavenworthia texana 

Texas golden glade cress 

Lechea mensalis 
Chisos pinweed 

Lepidospartum burgessii 

gypsum scalebroom 

Lesquerella pallida 
white bladderpod 

Lesquerella thamnophila 
Zapata bladderpod 

Lesquerella valida 

strong bladderpod 

Liatris bracteata 

coastal gay-feather 



Liatris cymosa 

branched gay-feather 



Rank* 

Global State 

G2 S2 



Status** 

Federal State 



Family 



ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 



G2 


S2 


LE 


E ASTERACEAE 

Sunflower Family 


G2 


S2 


C2 


ISOETACEAE 
Quillwort Family 


G2 


S2 


C2 


ACANTHACEAE 
Acanthus Family 


G2 


S2 


C2 


ACANTHACEAE 
Acanthus Family 


Gl 


SI 


C2 


ZYGOPHYLLACEAE 
Caltrop Family 


G3 


SI 


C2 


ERIOCAULACEAE 
Pipewort Family 


Gl 


SI 


C2 


BRASSICACEAE 
Mustard Family 


G1Q 


SI 


C2 


CISTACEAE 
Rockrose Family 


G2 


SI 


C2 


ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 


Gl 


SI 


LE 


E BRASSICACEAE 

Mustard Family 


Gl 


SI 


CI 


BRASSICACEAE 
Mustard Family 


G2 


SI 


3C 


BRASSICACEAE 
Mustard Family 


G2 


S2 




ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 



G2 



S2 



3C 



ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 



Distribution* * * 



Anderson, Atascosa, Bexar (H) , 
Caldwell (H), Frio, Guadalupe, 
Leon, Medina, and Robertson 
Counties 

Fort Bend, Harris, and La Salle 
(?) Counties 

Burnet, Llano, and Mason 
Counties 

Brazoria, Cameron, Goliad (?), 
and Hidalgo Counties; 
Tamaulipas, Mexico 

Brewster (H), Pecos, and Val 
Verde Counties 

Brewster, Presidio, and Val 
Verde Counties 

Jasper and Newton Counties; AL, 
FL, LA, and MS 

Nacogdoches (I), Sabine, and 
San Augustine Counties 

Brewster County; Coahuila, 
Mexico 

Hudspeth County; NM 



San Augustine County 

Starr and Zapata Counties 

Culberson and Hudspeth 
Counties; NM 

Aransas, Galveston, Live Oak 
(H), Matagorda, Refugio, and 
San Patricio Counties 

Brazos, Burleson, Walker, and 
Washington Counties 



CM 

i 



13 



Scientific Name 
Common Name 

Liatris tenuis 

slender gay-feather 

Lvcium texanum 

Texas wolf-berry 

Machaeranthera aurea 

Houston machaeranthera 



Rank* 

Global State 

G2G3 S2S3 



Status** 

Federal State 

C2 



Manfreda loncriflora 

Runyon's huaco 

Manihot walkerae 

Walker ' s manioc 

Matelea radiata 

Falfurrias milkvine 

Matelea texensis 

Texas milkvine 

Mimulus dentilobus 

fringed monkeyflower 

Mirabilis collina 

sandhill four-o'clock 



Muhlenberqia villosa 

villous muhly 

Neolloydia mariposensis 

Lloyd's mariposa cactus 

Nolina arenicola 
sand sacahuista 

Oenothera pilosella ssp. 
[jCsessilis 

I Grand Prairie evening 
primrose 



G2 


S2 


C2 


G2 


S2 


C2 


Psilactis 


het 


erocarpa 


G2 


S2 


C2 


Gl 


SI 


LE 


Gl 


SI 


C2 


Gl 


SI 


C2 


G2 


SI 




G2 


S2 


C2 



G2Q S2 



G2 



S2 



G2Q S2 



G5T2 SH 



3B 



LT 



C2 



C2 



Family 



ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

SOLANACEAE 
Potato Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 



AGAVACEAE 
Agave Family 

EUPHORBIACEAE 
Spurge Family 

ASCLEPIADACEAE 
Milkweed Family 

ASCLEPIADACEAE 
Milkweed Family 

SCROPHULARIACEAE 
Snapdragon Family 

NVCTAGINACEAE 
Four-o'clock Family 



POACEAE 
Grass Family 

CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 

AGAVACEAE 
Agave Family 

ONAGRACEAE 
Evening Primrose 
Family 



Distribution*** 



Angelina, Jasper, Newton, 
Sabine, San Augustine, and 
Tyler Counties; LA (?) 

Brewster, Culberson, and 
Hudspeth Counties 

Galveston and Harris Counties 



Cameron (H), Hidalgo, and Starr 
Counties 

Hidalgo and Starr (H) Counties; 
Tamaulipas, Mexico 

Brooks (H), Hidalgo (H) , and 
Starr (?) Counties 

Brewster County 



Presidio County; AZ and NM; 
Chihuahua, Mexico 

Anderson, Austin (?), Cherokee 
(H), Lamar (?), Morris (?), Red 
River (?), San Augustine (?), 
Smith, Waller (?), and Wood 
Counties 

Glasscock, Howard, Hudspeth, 
and Presidio Counties; NM 

Brewster County; Coahuila, 
Mexico 

Culberson, El Paso (?), and 
Hudspeth Counties 

Galveston County (H) ; AR and LA 



14 



Scientific Name 
Common Name 

Opuntia arenaria 

sand prickly-pear 

Opuntia aureispina 

golden-spine prickly-pear 

Opuntia engelmannii var. 
flexospina 

few-spine Engelmann's 
prickly-pear 



Opuntia imbricata var. 

silver cholla 



Rank 


■a 


Statu 


5** 


Family 


Global 


State 


Federal 


State 




G2 


S2 


C2 




CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 


Gl 


SI 


C2 




CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 


G3T1 


SI 


C2 




CACTACEAE 



argentea G5T1 



SI 



C2 



Cactus Family 



CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 



Distribution*** 



El Paso and Hudspeth (H) 
Counties; NM; Chihuahua, Mexico 



Brewster County 



Starr, Webb (H) , and Zapata 
Counties 



Brewster County 



Opuntia macrocentra var. aureispina (see Opuntia aureispina ) 



Osmorhiza mexicana ssp. 
bipatriata 

Livermore sweet-cicely 

Ostrya chisosensis 

Big Bend hop-hornbeam 

Oxypolis ternata 

threeleaf cowbane 

Paronychia conqesta 

bushy whitlow-wort 

Paronychia lundellorum 

Lundell's whitlow-wort 

Paronychia maccartii 

McCart ' s whitlow-wort 

Paronychia wilkinsonii 

Wilkinson's whitlow-wort 

Pediocactus papyracanthus 

paper-spine cactus 

Pediomelum humile 

Rydberg ' s scurf pea 

Pediomelum pentaphyllum 

three-nerve scurfpea 



G4T1 



SI 



C2 



G2 


SI C2 


G3? 


SI C2 


Gl 


SI CI 


Gl 


SI 


Gl 


SI C2 


G2 


S2 C2 


G3 


SI C2 


G2 


SI C2 


G1G2 


SH C2 


Pediomelum 


pentaphyllum 



API ACE AE 
Carrot Family 

BETULACEAE 
Birch Family 

APIACEAE 
Carrot Family 

CARYOPHYLLACEAE 
Pink Family 

CARYOPHYLLACEAE 
Pink Family 

CARYOPHYLLACEAE 
Pink Family 

CARYOPHYLLACEAE 
Pink Family 

CACTACEAE 
Cactus Family 

FABACEAE 
Legume Family 

FABACEAE 
Legume Family 



Jeff Davis County; Coahuila and 
Nuevo Leon; Mexico 



Brewster County; northern 
Mexico 

Hardin and Tyler (?) Counties; 
FL, GA, MS, NC, and SC 



Jim Hogg County 



Brooks, Kenedy, and Kleberg 
Counties 



Webb County 



Brewster County; Chihuahua and 
Coahuila, Mexico 

Hudspeth County; AZ and NM 



Val Verde County; Coahuila, 
Mexico 

Presidio County (H); NM (H); 
Chihuahua, Mexico 



CO 

CM 

I 

< 



15 






Scientific Name 
Common Name 

Penstemon alamosensis 

Alamo beardtongue 

Penstemon cardinalis ssp. 
regalis 

royal red penstemon 

Perityle bisetosa var. appressa 

appressed two-bristle rock- 
daisy 

Perityle bisetosa var. bisetosa 

two-bristle rock-daisy 

Perityle bisetosa var. scalaris 

stairstep two-bristle rock- 
daisy 

Perityle cinerea 

gray rock-daisy 

Perityle dissecta 

slimlobe rock-daisy 

Perityle huecoensis 

Hueco rook-daisy 

Perityle vitreomontana 

Glass Mountains rock-daisy 

Perityle warnockii 

Warnock's rock-daisy 

Phacelia pallida 

pale phacelia 

Philadelphus crinitus 

bearded mock-orange 

Philadelphus ernestii 
canyon mock-orange 

Philadelphus texensis 

Texas mock-orange 



Rank* 

Global State 

G2 SI 

G3T2 S2 

G2T2 S2 



Status** 

Federal State 

C2 



G2T1 


SI 


C2 


G2T1 


SI 


C2 


G2 


S2 


3C 


G2 


S2 




Gl 


SI 


C2 


Gl 


SI 


C2 


Gl 


SI 


C2 


G2 


SI 


C2 


G2 


SI 




G2 


S2 


C2 


G2 


S2 


3C 



Family 



SCROPHULARIACEAE 
Snapdragon Family 

SCROPHULARIACEAE 
Snapdragon Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

HYDROPHYLLACEAE 
Waterleaf Family 

SAXIFRAGACEAE 
Saxifrage Family 

SAXIFRAGACEAE 
Saxifrage Family 

SAXIFRAGACEAE 
Saxifrage Family 



Distribution*** 

El Paso County; NM 

Culberson and Jeff Davis 
Counties; NM 



Brewster County; Coahuila, 
Mexico 



Brewster and Pecos Counties 



Brewster County 



Pecos, Reeves (H), Terrell, and 
Upton Counties 

Brewster and Presidio Counties; 
Chihuahua, Mexico 

El Paso County 



Brewster County 



Val Verde County 



Brewster County; Chihuahua and 
Coahuila, Mexico 

Jeff Davis County; AZ 



Blanco, Comal, Hays, Kendall, 
and Travis Counties 

Bandera, Comal (H), Edwards 
(H), Kendall (H) , Medina (H), 
Real, and Uvalde Counties; 
Coahuila, Mexico 



16 



Scientific Name 
Common Name 

Phlox nivalis ssp. texensis 

Texas trailing phlox 

Phvllanthus ericoides 

heather leaf-flower 

Physostegia correllii 

Correll's false dragon-head 



Physostegia lonqisepala 

long-sepaled false dragon- 
head 



Rank 


* 


Status 


** 


Family 


Global 


State 


Federal 


State 




G4T2 


S2 


LE 


E 


POLEMONIACEAE 
Phlox Family 


G2 


SI 


C2 




EUPHORBIACEAE 
Spurge Family 


G2 


S2 


C2 




LAMIACEAE 
Mint Family 



G2G3 



Poa involuta (see Poa strictiramea ) 

Poa strictiramea G3 

desert mountains bluegrass 

Polemonium paucif lorum ssp. G3 

hinckleyi T1Q 

Hinckley's Jacob ' s-ladder 

Polianthes runyonii (see Manf reda longiflora ) 



S2 



SI 



SI 



Polygala marav ilia sens is 

Maravillas milkwort 

Polyqala rimulicola var. 
rimulicola 

rock crevice milkwort 

Polygonella parksii 

Parks' jointweed 



Potamogeton clystocarpus 

Little Aguja pondweed 

Prenanthes barbata 

rattlesnake root 



G2 SI 
G2T2 S2 



G2 



S2 



Gl SI 
G2G3 S2 



C2 

C2 
C2 

C2 
3C 

3C 

LE 
C2 



LAMIACEAE 
Mint Family 



POACEAE 
Grass Family 

POLEMONIACEAE 
Phlox Family 



POLYGALACEAE 
Milkwort Family 

POLYGALACEAE 
Milkwort Family 

POLYGONACEAE 
Knotweed Family 

POTAMOGETONACEAE 
Pondweed Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 



Distribution* * * 



Hardin, Polk, and Tyler 
Counties 

Brewster and Terrell Counties; 
Coahuila, Mexico 

Bexar (H) , Galveston, 
Montgomery (H) , Travis, Val 
Verde, and Zapata Counties; LA; 
Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, 
and Sonora, Mexico 

Hardin, Jasper, Newton, and 
Orange Counties; LA 



Brewster County; Chihuahua, 
Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Le6n, 
and Zacatecas, Mexico 

Jeff Davis County; AZ ; 
Chihuahua, Mexico 



Brewster and Terrell Counties; 
Coahuila, Mexico 

Culberson and Hudspeth 
Counties; NM 



Atascosa, Bexar, Burleson, 
Guadalupe, Leon, Robertson, and 

Wilson Counties 

Jeff Davis County 



Hardin, Jasper, Nacogdoches, 
and Shelby Counties; AL, AR, 
GA, LA, and TN 



o 

on 

I 



17 



Scientific Name 
Common Name 

Proboscidea sabulosa 

dune unicorn-plant 

Proboscidea spicata 

many-flowered unicorn-plant 

Prunus murravana 

Murray's plum 

Pseudoclappia arenaria 

sand false clappia-bush 



Pseudoclappia watsonii 

Watson's false clappia-bush 

Psilactis heterocarpa 

Welder machaeranthera 



Rank* 

Global Slate 

G2 S2 

Gl SI 

G2 S2 

G2G3 S2 



Gl 
G2 



SI 
S2 



Status** 

Federal State 

3C 

C2 

3C 



C2 



Psoralea rvdberqii (see Pediomelum humile) 

Psoralea trinervata (see Pediomelum pent aphv Hum ) 

Ouercus bovntonii GHQ SH C2 

Boynton's oak 

Ouercus depressipes 

Mexican dwarf oak 

Ouercus crraciliformis 
Chisos oak 

Ouercus hinckleyi 

Hinckley ' s oak 

Ouercus robusta 

robust oak 

Ouercus tardifolia 

. lateleaf oak 
> 

[ korippa ramosa 

(jJ canyon watercress 



G2 


SI 




Gl 


SI 


C2 


G2 


S2 


LT 


G1Q 


SI 




Gl 


SI 


C2 


G2 


SI 





Family 



MARTYNIACEAE 

Unicorn-plant 

Family 

MARTYNIACEAE 

Unicorn-plant 

Family 

ROSACEAE 
Rose Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 



ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 



FAGACEAE 
Beech Family 

FAGACEAE 
Beech Family 

FAGACEAE 
Beech Family 

FAGACEAE 
Beech Family 

FAGACEAE 
Beech Family 

FAGACEAE 
Beech Family 

BRASSICACEAE 
Mustard Family 



Distribution*** 



Andrews, Crane, Loving, Ward, 
and Winkler Counties; NM; 
Chihuahua, Mexico 

Brewster, Jeff Davis, and 
Presidio Counties; Coahuila, 
Mexico 

Brewster, Culberson (H) , and 
Jeff Davis Counties 

Bailey, Culberson, Gaines (H), 
Hall (H), Hudspeth, Lubbock, 
Pecos, and Reeves Counties; NM 
and OK; Coahuila, Mexico 

Hudspeth and Jeff Davis 
Counties 

Nueces, Refugio, San Patricio, 
and Victoria Counties 



Angelina County (H); AL (H) 



Jeff Davis County; Chihuahua 
and Durango, Mexico 

Brewster County 



Brewster and Presidio Counties; 
Chihuahua (?), Mexico 

Brewster County 



Brewster County 

Brewster and Terrell Counties; 
Chihuahua, Coahuila, and 
Durango, Mexico 



18 



Scientific Name 
Common Name 

Rosa stellata ssp. mirif ica 
var . erlansoniae 

Erlanson's desert rose 

Rudbeckia scabrifolia 

bog conef lower 

Salvia penstemonoides 

big red sage 



Salvia summa 

mountain sage 

Schwalbea americana 

chaff seed 



Scirpus hallii 

Hall ' s bulrush 



Scutellaria laevis 

smooth-stem skullcap 

Scutellaria thieretii 

Thieret ' s skullcap 

Sedum havardii 

Havard ' s stonecrop 

Sedum robertsianum 

Roberts ' stonecrop 

Selaqinella viridissima 

green spikemoss 

Senna orcuttii 

Orcutt ' s senna 



Senna ripleyana 

Ripley's senna 

Sesuvium trianthemoides 

roughseed sea-purslane 



Rank* 


Status 


** 


Family 


Global 


State 


Federal 


State 




G3? 


SI 






ROSACEAE 


Tl 








Rose Family 


G2 


S2 


C2 




ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 


G1G2 


S1S2 


C2 




LAM I ACE AE 
Mint Family 


G2 


S2 






LAM I ACE AE 
Mint Family 



Distribution*** 



G2 



Gl 



G2 



G2 



G2 



G2 



Gl 



S? 



G2? S? 



SI 



G2Q SI 



S2 



G1Q SI 



SI 



S2 



SH 



SI 



LE 



C2 



C2 



C2 



C2 



C2 



C2 



SCROPHULARIACEAE 
Snapdragon Family 

CYPERACEAE 
Sedge Family 

LAMIACEAE 
Mint Family 

LAMIACEAE 
Mint Family 

CRASSULACEAE 
Orpine Family 

CRASSULACEAE 
Orpine Family 

SELAGINELLACEAE 
Spikemoss Family 

FABACEAE 
Legume Family 

FABACEAE 
Legume Family 

AI ZOACEAE 
Carpet-weed Family 



Culberson County 



Angelina, Jasper, Newton, 
Sabine, and Shelby Counties; LA 

Bandera, Bexar (H) , Gillespie 
(H), Guadalupe (H) , Kendall, 
Kerr, Real, Travis (I), and 
Wilson (H) Counties 

Culberson, El Paso, and 
Hudspeth Counties; NM 

Texas (county unknown); AL, CT, 
DE, FL, GA, KY, MA, MD, MS, NC, 
NJ, NY, SC, TN, and VA 

Texas (county unknown); AL, GA, 
IA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MI, MO, NE, 
SC, and WI 

Culberson and Hudspeth Counties 



Nueces County; LA 

Brewster and Jeff Davis (H) 
Counties; Coahuila, Mexico 

Brewster County 



Brewster and Jeff Davis 
Counties; Coahuila, Mexico 

Brewster and Terrell (H) 
Counties; NM; Coahuila, 
Durango, and Sonora, Mexico 

Brewster County (H) ; Chihuahua 
and Zacatecas, Mexico 

Aransas (M) , Kenedy, and Nueces 
(M) Counties 



m 

i 

< 



19 



Scientific Name 
Common Name 

Sibara grisea 

gray sibara 

Silene plankii 

Plank's catchfly 

Silene subciliata 

scarlet catchfly 

Solatium leptosepalum 

Tigna potato 



Sophora qypsophila var. 
quadalupensis 

gyp mountain-laurel 

Spiranthes parksii 

Navasota ladies ' -tresses 



Streptanthus bracteatus 

bracted twistflower 



Streptanthus cutleri 

Cutler's twistflower 

Streptanthus sparsiflorus 

sparsely- flowered 
jewelf lower 

Styrax texana 

Texas snowbells 

Styrax younqae 

Young's snowbells 

Suaeda duripes 

1^ hardtoe seepweed 

S^ymphoricarpos quadalupensis 



Rank 


>•< 


Status** 


Family 


Global 


State 


Federal 


State 




G3? 


SI 


3C 




BRASSICACEAE 
Mustard Family 


G2 


SI 


3C 




CARYOPHYLLACEAE 
Pink Family 


G3 


S3 


C2 




CARYOPHYLLACEAE 
Pink Family 



G2 SI 



G1T1 SI 



G3 S3 



G2 



S2 



3C 



LE 



C2 



to McKittrick snowberry 

Talinum ruqospermum 

roughseed flameflower 



G2 


S2 


C2 


G2 


S2 


C2 


Gl 


SI 


LE 


Gl 


SH 


C2 


GHQ 


SH 


C2 


Gl 


SI 


02 


G3G4 


SI 


C2 



SOLANACEAE 
Potato Family 

FABACEAE 
Legume Family 

E ORCHIDACEAE 

Orchid Family 



BRASSICACEAE 
Mustard Family 

BRASSICACEAE 
Mustard Family 

BRASSICACEAE 
Mustard Family 

STYRACACEAE 
Storax Family 

STYRACACEAE 
Storax Family 

CHENOPODIACEAE 
Goosefoot Family 

CAPRIFOLIACEAE 
Honeysuckle Family 

PORTULACACEAE 
Purslane Family 



Distribution*** 



Hudspeth County; NM 

El Paso County; NM 

Hardin, Jasper, Jefferson (H) , 
Liberty, Newton, Polk, Sabine, 
Shelby, and Tyler Counties; LA 

Jeff Davis (H) and Presidio 
Counties; Chihuahua and 
Coahuila, Mexico 

Culberson County; NM; 
Chihuahua, Mexico 



Brazos, Burleson, Freestone, 
Grimes, Jasper, Leon, Madison, 
Robertson, and Washington 
Counties 

Bandera, Caldwell (?), Comal, 
Medina, Real, Travis, and 
Uvalde Counties 

Brewster County; Coahuila, 
Mexico 

Culberson County; NM 



Edwards, Kinney (I), Real, and 
Val Verde Counties 

Jeff Davis County (H) ; Coahuila 
and Nuevo Leon, Mexico 

Pecos (H) and/or Reeves (H) 
Counties 

Culberson County 



Nacogdoches County; IA, IL, IN, 
MN, NE, and WI 



20 



Scientific Name 
Common Name 

Thalictrum arkansanum 

Arkansas meadow-rue 

Thalictrum texanum 
Texas meadow-rue 

Thelocactus bicolor var. 
f lavidispinus 

straw-spine glory-of-Texas 

Thelypodium tenue 

Fresno Creek thelypody 

Thurovia trif lora 

threef lower broomweed 



Thymophylia tephroleuca 

ashy dogweed 

Tillandsia baileyi 

Bailey's ballmoss 



Rank 


* 


Status 


** 


Family 


Global 


State 


Federal 


State 




G2Q 


SI 


C2 




RANUNCULACEAE 
Buttercup Family 


G2Q 


S2 


C2 




RANUNCULACEAE 
Buttercup Family 


G4T2 


S2 


C2 




CACTACEAE 



G1Q 



G2 



Gl 



G2 



SI 



S2 



SI 



S2 



C2 



LE 



C2 



Toumeya papyracantha (see Pediocactus papyracanthus ) 

S2S3 C2 



Trillium pusillum var. texanum 

Texas trillium 



G3T2 
T3Q 



Trillium texanum (see Trillium pusillum var. texanum ) 
Valeriana texana 



Guadalupe Mountains valerian 

Valerianella texana 

Edwards Plateau cornsalad 

Viola quadalupensis 

Guadalupe Mountains violet 

Xyris drummondii 

Drummond's yellow-eyed grass 



G2 
1 


S2 


3C 


G2 


S2 


C2 


Gl 


SI 


C2 


G3 


S2 


C2 



Cactus Family 



BRASSICACEAE 
Mustard Family 

ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 



ASTERACEAE 
Sunflower Family 

BROMELIACEAE 
Bromeliad Family 



LILIACEAE 
Lily Family 



VALERIANACEAE 
Valerian Family 

VALERIANACEAE 
Valerian Family 

VIOLACEAE 
Violet Family 

XYRIDACEAE 
Yellow-eyed Grass 
Family 



Distribution*** 



Bowie, Lamar, and Red River 
Counties; AR and OK 

Brazos, Harris (H) , and Waller 
Counties 

Brewster and Starr (?) 
Counties; Tamaulipas, Mexico 



Presidio County 



Aransas, Brazoria, Calhoun, 
Harris (H) , Jackson (H) , 
Refugio, San Patricio (H) , and 
Waller (H) Counties 

Starr (H) , Webb, and Zapata 
Counties 

Brooks (H) , Cameron, Hidalgo, 
Jim Wells, Kenedy, and Willacy 
Counties; Tamaulipas, Mexico 



Cass, Harrison, Houston (H) , 
Nacogdoches, Panola (H), Rusk, 
Smith, and Wood (?) Counties; 
AR and LA 



Culberson County; NM 



Burnet, Gillespie, and Llano 
Counties 

Culberson County 



Angelina, Jasper, and Newton 
Counties; AL, FL, GA, LA, and 
MS 



21 



Scientific Name 
Common Name 

Xyris scabrifolia 

rough-leaf yellow-eyed grass 

Yucca necopina 

Glen Rose yucca 

Zanthoxylum parvum 

Shinners' tickle-tongue 

Zizania texana 

Texas wild-rice 



Rank 


* 


Statu 


5** 


Family 


Global 


Slate 


Federal 


State 




G2G3 


S2 


C2 




XYRIDACEAE 
Yellow.-eyed Grass 
Family 


G1Q 


SI 






AGAVACEAE 
Agave Family 


Gl 


SI 


CI 




RUTACEAE 
Citrus Family 


Gl 


SI 


LE 


E 


POACEAE 
Grass Family 



Distribution*** 



Angelina, Jasper, Newton, and 
Sabine Counties; AL, FL, GA, 
LA, and MS 

Somervell County 

Brewster and Jeff Davis 
Counties 

Hays County 



I 
U) 

Ul 



22 



Explanation of Terms and Symbols 
♦Rank- Two ranking categories are provided for each plant as follows: 



Global Rank (denoted by G and a number, 1-5 or H) 



State Rank (denoted by S and a number, 1-5 or H) 



Gl = less than 6 occurrences known globally; critically imperiled, especially vulnerable to 

extinction 
G2 = 6-20 occurrences known globally; imperiled and very vulnerable to extinction throughout its 

range 
G3 = 21-100 occurrences known globally; either very rare and local throughout its range or found 

locally (even abundantly at some of its locations) in a restricted range (e.g., a single state or 

physiographic region), or because of other factors making it vulnerable to extinction 

throughout its range 
G4 = more than 100 occurrences known, apparently secure globally, though it may be quite rare 

in parts of its range, especially at the periphery 
GS = demonstrably secure globally, though it may be quite rare in parts of its range 
GH = of historical occurrence throughout its range, i.e., formerly part of the established biota, 

with expectation that it may be rediscovered 



51 = less than 6 occurrences known in Texas; critically imperiled in Texas; especially vulnerable 

to extirpation from the state 

52 = 6-20- known occurrences in Texas; imperiled in the state because of rarity; very vulnerable 

to extirpation from the state 

53 = 21-100 known Texas occurrences; either rare or uncommon in the state 

54 = more than 100 occurrences in Texas; apparently secure in the state, though it may be quite 

rare in some areas of the state 

55 = demonstrably secure in Texas 

SH = historical in Texas, perhaps having not been verified in the past 50 years, but suspected to 

be extant 
SX = believed extirpated from the state 



A global or state rank followed by "Q" indicates that the taxonomic status of the plant is a matter of conjecture. A rank followed by "V indicates that the rank is not certain. A "T" subrank following a 
global rank denotes the rank for subspecific taxa. Two G or S ranks together (G2G3; S1S2; etc.) indicate that the plant is borderline between the ranks. All state and most global ranks are assigned by the 
Texas Natural Heritage Program. 

**Status- Two status categories are provided for each plant as follows: 



Federal Legal Status (according to the United States Fish & Wildlife Service) 



State Legal Status (according to the Texas Parks & Wildlife Department) 



LE = listed as a federally endangered plant 

LT = listed as a federally threatened plant 

PE = proposed to become listed as endangered 

PT = proposed to become listed as threatened 

CI = federal candidate category 1 plant with enough information available to propose for listing 

C2 = federal candidate category 2 plant under current review for possible listing as either 

endangered or threatened, but USFWS is in need of more information 
3B = taxa that are no longer considered taxonomically valid 
3C = no longer under federal review for listing; either more abundant or widespread than was 

previously thought 



E = listed as a state endangered plant 
T = listed as a state threatened plant 



♦♦♦Distribution 



Abbreviations for states in the U.S. are those of the U.S. Postal Service. 
I = introduced; M = misidentification; X = presumed extirpated; and ? 



Alphabetical qualifiers following counties or states are defined as follows: H = historical (not observed or collected within 50 years); 
= questionable locality or identification. 



This Special Plant List is produced by the Texas Natural Heritage Program. It is reviewed periodically and necessary revisions are incorporated. Should you have any comments or questions regarding this 
list, please contact the Texas Natural Heritage Program, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, 4200 Smith School Road, Austin, Texas 78744; (512) 448-4311. 



VD 

CO 

I 

< 



23 

CHANGES IN THE 1993 SPECIAL PLANT LIST 

The following taxa were added to the list. 

Aqalinis navasotensis (Navasota false foxglove) G1S1 
Armor acia lacustris (lake cress) G4?S1, C2 
Esenbeckia runvonii (jopoy) G2G3S1 
Oxypolis ternata (threeleaf cowbane) G37S1 C2 

The following taxa were deleted from the list. 

Brickellia shineri (Shiner's brickellbush) - more common than previously thought 

The following taxa had additions, deletions, or corrections to their distribution. 

Acleisanthes wriqhtii - change status of Reeves County to historical 

Aqalinis auriculata - add Alabama; delete questionable status from Oklahoma 

Agave qlomerulif lor a - add Hudspeth County 

Allium elmendorf li - add Bee, Nueces, and Refugio Counties 

Anulocaulis leiosolenus var. lasianthus - change status of Culberson County to historic 

Aster puniceus ssp. elliottii var. scabrlcaulls - add Cherokee County 

Astrophytum asterias - add Cameron and Hidalgo (historic) Counties 

Brickellia brachyphylla var. hincklevi - change status of Brewster County to historic 

Caesalpinia brachvcarpa - add Llano County (historic); change status of Edwards County to historic 

Campanula reverchonii - change status of Travis County to historic 

Carex hvalina - add Liberty County 

Castilleia . elonqata - delete Jeff Davis County 

Cereus qreqqii var. qreqqii - change status of Pecos County to historic 

Chloris texensis - add Nueces County 

Colubrina stricta - add questionable status to Comal County 

Coreopsis intermedia - add Harrison County; delete historic status from Leon and Trinity Counties; 

add questionable status to Nacogdoches County 
Croton alabamensis var. texensis - add Bell County 
Cuscuta attenuata - change status on Cameron, Jackson, and Liberty Counties to historic; change KN 

to KS (Kansas) 
Cyperus qrayioides - add Houston and Parker (questionable) Counties 
Cypripedium kentuckiense - delete Tyler County (no record found) 

Desmodium lindheimeri - add questionable status to Comal County; add Tamaulipas, Mexico 
Echinocereus papillosus var. anqusticeps - add historic status to Hidalgo County 
Echinocereus reichenbachii var. albertii - add Duval County (introduced) 

Eriqeron mimeqletes - add Kerr County and Coahuila, Mexico; add historic status to Crockett and 
I Edwards Counties 

i*j Erioqonum qreqqii - add historic status to Hidalgo County 

Erioqonum suf f ruticosum - delete historic status from Presidio County 

Grindelia ooplepis - delete Jim Wells County 

Hedeoma pilosum - add historic status to Brewster County 



■~j 



24 

Helianthus neqlectus - add Ector and Winkler Counties 

Hexalectris nitida - add Coryell, Hays, and Travis Counties; change status of Pecos County to 

historic 
Hexalectris revoluta - add San Luis Potosi, Mexico 
Hexalectris warnockii - add historic status to Jeff Davis County 
Hibiscus dasycalyx - add Cherokee and Houston Counties 
Hymenopappus carrizoanus - add Frio County 

Hymenoxys texana - change La Salle County historic status to questionable status 
Justicia runvonii - delete questionable status from Brazoria County 
Liatris bracteata - add historic status to Live Oak County 
Liatris tenuis - delete questionable status from San Augustine County 
Manihot walkerae - add historic status to Starr County 
Matelea radiata - add historic status to Brooks and Hidalgo Counties 
Mirabilis collina - add San Augustine and Waller County; delete Wall County; add questionable status 

to Austin, San Augustine, and Waller Counties 
Perityle cinerea - add historic status to Reeves County 
Philadelphus ernestii - add Comal County 
Philadelphus texensis - add Coahuila, Mexico 

Phlox nivalis spp. texensis - delete historic status from Polk County 

Physosteqia correllii - add historic status to Montgomery County; add Durango, Mexico 
Polyqonella parksii - add Burleson County 
Proboscidea spicata - add Coahuila, Mexico 

Pseudoclappia arenaria - add Lubbock County and Oklahoma (OK) 
Psilactis heterocarpa - add Victoria County 
Quercus depressipes - add Durango, Mexico 

Quercus hinckleyi - add Brewster County and Chihuahua (questionable), Mexico 
Rudbeckia scabrifolia - add Shelby County 
Schwalbea americana - add Alabama (AL) 
Senna orcuttii - add Durango and Sonora, Mexico 
Senna ripleyana - add historic status to Brewster County 

Sesuvium trianthemoides - add Aransas and Nueces Counties as misidentif ications 
Streptanthus bracteatus - add Bandera, Comal, and Real Counties 
Thalictrum arkansanum - add Bowie County 
Thalictrum texanum - delete Gonzales, Hardin, and Red River Counties as these specimens were 

misidentif ied 
Thurovia trif lora - add historic status to Jackson County 
Thymophylla tephroleuca - add Webb County 
Tillandsia baileyi - add Tamaulipas, Mexico 

Trillium pusillum var. texanum - add Smith County; delete Tyler County; delete questionable status 
from Rusk County 

The following taxa had changes in their status, either federal, state, and/or rank. 

oo 

Ambrosia cheir ant hi folia - from G1S1 to G2S2 and CI to PE M 

Aquileqia chrysantha var. chaplinei - from G2S2 to G4T2S2 4< 

Aquileqia lonqissima - from G3S1 to G3S2 <; 

Aster laevis var. quadalupensis - from G5T2S1 to G5T2QS1 (Nesom 1993) 
Aster puniceus ssp. elliottii var. scabricaulis - from G4T1S1 to G5T1S1 



25 

Astrophytum asterias - from CI to PE 

Avenia limitaris - from CI to PE 

Boerhavia mathisiana - from 3C to C2 

Castilleja ciliata - from G1S1 to G1QS1 (Nesom 1992) 

Castilleia elonqata - from G2S2 to G2QS2 (Nesom 1992) 

Cereus qreqqii var. qreqqii - from G3T2S2 to G4T2S2 

Chrvsothamnus nauseosus var. texensis - from G5T1S1 to G5T2S1 

Coryphantha albicolumnaria - from Cl to C2 

Coryphantha sulcata var. nickelsiae - from G4THSH to G4T2SH 

Croton alabamensis var. texensis - from G1T1S1 to G2T1S1 

Crvptantha crassipes - now state listed as endangered 

Cryptantha paysonii - from G2S1 to G3S1 

Cuscuta attenuata - from G3S2 to G2?S2 

Cyperus qrayioides - from G3S3 to G3G4S3 

Draba standleyi - from G2S1 to G3S1 

Hedeoma apiculatum - from G2S2 to G3S2 

Hedeoma pilosum - from G1S1 to GHSH 

Helianthus paradoxus - from G1S1 to G2S1 

Lachnocaulon diqynum - from G2G3S1 to G3S1 

Lycium texanum - from 3C to C2 

Manihot walkerae - now state listed as endangered 

Pediocactus papyr acanthus - from G2S1 to G3S1 

Pediomelum pentaphyllum - from G1SH to G1G2SH 

Phlox nivalis ssp. texensis - now state listed as endangered 

Potamoqeton clvstocarpus - now state listed as endangered 

Pseudoclappia arenaria - from G2S2 to G2G3S2 

Psilactis heterocarpa - from G1S1 to G2S2 

Rosa stellata ssp. mirif ica var. erlansoniae - from G3T1S1 to G37T1S1 

Schwalbea americana - from Cl to LE; from G2G3S? to G2S? 

Scirpus hall-ii - from G3S? to G2?S? 

Senna riplevana - from G2S1 to G2SH 

Sibara qrisea - from G2S1 to G37S1 

Silene plankii - from G2G3S1 to G2S1 

Trillium pusillum var. texanum - from G2G3QS2S3 to G3T2T3QS2S3 

The following taxa had significant changes in either the scientific or common name. 

Ambrosia cheiranthif olia - from South Texas ragweed to South Texas ambrosia 
Anthericum chandleri - replaced by Echeandia chandleri (Johnston 1990) 

Chrysothamnus nauseosus ssp. texensis - from Guadalupe rabbitbrush to Guadalupe Mountains 
rabbitbrush 

»P Coryphantha albicolumnaria - from white column to white column cactus 

£> Cyperus cephalanthus - from cryptic flat sedge to giant sharpstem umbrella-sedge 

1 Cyperus onerosus - from dune flat-sedge to dune umbrella-sedge 

^ Draba standleyi - from Standley's whitlow-wort to Standley's draba 

Echeandia chandleri - replaces Anthericum chandleri (Johnston 1990) 

Echinocereus papillosus var. anqusticeps - from small papillosus to small papillosus cactus 
Eleocharis brachycarpa - from short-fruited spikerush to short-fruited spikesedge 



26 

Eleocharis cylindrica - from cylinder spikerush to cylinder spikesedge 

Eriocaulon koernickianum - from small-headed pipewort to dwarf pipewort 

Escobaria quadalupensis - from Guadalupe pincushion cactus to Guadalupe Mountains pincushion cactus 

Festuca liqulata - from Guadalupe fescue to Guadalupe Mountains fescue 

Isoetes lithophila - from Isoetes lithophylla 

Machaeranthera heterocarpa - replaced by Psilactis heterocarpa (Morgan 1993) 

Paronychia wilkinsonii - from Wilkinson's nail-wort to Wilkinson's whitlow-wort 

Pediomelum pentaphyllum - replaces Pediomelum trinervatum (Grimes 1990) 

Penstemon alamosensis - from Penstemon alamoensis 

Perityle warnockii - from river rock-daisy to Warnock's rock-daisy 

Psilactis heterocarpa - replaces Machaeranthera heterocarpa (Morgan 1993) 

Quercus depressipes - from dwarf Mexican oak to Mexican dwarf oak 

Ouercus qraciliformis - from slender oak to Chisos oak 

Quercus tardifolia - from Chisos Mountains oak to lateleaf oak 

Talinum ruqospermum - from rough-seed fame flower to roughseed flameflower 

Thelocactus bicolor var. f lavidispinus - from straw spine cactus to straw-spine glory-of -Texas 

Valeriana texana - from Guadalupe valerian to Guadalupe Mountains valerian 



LITERATURE CITED 

Grimes, J. W. 1990. A revision of the New World species of Psoraleeae (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) . 

Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 61:1-113. 

Johnston, M. C. 1990. The vascular plants of Texas: a list, up-dating the Manual of the Vascular 
Plants of Texas . 2nd edition. Published by the author. 

Morgan, D. R. 1993. A molecular systematic study and taxonomic revision of Psilactis (Asteraceae: 
Astereae) . Syst. Bot . 18:290-308. 

Nesom, G. L. 1992. A new species of Castilleja (Scrophulariaceae) from southcentral Texas with 
comments on other Texas taxa. Phytologia 72:209-230. 

Nesom, G. L. 1993. Three species of Aster (Asteraceae: Astereae) disjunct in northern Coahuila, 
Mexico. Phytologia 74:296-304. 



I 



ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 

REFERENCES/BIBLIOGRAPHY 

INDEX 



! ■ 



ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 



AAF Auxiliary Air Field 

AFB Air Force Base 

APD Application for Permit to Drill 

ARS Agricultural Research Service 

BLM Bureau of Land Management 

BP Bureau of Prisons 

BR Bureau of Reclamation 

CFR Code of Federal Regulations 

CMG Continuing Management Guidance 

COA Condition(s) of Approval 

COE Corps of Engineers 



CRMWA 



River Municipal Water NSO/ELEV 



Canadian 

Authority 
DOD Department of Defense 
DOE Department of Energy 
DOI Department of the Interior 
DOJ Department of Justice 
EA Environmental Assessment 
EIS Environmental Impact Statement 
E.O. Executive Order 
ESA Endangered Species Act of 1973 
FCI Federal Correctional Institution 
FLPMA Federal Land Policy and Management 

Act of 1976 
FMA Fluid Minerals Assessment 
FWS U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and 

Wildlife Service 
LN Lease Notice 
MSA Management Situation Analysis 
MSL Mean Sea Level 
MWS Maximum Water Surface 
NALF Naval Auxiliary Landing Field 
NAS Naval Air Station 
NEPA National Environmental Policy Act 
NFH National Fish Hatchery 
NHPA National Historic Preservation Act 
NIROP Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant 
NMe National Memorial 
NMo National Monument 



NHP National Historic Park 

NHS National Historic Site 

NP National Park 

NPS National Park Service 

NRA National Recreation Area 

NS National Seashore 

NSO No Surface Occupancy 

NSO/ND No Surface Occupancy, No Directional 

Drilling 

NSO/DD No Surface Occupancy Directional 

Drilling 

No Surface Occupancy, based on 
elevation or surface use if suitable 
non-agency lands are included in the 
same drilling unit 

NTL Notice to Lessees 

NWR National Wildlife Refuge 

ODWC Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation 

P.L. Public Law 

RFD Reasonable Foreseeable Development 

RMP Resource Management Plan 

SCS Soil Conservation Service 

SHPO State Historic Preservation Office 

SMA Surface Management Agency 

SSS Special Status Species 

STC Standard Terms and Conditions 

T&E Threatened and Endangered 

TARL Texas Archeological Research Lab 

TPWD Texas Parks and Wildlife Department 

USAF U.S. Air Force 

U.S.C. United States Code 

USD A U.S. Department of Agriculture 

USFS U.S. Forest Service 

USGS U.S. Geological Survey 



USIBWC 



International Boundary 
Commission, United 
Mexico, United States Section 
USN U.S. Navy 



and Water 
States and 



REFERENCES/BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Garrett, Judith M. 1992-1993. Texas Almanac: Birdwatching in Texas, (p. 6). Published by The Dallas Morning 
News; Distributed by Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas. 600 + p. 

Gould, F. W. Hoffman, G. O., and Rechenthin, C. A. 1960. Vegetational areas of Texas: Texas A&M University, 
Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Leaflet No. 492. 

Kiichler, A. W. 1964. Potential Natural Vegetation of the Conterminous United States. New York City, New York: 
American Geographical Society, Special Publication No. 36. 

McMahan, Craig A. , Frye, Roy G. and Brown, Kirby L. 1984. The Vegetation Types of Texas, Including Cropland. 
An Illustrated Synopsis to Accompany the Map. PWD Bulletin 7000-120. 40 pages + Map. 

McNab, W. Henry; Avers, Peter E., (Compilers). 1994. Ecological subregions of the United States: Section 
descriptions. Administrative Publication WO-WSA-5. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
Forest Service. 267 p. 

Kingston, Mike (Editor). 1994-1995. Texas Almanac. Published by The Dallas Morning News; Distributed by 
Andrew and McMeel, A Universal Press Syndicate Company, Kansas City, Missouri. 672 p. 

Gunnerson, James H. 1987 Archeology of the high plains. Bureau of Land Management, Cultural Resource Series 
Number 19, Colorado State Office, Denver. 

Hester, Thomas R., et. al. 1989 From the Gulf to the Rio Grande: Human Adaptation in the Central, South, and Lower 
Pecos Texas. Final Report to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern Division; Arkansas 
Archeological Survey Research Series No. 33, Fayetteville. 

Hofman, Jack L., et. al. 1989 From Clovis to Comanchero: Archeological Overview of the Southern Great Plains. 
Final Report to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern Division; Arkansas Archeological Survey 
Research Series No. 35, Fayetteville. 

Newcomb, W.W. Jr. 1961 The Indians of Texas. University of Texas Press, Austin. 

Simmons, Alan H., et. al. 1989 Human Adaptations and Cultural Change in the Greater Southwest: An Overview of 
Archeological Resources in the Basin and Range Province. Final Report to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 
Southwestern Division; Arkansas Archeological Survey Research Series No. 32, Fayetteville. 

Story, Dee Ann, et. al. 1990 The Archeology and Bioarcheology of the Gulf Coastal Plain: Volumes I and II. Final 
Report to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern Division; Arkansas Archeological Survey Research 
Series No. 38, Fayetteville. 

Wright, Muriel H. 1951 A Guide to the Indian Tribes of Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. 



II 



INDEX 



AAF 1-3, 2-11, 2-14, 2-73, 2-74, 2-87, 2-90 
AFB 1-3, 2-11, 2-14, 2-17, 2-70, 2-72, 2-73, 2-74, 

2-84, 2-85, 2-86, 2-88, 2-89, 2-91, 2-104 
Agricultural Research Service 1-3, 2-94, 5-4 
Agriculture 1-3, 2-94, 3-1, 3-11, 5-4, 5-5 
Air 1-3, 1-7, 2-69, 2-70, 2-72, 2-104, 3-2, 4-8, 4-9, 

4-10, 4-13, 5-4 
Air Quality 1-7, 3-2, 4-8, 4-9, 4-13 
Alternative 1-4, 1-5, 1-7, 1-8, 4-1, 4-2, 4-6, 4-7, 4-8, 

4-9, 4-10,4-11, 4-13,4-14 
Alternative Application 2-16 
Alternatives 1-1, 1-4, 1-5, 1-7, 1-8, 2-1, 2-3, 2-4, 2-16, 

3-1, 4-1, 4-2, 4-6, 4-8, 4-10, 4-12, 4-13, 4-14 
Amistad 1-3, 1-4, 2-12, 2-15, 2-17, 2-95, 2-101 
APD 2-2, 2-3, 2-7, 2-8, 4-7, 4-9, 4-11, 4-12 
Appendix 2-5, 2-9, 2-18, 2-22, 2-62, 3-1, 3-2, 3-4, 3-5, 

3-8, 5-1 
Application for Permit to Drill 2-7 
Aquilla 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-22, 2-36 
ARS 1-3,2-11,2-14,2-17,2-94 
B.A. Steinhagen 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-24, 2-31, 2-40 
Bardwell 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-22, 2-23, 2-37 
Belton 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-23, 2-33, 2-38, 2-69 
Benbrook 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-23, 2-24, 2-39 
Bergstrom 1-3, 2-11, 2-14, 2-72, 2-84 
BLM 1-1, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6, 1-7, 1-8, 2-1, 2-2, 2-3, 2-4, 

2-5, 2-6, 2-7, 2-8, 2-71, 2-104, 3-1, 3-5, 3-8, 4-1, 

4-6, 4-7, 4-8, 4-10, 4-11, 4-12, 5-1, 5-2, 5-3 
BR 1-3, 2-9, 2-10, 2-13, 2-62, 2-63, 2-64 
Bureau of Reclamation 5-4 
Bureau of Land Management Stipulations 2-6 
Bureau of Land Management 1-1, 2-6, 2-7 
Bureau of Prisons 1-3 
Bureau of Reclamation 1-3 
CabanissNALF 2-11,2-14,2-74 
Camp Bowie 1-3, 2-11, 2-14, 2-70, 2-79 
Camp Bullis 1-3, 2-11, 2-14, 2-70, 2-71, 2-80 
Camp Swift 1-3, 2-3, 2-11, 2-14, 2-71, 2-81 
Canadian River Municipal Water Authority 2-64, 5-5 
Canadian River Project 1-3, 2-63, 2-67 
Canyon Lake 2-10, 2-13, 2-24, 2-25, 2-41 
CFR 2-3, 2-5, 2-6, 2-16, 4-10, 5-1 
Choke Canyon 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-62, 2-65 
CMG 1-5, 2-1, 2-3, 4-1, 4-8 
COA 2-2,2-8,4-9,4-10 
Code of Federal Regulations 2-3 
COE 1-3, 2-9, 2-10, 2-13, 2-18, 2-19, 2-22, 2-23, 

2-24, 2-25, 2-26, 2-27, 2-28, 2-29, 2-30, 2-31, 

2-32, 2-33, 2-34, 2-35, 3-2 
Conditions of Approval 2-2, 2-8 



Conservation and Production Research Laboratory 2-94, 

2-98 
Consultation and Coordination 5-1 
Continuing Management Guidance 1-5, 2-1, 4-8 
Cooper 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-25, 2-42 
Corps of Engineers 1-3, 5-4 
Corpus Christi NAS 2-11, 2-14, 2-74, 2-92 
CRMWA 2-64 
Cultural 1-8, 2-1, 2-2, 3-2, 3-5, 3-8, 4-8, 4-12, 4-13, 

4-14, 5-3 
Cultural Resource 2-2 
Cultural Resources 2-1, 2-2, 3-5, 3-8, 4-8, 4-12, 4-13, 

4-14, 5-3 
Department of Energy 1-4, 2-96, 5-4 
Department of Justice 1-3 
Department of the Interior 1-3, 2-2, 5-4 
Department of State 2-95 
Department of Defense 2-69, 5-4 
DOD 2-11, 2-14, 2-17, 2-69, 5-3 
DOE 1-4, 2-12, 2-15, 2-96 
DOI 1-3, 2-1, 2-17 
DOJ 1-3, 2-17 

Dyess 1-3,2-11,2-14,2-72,2-85 
E.O. 1-8, 2-6, 2-7, 4-10, 4-12 
EA 2-2, 2-3, 2-5, 2-6, 2-104 
Ecological Subregions 3-1 
EIS 1-1, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6, 1-7, 1-8, 1-9, 2-1, 2-3, 2-4, 

2-71, 2-104, 3-1, 5-1, 5-2 
Endangered Species 1-8, 2-8, 4-12 
Endangered Species Act 1-8 
Environmental Assessment 2-2 
Environmental Components 1-8, 3-1, 3-2, 4-8 
Environmental Impact Statement 1-1 
ESA 1-8, 2-2, 3-5, 4-10, 4-11, 4-12, 5-1 
Executive Order 1-8, 2-4 
Falcon 1-4, 2-12, 2-15, 2-95, 2-96, 2-102 
FCI 1-3,2-17 

Federal Land Policy and Management Act 1-1 
Federal Oil and Gas Lease Stipulations 2-5 
Fish and Wildlife Service 1-3, 2-2 
FLPMA 1-1,4-12 
Forest Service 1-1, 3-1, 4-1, 5-4 
Fort Bliss 1-3, 2-11, 2-14, 2-69, 2-76 
Fort Hood 1-3, 2-11, 2-14, 2-23, 2-69, 2-77 
Fort Wolters 1-3, 2-11, 2-14, 2-70, 2-78 
FWS 1-3, 2-2, 2-8, 2-17, 2-18, 3-5, 4-11, 4-12, 5-1 
Geology 3-8, 3-9 

Georgetown 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-25, 2-26, 2-43, 3-11 
Granger 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-26, 2-44 
Grapevine 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-26, 2-27, 2-45 



m 



Grassland, Soil and Water Research Laboratory 2-95, 

2-100 
Grazing 1-7 

Hazardous Materials 5-3 
Hords Creek 2-10, 2-13, 2-27 
International Boundary and Water Commission 1-4, 

2-95, 5-5 
Joe Pool 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-27, 2-28, 2-47 
Kingsville NAS 2-11, 2-14, 2-74, 2-75, 2-92 
Lake O' the Pines 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-28, 2-48 
Laughlin 1-3, 2-11, 2-14, 2-72, 2-73, 2-86, 2-87, 5-4 
Laughlin No. 1 AAF 2-11, 2-14, 2-73, 2-87 
Lavon 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-28, 2-29, 2-49 
Lease Notices 2-2, 2-7, 4-12, 4-14, 5-1 
Livestock Insects Laboratory 2-11, 2-94, 2-99 
LN 2-2, 2-7, 2-8 

Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant 2-71, 2-72, 2-82 
Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant 2-71, 2-83 
Management Situation Analysis 1-4 
McGregor NIROP 1-3, 2-11, 2-14, 2-74, 2-75, 2-93 
Meredith 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-17, 2-63, 2-64, 2-67 
MSA 1-4, 1-5, 5-1 
NALF 1-3, 2-11, 2-14, 2-74 
NAS 1-3, 2-11, 2-14, 2-74, 2-75, 2-92 
National Environmental Policy Act 2-3 
National Historic Preservation Act 4-12 
National Park 1-3, 2-16, 5-4 
National Park Service 1-3, 5-4 
Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant 2-74 
Navarro Mills 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-30, 2-51 
Navy 1-3, 2-74, 5-4 
NEPA 2-3, 4-12 
NHPA 4-12 

NIROP 1-3, 2-11, 2-14, 2-17, 2-74, 2-75, 2-93 
No Surface Occupancy 1-6, 2-7, 2-9 
NPS 1-3, 2-17, 2-64 
NSO 1-6, 2-7, 2-9, 2-10, 2-11, 2-12, 2-13, 2-14, 2-15, 

2-18, 2-19, 2-22, 2-23, 2-24, 2-25, 2-26, 2-27, 

2-28, 2-29, 2-30, 2-31, 2-32, 2-33, 2-34, 2-35, 

2-62, 2-63, 2-64, 2-69, 2-70, 2-71, 2-72, 2-73, 

2-74, 2-75, 2-94, 2-95, 2-96 
NSO/DD 2-9, 2-10, 2-11, 2-12, 2-13, 2-14, 2-15, 2-62, 

2-69 
NSO/ELEV 2-9, 2-10, 2-11, 2-12, 2-13, 2-14, 2-15 
NSO/ND 2-9, 2-10, 2-11, 2-12, 2-13, 2-14, 2-15, 2-18, 

2-19, 2-22, 2-23, 2-24, 2-25, 2-26, 2-27, 2-28, 

2-29, 2-30, 2-31, 2-32, 2-33, 2-34, 2-35, 2-62, 

2-63, 2-64, 2-69, 2-95, 2-96 
NTL 2-7 

Nueces River 1-3, 2-62, 2-63, 2-65 
NWR 1-3, 2-17, 2-19 
O.C. Fisher 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-30, 2-31, 2-52 



ODWC 2-18 

Oil and Gas Development Potential 2-3, 4-2, 4-5 

Oil and Gas Proved Reserves Potential 4-2, 4-4 

P.L. 2-3, 2-62, 2-63, 2-64 

Paleontological 1-8, 2-1, 2-3, 3-2, 3-8, 4-8, 4-13, 4-14 

Paleontology 4-13, 4-14, 5-3 

Palmetto Bend 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-63, 2-66 

Pantex 1-4, 2-12, 2-15, 2-96, 2-103 

Pat Mayse 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-18, 2-20 

Pecan Genetics and Improvement Research Laboratory 

2-94, 2-97 
Physical Features 3-1 

Planning Area 1-1, 1-4, 1-6, 2-16, 3-1, 3-2, 4-1, 4-12 
Planning Process 1-4, 1-6, 5-1, 5-2 
Potential for Conventional Oil and Gas Occurrence 4-2, 

4-3 
Precipitation 2-62, 3-2 
Preparers 5-3 
Procter 2-10, 2-13, 2-53 
Public Law 2-3 

Randolph 1-3, 2-11, 2-14, 2-72, 2-73, 2-88 
Ray Roberts 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-32, 2-55 
Reasonable Foreseeable Development 2-4, 4-1 
Recreation 1-3, 1-6, 1-7, 2-7, 2-9, 2-18, 2-22, 2-23, 

2-24, 2-25, 2-26, 2-27, 2-28, 2-30, 2-31, 2-32, 

2-33, 2-34, 2-35, 2-62, 2-63, 2-64, 2-69, 2-96, 5-3 
Red River Army Depot 1-3, 2-69, 2-72 
Reese 1-3, 2-11, 2-14, 2-72, 2-73, 2-89 
Sam Rayburn 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-31, 2-32, 2-54 
San Angelo Project 1-3, 2-64, 2-68 
Sanford Dam 1-3, 2-63, 2-64, 2-67 
SCS 3-4 

Seguin AAF 2-11, 2-14, 2-73, 2-74, 2-90 
Sheppard 1-3, 2-11, 2-14, 2-72, 2-74, 2-91 
SHPO 3-5, 4-13 
Socio-Economics 1-9, 3-11 
Soil 1-8, 2-11, 2-14, 2-94, 2-95, 2-100, 3-4, 4-9, 4-10, 

4-11,5-4, 5-5 
Soil Conservation Service 2-94, 3-4, 5-4 
Somerville 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-32, 2-33, 2-56 
Special Status Species 1-8, 2-1, 2-2, 3-5, 4-11, 4-14, 

5-1 
Specific Site Descriptions 2-18 
Split Estate 2-5 

SSS 1-8, 2-1, 2-2, 3-5, 4-10, 4-11, 4-12, 4-14, 5-1 
Standard Terms and Conditions 1-6, 2-4, 2-5 
State Historic Preservation Office 3-5 
STC 1-6, 2-4, 2-5, 2-6 
Stillhouse Hollow 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-33, 2-57 
Surface Management Agency 2-5, 2-9 
Surface Management Agency Stipulations 2-9 
Surface Water 3-2, 3-3 



IV 



Surface Water Development 3-3 

T&E 1-8,2-1, 2-2, 4-12 

TARL 3-5 

Texana 1-3, 2-63, 2-66 

Texas Archeological Research Lab 3-5 

Texas Parks and Wildlife Department 2-2 

Texas Planning Area 1-1 

Texoma 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-18, 2-19, 2-21 

Threatened and Endangered 1-8, 2-8 

TPWD 2-2, 2-18, 2-22, 2-25, 2-26, 2-28, 2-29, 2-30, 
2-32, 2-33, 2-35, 2-62, 2-63, 3-5, 4-11, 4-12, 5-1 

Twin Buttes 1-3, 2-64, 2-68 

U.S.C. 1-1, 2-2, 2-5 

United States Code 2-2 

USAF 1-3, 2-17 

USDA 1-3, 2-17, 2-95, 3-4 

USFS 1-1, 3-1, 3-6 

USGS 3-2 

USIBWC 1-4, 2-12, 2-15, 2-95, 2-96 

USN 1-3, 2-17 

Waco Lake 2-10, 2-13, 2-33, 2-34, 2-58 

Waldon NALF 2-11, 2-14, 2-74 

Water 1-1, 1-4, 1-8, 2-11, 2-14, 2-18, 2-19, 2-22, 
2-23, 2-24, 2-25, 2-26, 2-27, 2-28, 2-29, 2-30, 
2-31, 2-32, 2-33, 2-34, 2-35, 2-62, 2-63, 2-64, 
2-74, 2-94, 2-95, 2-100, 3-1, 3-2, 3-3, 3-4, 3-9, 
3-11, 4-8, 4-9, 4-10, 4-14, 5-5 

Wetland 1-8, 2-2, 2-7, 4-10 

Wetlands 1-8, 2-2, 2-7, 3-4, 4-11, 5-1 

White Oak Creek 2-35, 2-61 

Whitney 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-34, 2-59 

Wright Patman 1-3, 2-10, 2-13, 2-34, 2-35, 2-60 



■&US. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: IMS - 6«M23 



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United States Department of the Interior 
bureau of land management 

TULSA DISTRICT 

221 North Service Road 

Moore, Oklahoma 73160-4946